Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Steers Afloat: The North Atlantic Meat Trade, Liner Predominance, and Freight Rates, 1870–1913

  • C. KNICK HARLEY (a1)

Abstract

Meat transformed North Atlantic shipping, leading to dominance of liners and changed the economics of freight rates. Management coordination of meat shipment led to concentration in shipping. Only liner companies could provide specialized ships with the regularity needed and they dominated North Atlantic shipping. The cargo capacity of cattle ships, beyond that used for animals, lowered freight rates on grain below levels that would otherwise have prevailed. The berth rate on wheat from New York to Liverpool was most affected. Consequently, this readily available freight rate can be potentially misleading as an indicator of ocean shipping developments.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Aduddell, Robert M., & Cain, Louis P.. “Location and Collusion in the Meat Packing Industry.” In Business Enterprise and Economic Change: Essays in Honor of Harold F. Williamson, edited by Cain, Louis P. and Uselding, Paul J., pp. 85117. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1973.
Aduddell, Robert M., & Cain, Louis P.. “Public Policy Toward the ‘Greatest Trust in the World.’” Business History Review 55, no. 2 (1981): 217–42.
Andrews, Frank. “Ocean Freights and the Conditions Affecting Them.” Washington, DC: GPO, 1907.
Annual Statement of Trade, Parliamentary Papers, various dates.
Annual Statistical Abstract of the United States.
Annual Statistical Report, New York Produce Exchange, 1876–1913.
Bai, Jushan.“Estimation of a Change Point in Multiple Regression Models” The Review of Economics and Statistics 79, no. 4 (1997): 551–63.
Canadian Parliamentary Papers. Reports of Agents of the Canadian Dominion Department of Agriculture in Britain. Various dates.
Carosso, Vincent P.The Morgans: Private International Bankers, 1854–1913. London and Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987.
Chandler, Alfred D. Jr.The Visible H and: The Managerial revolution in American Business. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977.
Cunard Line Records, University of Liverpool Library.
Epley, Richard J. “Aging Beef.” University of Minnesota Extension Service, Bulletin FS-05968, 1992 [www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/nutrition/DJ5968.html].
Fairplay, various dates.
Feinstein, Charles H.National Income, Expenditure, and Output of the United Kingdom, 1855–1965. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972.
Goodwin, Barry K., Grennes, Thomas J., & Craig, Lee A.. “Mechanical Refrigeration and the Integration of Perishable Commodity Markets.” Explorations in Economic History 39, no. 2 (2002): 154–82.
Hansen, Bruce E.“The New Econometrics of Structural Change: Dating Breaks in U.S. Labor Productivity” Journal of Economic Perspectives 15, no. 4 (2001): 117–28.
Harley, C. Knick. “Western Settlement and the Price of Wheat.” This Journal 38, no. 4 (1978): 865–78.
Harley, C. Knick. “Transportation, the World Wheat Trade, and Kuznets Cycle” Explorations in Economic History 17, no. 3 (1980): 218–50.
Harley, C. Knick. “Coal Exports and British Shipping, 1850–1913” Explorations in Economic History 26, no. 3 (1989): 311–38.
Harley, C. Knick. “North Atlantic Shipping in the Late Nineteenth Century: Freight Rates and the Interrelationship of Cargoes.” In Shipping and Trade, 1750–1950: Essays in International Maritimes Economic History, edited by Fischer, Lewis R. and Nordvik, Helge W., 147–71. Pontefract, U.K.: Lofthouse Publications, 1990.
Harley, C. Knick. “The World Food Economy and Pre-World War I Argentina.” In Britain in the World Economy: Essays in Honour of Alec Ford, edited by Broadberry, S. and Crafts, N., 244–68. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Harley, C. Knick. The Integration of the World Economy, 1850–1914. Cheltenham, U.K.: Elgar Reference Collection, 1996.
Heffer, Jean. Le Port de New York et le Commerce Exterieur Americain, 1860–1900. Doctorat d'Etat, Université de Paris I, 1984.
Hooker, R. H.“The Meat Supply of the United Kingdom” The Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 72, no. 2 (1909): 304–76.
Jasny, N.Competition among Grains. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1940.
Johnson, Emory R., & Huebner, Grover G.. Principals of Ocean Transportation. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1918.
Malenbaum, Wilfred.The World Wheat Economy, 1885–1939. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953.
Markusen, James R.“The Boundaries of Multinational Enterprises and the Theory of International Trade” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 9, no. 2 (1995): 169–89.
Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance. Grain Trade of the United States, January 1900.
Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance. Provision Trade of the United States, February 1900.
Navin, Thomas R., & Sears, Marian V.. “A Study in Merger: Formation of the International Mercantile Marine Company” The Business History Review 28, no. 4 (1954): 291328.
New York Prices Current, various dates.
New York Shipping and Commercial List, various dates.
Nimmo, Joseph Jr.Report on the Internal Commerce of the United States. Washington, DC: GPO, 1885.
O'Rourke, Kevin H., & Williamson, Jeffrey G.. Globalization and History: The Evolution of a Nineteenth-Century Atlantic Economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999.
Perren, Richard. The Meat Trade in Britain, 1840–1914. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978.
Plimsoll, Samuel. Cattle Ships: Being the Fifth Chapter of Mr. Plimsoll's Second Appeal for Our Seamen. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, and Co., 1890.
Statistical Abstract of the United Kingdom
Strand, Norman. Prices of Farm Products in Iowa, 1851–1940. Research Bulletin 303 Agricultural Experiment Station, Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Ames, IA, 1942.
The Statistical Year Book of Canada for 1901.
U.K. Parliamentary Papers. Select Committee on Cattle Plague and Import of Cattle. 1877 IX.
U.K. Parliamentary Papers. Departmental Committee on the Transatlantic Cattle Trade. 1890/1 LXXVIII (C. 6350).
U.K. Parliamentary Papers. Departmental Committee on Combinations in the Meat Trade. 1909 XV (Cd 4661).
U.K. Parliamentary Papers. Departmental Committee on Shipping and Shipbuilding. 1918 XIII (Cd. 9092).
U.K. Parliamentary Papers. Reports of British Consuls in Boston, various dates.
Yeager, Mary.Competition and Regulation: The Development of Oligopoly in the Meat Packing Industry. Greenwich, CT: Jai Press, 1981.
Williamson, Oliver.The Economic Institutions of Capitalism: Firms, Markets, and Relational Contracting. New York: Free Press; London: Collier Macmillan, 1985.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed