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Counting Religion in England and Wales: The Long Eighteenth Century, c. 1680–c. 1840

  • CLIVE D. FIELD (a1)

Abstract

The statistical analysis of religion in England and Wales usually commences with the mid-nineteenth century. This article synthesises relevant primary and secondary sources to produce initial quantitative estimates of the religious composition of the population in 1680, 1720, 1760, 1800 and 1840. The Church of England is shown to have lost almost one-fifth of its affiliation market share during this period, with an ever increasing number of nominal Anglicans also ceasing to practise. Nonconformity more than quadrupled, mainly from 1760 and especially after 1800. Roman Catholicism kept pace with demographic growth, but, even reinforced by Irish immigration, remained a limited force in 1840. Judaism and overt irreligion were both negligible.

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2 Field, Clive, Religious statistics in Great Britain, Manchester 2010, http://www.brin.ac.uk/commentary/documents/CDField–History–Religious–Statistics–BRIN001.pdf.

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4 Currie, Robert, Gilbert, Alan and Horsley, Lee, Churches and churchgoers, Oxford 1977.

5 Bruce, Steve, ‘The truth about religion in Britain’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion xxxiv (1995), 417–30 at p. 420; Religion in Britain at the close of the 20th century’, Journal of Contemporary Religion xi (1996), 261–75 at p. 264; and Choice and religion, Oxford 1999, 65, 209–10.

6 Rupp, Gordon, Religion in England, 1688–1791, Oxford 1986.

7 Jacob, William, Lay people and religion, Cambridge 1996, 52.

8 For example, Davies, E. T., Religion in the industrial revolution in south Wales, Cardiff 1965; Warne, Arthur, Church and society in eighteenth-century Devon, Newton Abbot 1969; Obelkevich, James, Religion and rural society, Oxford 1976; Urdank, Albion, Religion and society in a Cotswold vale, Berkeley 1990; Barrie-Curien, Viviane, Clergé et pastorale en Angleterre, Paris 1992; Smith, Mark, Religion in industrial society, Oxford 1994; Jago, Judith, Aspects of the Georgian Church, Madison 1997; Ambler, Rodney, Churches, chapels and the parish communities of Lincolnshire, Lincoln 2000; Gregory, Jeremy, Restoration, reformation and reform, Oxford 2000; Spaeth, Donald, The Church in an age of danger, Cambridge 2000; Gregory, Jeremy and Chamberlain, Jeffrey (eds), The national Church in local perspective, Woodbridge 2003; Snape, Michael, The Church of England in industrialising society, Woodbridge 2003; and Marshall, William, Church life in Hereford and Oxford, Lancaster 2009.

9 Gilbert, Alan, Religion and society in industrial England, London 1976, 33–6, 218–19; cf. references at http://www.brin.ac.uk/sources/2612.

10 Field, Clive, ‘A shilling for Queen Elizabeth’, Journal of Church and State l (2008), 213–53.

11 Knight, Frances, The nineteenth-century Church, Cambridge 1995, 2436; ‘From diversity to sectarianism’, in Robert Swanson (ed.), Unity and diversity in the Church (Studies in Church History xxxii, 1996), 377–86; and ‘Conversion in 19th century Britain’, in Ulf Görman (ed.), Towards a new understanding of conversion, Lund 1999, 116–24; Lloyd, Gareth, ‘“Croakers and busybodies”’, Methodist History xlii (2003–4), 2032; Royle, Edward, ‘When did Methodists stop attending their parish churches?’, Proceedings of the Wesley Historical Society lvi (2007–8), 275–96.

12 Original records of early Nonconformity, ed. George Lyon Turner, London 1911–14, iii. 105–39; David Wykes, ‘The 1669 return of Nonconformist conventicles’, in Kathryn Thompson (ed.), Short guides to records, second series, London 1997, 50–4 at pp. 52–3. Wykes is preparing an edition of the returns for the Church of England Record Society.

13 The Compton census, ed. Anne Whiteman, London 1986, pp. xxix, xxxvii–xli, lxxvi–lxxix, cxxiii–cxxiv, 7; Clive Field, ‘Non-recurrent Christian data’, in Religion (Reviews of United Kingdom Statistical Sources xx), Oxford 1987, 189–504 at pp. 229–31; Snell, Keith and Ell, Paul, Rival Jerusalems, Cambridge 2000, 241. For other references see http://www.brin.ac.uk/sources/2530.

14 Cornish, Joseph, A brief history of Nonconformity, London 1797, 128.

15 Bebb, Douglas, Nonconformity and social and economic life, London 1935, 35, 45.

16 DWL, ms 38.4 and references at http://www.brin.ac.uk/sources/2532.

17 Watts, Michael, The Dissenters, Oxford 1978–95, i. 269–70, 272–6; ii. 23, 29; cf. James Bradley, ‘Whigs and Nonconformists’, unpubl. PhD diss. Southern California 1978, i. 127–8, 131, 133, 136, 138, 141–2; ii. 588–602.

18 Rees, Thomas, History of Protestant Nonconformity in Wales, 2nd edn,London 1883, 265–6.

19 Fryer, C. E., ‘The numerical decline of Dissent’, American Journal of Theology xvii (1913), 232–9 at p. 236.

20 Bebb, Nonconformity, 38, 45.

21 Davies, Horton, The English Free Churches, London 1952, 175.

22 Holmes, Geoffrey, The trial of Doctor Sacheverell, London 1973, 37; Religion and party in late Stuart England, London 1975, 14; The Sacheverell riots’, Past & Present lxxii (1976), 5585 at p. 63; and Politics, religion and society in England, London 1986, 193–4, 225–6.

23 Bradley, ‘Whigs’, i. 124.

24 Gilbert, Alan, ‘Methodism, Dissent and political stability’, Journal of Religious History x (1978–9), 381–99 at p. 394.

25 DWL, ms 38.6; A view of English Nonconformity in 1773’, Transactions of the Congregational Historical Society v (1911–12), 205–22, 261–77, 372–85.

26 Bradley, ‘Whigs’, i. 127–8, 131, 133, 136, 138, 141–2; ii. 588–602.

27 Watts, Dissenters, ii. 23.

28 Bealey, Joseph, Observations upon … Mr Owen's sermon, Warrington 1790, 31–2.

29 Wendeborn, Frederick, A view of England, London 1791, ii. 350.

30 Gilbert, ‘Methodism’, 394.

31 Gilbert, Joseph, Memoir of … Edward Williams, London 1825, 351.

32 Spinks, Alfred, Allen, E. L. and Parkes, James, Religion in Britain, London 1952, 1516.

33 Williams, Thomas, A dictionary of all religions, London 1815, 302.

34 Watts, Dissenters, ii. 375.

35 Jones, William, A dictionary of religious opinions, London 1815, 188.

36 Belsham, Thomas, The present state of religious parties, 2nd edn,London 1818, 8.

37 Committees for repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts, ed. Thomas Davis (London Record Society Publications xiv, 1978), 90–1.

38 Hulbert, Charles, The religions of Britain, Shrewsbury 1826, 464.

40 Currie, , Gilbert, and Horsley, , Churches and churchgoers, 25.

41 Dearden's Miscellany ii (1839), 701.

42 Monthly Repository n.s. viii (1834), 69.

43 Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine xxxix (1836), 602.

44 McCulloch, John, A statistical account of the British Empire, London 1837, ii. 416.

45 Conder, Josiah, An analytical … view of all religions, London 1838, 418, 421.

46 Matheson, James, Our country, London 1839, 55–6.

47 The Record, 26 Sept. 1839.

48 Currie, , Gilbert, and Horsley, , Churches and churchgoers, 25; Gilbert, ‘Methodism’, 394.

49 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii.

50 For methodological issues raised by the 1851 census see Church and chapel in early Victorian Shropshire, ed. Clive Field (Shropshire Record Series viii, 2004), pp. xiii–xxv.

51 [Gaskin, John], A just defence … of gospel ministers, London 1660 (Wing G.290), sig. ARV; Original records, iii. 120; Braithwaite, William, The second period of Quakerism, 2nd edn,Cambridge 1961, 457; Reay, Barry, The Quakers and the English revolution, London 1985, 26–7.

52 Rowntree, John, Quakerism, past and present, London 1859, 59, 68–73; Turner, Frederick, The Quakers, London 1889, 236–7; Braithwaite, Second period, 459.

53 Watts, Dissenters, i. 269–70, 505–6, 509–10; ii. 23, 29, 81.

54 von Archenholz, Johann, A picture of England, London 1789, i. 174; Wendeborn, View of England, ii. 428.

55 Rowntree, Quakerism, 74, 87; Hall, David, ‘Membership statistics of the Society of Friends’, Journal of the Friends’ Historical Society lii (1968–71), 97100 at p. 97.

56 Rowntree, Quakerism, 88; Hall, ‘Membership’, 97; Currie, , Gilbert, and Horsley, , Churches and churchgoers, 156, 159–60.

57 Bogue, David and Bennett, James, History of Dissenters, London 1808–12, iv. 334; Jones, Dictionary, 199.

58 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

59 Hulbert, Religions, 258, 463.

60 Dearden's Miscellany ii (1839), 701.

61 Wood, James, A condensed history of the General Baptists, Leicester 1847, 128; Original records, iii. 120; J. F. McGregor, ‘The Baptists’, in J. F. McGregor and Barry Reay (eds), Radical religion in the English revolution, Oxford 1984, 23–63 at p. 33.

62 Wood, Condensed history, 145; Bebb, Nonconformity, 32–3.

63 Watts, Dissenters, i. 269–70, 505, 509–10; ii. 23, 29, 81.

64 Ivimey, Joseph, A history of the English Baptists, London 1811–30, iii. 278–9; iv. 13–21; Langley, Arthur, ‘Baptist ministers in England about 1750 ad’, Transactions of the Baptist Historical Society vi (1918–19), 138–62; Whitley, William, A history of British Baptists, 2nd edn, London 1932, 224; Alan Gilbert, ‘The growth and decline of Nonconformity in England and Wales’, unpubl. DPhil diss. Oxford 1973, 45; Gilbert, Religion, 37; Currie, , Gilbert, and Horsley, , Churches and churchgoers, 151; Gilbert, ‘Methodism’, 394.

65 Rees, , History of Protestant Noncomformity, 389; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 23.

66 Wood, Condensed history, 285–95; Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 147–8; Frank Rinaldi, The tribe of Dan, Milton Keynes 2008, 96–142, 208–39.

67 Baptist Annual Register i (1790–3), 175; iii (1798–1801), 1–43; Ivimey, English Baptists, iv. 62, 74; Wood, Condensed history, 287–9; Cramp, John, Baptist history, London 1868, 542; Minutes of the general assembly of the General Baptist churches, ed. William Whitley, London 1909–10, i, pp. lvi–lxvi; Payne, Ernest, The Baptist Union, London 1958, 267; Gilbert, ‘Growth’, 45, 49, 54, and Religion, 37; Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 147, 151; Bassett, T. M., The Welsh Baptists, Swansea 1977, 93; Gilbert, ‘Methodism’, 394; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 81; Rinaldi, Tribe, 213.

68 Calculated from supplements in the CM n.s. x (1834) and Baptist Magazine xxvii (1835).

69 Wood, Condensed history, 150; Baptist Handbook (1869), 134; Gilbert, ‘Growth’, 45–7, 49, 54–61; Religion, 37; and ‘Methodism’, 394; Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 148, 151; Rinaldi, Tribe, 214.

70 The Record, 26 Sept. 1839.

71 Matheson, Our country, 55–6.

72 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

73 Original records. iii. 120.

74 Watts, Dissenters, i. 269–70, 505, 509–10; ii. 23, 29.

75 Gilbert, ‘Growth’, 45, 54; Religion, 37; and ‘Methodism’, 394; Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 147, 151.

76 CM n.s. x (1834), supplement.

77 Gilbert, ‘Growth’, 45–7, 54–61; Religion, 37; and ‘Methodism’, 394; Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 148.

78 Certainly, the Congregational member/hearer ratio is based on fewer chapels than in the Baptist case since there is no Congregational equivalent to the Baptist Magazine listing. The overall Congregational ratio may also have been skewed by a handful of returns in 1834, for instance Liverpool where 6.3 hearers per member were claimed.

79 Matheson, Our country, 55–6.

80 Conder, Analytical … view, 421.

81 The Record, 26 Sept. 1839.

82 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

83 Original records, iii. 120.

84 Watts, Dissenters, i. 269–70, 509–10; ii. 23, 29.

85 Hill, Andrew, ‘“Corporate suicide is the next best thing that lies before them”’, TUHS xxiv (2007–10), 222–34 at p. 222.

86 Unitarian Chronicle i (1832), 145–7, 196–9, 234–5; ii (1833), 16–17, 54, 93, 127–8, 280–1; CM n.s. ix (1833), 28; The Record, 26 Sept. 1839; Webb, Robert, ‘Views of Unitarianism’, TUHS xviii (1983–6), 180–95 at pp. 180–2.

87 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

88 Conder, Analytical … view, 421.

89 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

90 Hill, Christopher, Reay, Barry and Lamont, William, The world of the Muggletonians, London 1983, 56; Lamont, William, Last witnesses, Aldershot 2006, 3, 161.

91 McCulloch, Statistical account, ii. 413.

92 Rogal, Samuel, ‘Counting the congregation’, Methodist History xxx (1991–2), 39.

93 Walsh, John, ‘Elie Halévy and the birth of Methodism’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 5th ser. xxv (1975), 120 at pp. 11–12.

94 Gilbert, ‘Methodism’, 394; Podmore, Colin, The Moravian Church in England, 1728–1760, Oxford 1998, 120.

95 Currie, , Gilbert, and Horsley, , Churches and churchgoers, 139–41.

96 Olivers, Thomas, A defence of Methodism, Leeds 1818, 18; Annual Register (1824), chronicle, 180; William Townsend, ‘English life and society’, in William Townsend, Herbert Workman and George Eayrs (eds), A new history of Methodism, London 1909, i. 333–78 at p. 369; Lenton, John, John Wesley's preachers, Milton Keynes 2009, 6.

97 Bradburn, Samuel, God shining forth, Bolton 1805, 64; Jones, Dictionary, 140; Williams, Dictionary, 176; CM n.s. v (1829), 690; x (1834), supplement; Cocking, Thomas, The history of Wesleyan Methodism in Grantham, London 1836, 130; Conder, Analytical … view, 421, 450; Matheson, Our country, 55–6; The Record, 26 Sept. 1839; Dearden's Miscellany i (1839), 56; Wesleyan-Methodist Kalendar (1850), 51; HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. lxxviii; Memorial of … Robert Wood, London 1854, 75–6; Memoir of the Rev Joseph Entwisle, 6th edn, London 1861, 160; Smith, George, History of Wesleyan Methodism, 5th edn, London 1866, i. 680–1; Johnston, James, The ecclesiastical and religious statistics of Scotland, Glasgow 1874, 11; The early correspondence of Jabez Bunting, ed. W. R. Ward (Camden 4th ser. xi, 1972), 182; Gilbert, ‘Methodism’, 393–4, and ‘Religion and political stability’, in Patrick O'Brien and Roland Quinault (eds), The industrial revolution and British society, Cambridge 1993, 79–99 at pp. 93–4; Field, Clive, ‘The social composition of English Methodism to 1830’, Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester lxxvi (1994), 153–78 at pp. 153–4; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28; Rack, Henry, Reasonable enthusiast, 3rd edn, London 2002, 437–8.

98 Wendeborn, View of England, ii. 326.

99 Matheson, Our country, 55–6; McCulloch, Statistical account, ii. 413.

100 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

101 Salt, William, A memorial of the Methodist New Connexion, Nottingham 1827, 174; Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 139–41.

102 The Record, 26 Sept. 1839.

103 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

104 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. lxxxii; Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 140–1.

105 CM n.s. x (1834), supplement.

106 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

107 CM n.s. v (1829), 690.

108 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

109 Lander, John, Itinerant temples, Carlisle 2003, 157–61.

110 Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 140–1.

111 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

112 CM n.s. ser. v (1829), 690.

113 Vickers, John (ed.), A dictionary of Methodism, Peterborough 2000, 283.

114 Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 141. The membership figure of 26,500, given in The Record, 26 Sept. 1839, is wrong.

115 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

116 Parkes, William, The Arminian Methodists, Cannock 1995, 2944; Vickers, Dictionary, 10.

117 Dallimore, Arnold, George Whitefield, London1970–80, i. 295–6; ii. 522–3.

118 Two Calvinistic Methodist chapels, ed. Edwin Welch (London Record Society xi, 1975), 16–17; Podmore, Moravian Church, 120.

119 Olivers, Defence, 17; Haweis, Thomas, An impartial … history of the … Church of Christ, London 1800, iii. 260–1.

120 Haweis, Impartial … history, iii. 254.

121 Alan Harding, ‘The Countess of Huntingdon and her connexion’, unpubl. DPhil diss. Oxford 1992, 168–70, 174, 363–4, and The Countess of Huntingdon's connexion, Oxford 2003, 152–6, 372.

122 Kirby, Gilbert, The elect lady, East Grinstead 1972, 54.

123 Bogue, and Bennett, , History of Dissenters, iv. 337; Jones, Dictionary, 55.

124 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

125 This was made up of 420 societies with 20 or 25 members each on average: Eryn White, ‘Revival and renewal amongst the eighteenth-century Welsh Methodists’, in Dyfed Wyn Roberts (ed.), Revival, renewal and the Holy Spirit, Milton Keynes 2009, 1–12 at p. 1; Eryn White, personal communication, 26 Mar. 2010.

126 Jones, Dictionary, 55.

127 The Record, 26 Sept. 1839; Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 148.

128 Conder, Analytical … view, 421.

129 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

130 Podmore, Moravian Church, 120.

131 Holmes, John, History of the … United Brethren, London 1825–30, ii. 354–5.

132 Hamilton, Taylor, A history of the … Moravian Church, Bethlehem 1900, 356; Hutton, Joseph, A history of the Moravian Church, 2nd edn,London 1909, 455; Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 156; Geoffrey, and Stead, Margaret, The exotic plant, Peterborough 2003, 100.

133 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

134 Bryer, Percy, ‘Benjamin Ingham and Cumbria’, Cumbria Religious History Society Bulletin xi (1985), [1012] at p. [10].

135 Pickles, H. M., Benjamin Ingham, Coventry 1995, 131; Oates, Paul, My ancestors were Inghamites, London 2003, 625, 125–6.

136 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxx.

137 Ibid. p. clxxxii.

138 Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 156. There were between forty and forty-five societies during these years: Duckworth, Dennis, A branching tree, London 1998, 109, 133.

139 Goyder, David, A concise history of the New Jerusalem Church, London 1827, 104–5.

140 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

141 P. J. Tobin, ‘The Southcottians in England’, unpubl. MA diss. Manchester 1978, 120–1; Harrison, John, The Second Coming, London 1979, 109, 248; Hopkins, James, A woman to deliver her people, Austin 1982, 76, 83–5, 244; Brown, Frances, Joanna Southcott, Cambridge 2002, 218.

142 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxx.

143 Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 156; Thompson, David, Let sects and parties fall, Birmingham 1980, 202.

144 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28; Grass, Tim, Gathering to his name, Milton Keynes 2006, 61, 115–16.

145 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

146 Evans, Richard, A century of ‘Mormonism’ in Great Britain, Salt Lake City 1937, 244–5; Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 156; Bloxham, Ben, Moss, James and Porter, Larry (eds), Truth will prevail, Solihull 1987, 442.

147 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

148 Gwynn, Robin, ‘The arrival of Huguenot refugees in England’, Huguenot Society Proceedings xxi (1965–70), 366–73; The number of Huguenot immigrants in England’, Journal of Historical Geography ix (1983), 384–95; Huguenot heritage, London 1985, 24, 32–3, 35, 153, 165–6; and ‘Conformity, non-conformity and Huguenot settlement in England’, in Anne Dunan–Page (ed.), The religious culture of the Huguenots, Aldershot 2006, 23–42 at pp. 35, 40; Cottret, Bernard, The Huguenots in England, Cambridge 1991, 3, 15, 188.

149 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii.

150 Schwartz, Hillel, The French Prophets, Berkeley 1980, 317.

151 Jones, Dictionary, 132; HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii.

152 The population base has been calculated as follows. For England in 1680, 1720 and 1760 the mean has been taken of the recent estimates made by back-projection and generalised inverse projection by the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure: Wrigley, Anthony and Schofield, Roger, The population history of England, London 1981, and Wrigley, Anthony, Davies, R. S., Oeppen, Jim and Schofield, Roger, English population history from family reconstitution, Cambridge 1997. For Wales in these years the older estimates reproduced in Williams, John, Digest of Welsh historical statistics, Cardiff 1985, have been used. Estimates for 1800 and 1840 are census-derived: Mitchell, B. R., British historical statistics, Cambridge 1988.

153 Sunday scholars are estimated from Laqueur, Thomas, Religion and respectability, New Haven 1976, 4453.

154 Magee, Brian, The English recusants, London 1938, 111.

155 Wykes, David, ‘A reappraisal of the reliability of the 1676 “Compton census”’, Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society Transactions lv (1979–80), 72–7 at p. 75.

156 Miller, John, Popery and politics in England, Cambridge 1973, 911; Bossy, John, The English Catholic community, London 1975, 188–9; Compton census, pp. lxxvii, cxxiii–cxxiv; Bishop Leyburn's confirmation register, ed. J. A. Hilton, Allan Mitchinson, Barbara Murray and Peggy Wells, Wigan 1997.

157 HCP, 1878–9, xl, p. 240; Magee, Brian, ‘England's Catholic population in penal times’, Dublin Review cxcvii (1935), 253–68 at p. 253, and English recusants, 112, 193; Carson, Robert, ‘Multiplication tables’, Clergy Review xxxii (1949), 2130 at pp. 21–2; Watkin, Edward, Roman Catholicism in England, London 1957, 111; Steel, Donald and Samuel, Edgar, Sources for Roman Catholic and Jewish genealogy, Chichester 1974, 832; Bossy, English Catholic community, 189; Gilbert, Religion, 46; Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 154; Lesourd, Jean-Alain, Sociologie du catholicisme anglais, Nancy 1981, 159; Anthony Williams, ‘Change or decay?’, in Eamon Duffy (ed.), Challoner and his Church, London 1981, 27–54 at p. 31; William Sheils, ‘Catholicism from the Reformation to the relief acts’, in Sheridan Gilley and William Sheils (eds), A history of religion in Britain, Oxford 1994, 234–51 at p. 248.

158 HLRO, Main Papers, 1 Mar. 1706, and references at http://www.brin.ac.uk/sources/2531.

159 Rowlands, Marie, ‘The progress of Catholics in Staffordshire’, University of Birmingham Historical Journal x (1966), 137–59 at p. 139; Hugh Aveling, ‘Some aspects of Yorkshire Catholic recusant history’, in Geoffrey Cuming (ed.), The province of York (Studies in Church History iv, 1967), 98–121 at pp. 110–11; Williams, Anthony, Catholic recusancy in Wiltshire, London 1968, 258–60; John Bossy, ‘Catholic Lancashire’, in John Bossy and Peter Jupp (eds), Essays presented to Michael Roberts, Belfast 1976, 54–69 at pp. 54–5; Gooch, Leo, ‘Papist head-hunting in County Durham’, Durham County Local History Society Bulletin l (1993), 2938.

160 Haydon, Colin, Anti-Catholicism in eighteenth-century England, Manchester 1993, 189–90.

161 The central record (HLRO, Main Papers, 21 Dec. 1767) has been printed in two volumes: Returns of papists, 1767, ed. Edward Worrall, London 1980–9. Some local returns have also been published/analysed, for which see http://www.brin.ac.uk/sources/2534. The principal secondary works are Lesourd, Sociologie, 21–92, 169–77, and Rowlands, Marie, (ed.), English Catholics of parish and town, London 1999, 261356.

162 Bossy, English Catholic community, 184–6; Lesourd, Jean-Alain, ‘Les Catholiques dans la société anglaise’, Information Historique xxxvii (1975), 35–8 at pp. 36–7; ‘Les Catholiques dans la société anglaise’, unpubl. DLitt diss. Strasbourg 1974, ii. 76; and Sociologie, 25, 31, 38; Haydon, Anti–Catholicism, 191.

163 Brady, Maziere, Annals of the Catholic hierarchy, London 1883, 169, 212, 263, 301; Whyte, John, ‘The vicars apostolics’ returns of 1773’, Recusant History ix (1967–8), 205–14; Holt, T. G., ‘A note on some eighteenth-century statistics’, Recusant History x (1969–70), 39 at pp. 3–5; Bossy, English Catholic community, 185; Lesourd, Sociologie, 41.

164 HLRO, Main Papers, 5 Mar. 1781.

165 Berington, Joseph, The state … of English Catholics, London 1780, 111; Burke, Edmund, A speech … at the Guildhall in Bristol, Dublin 1780, 53–4.

166 Lesourd, ‘Catholiques’, Information Historique, 37; unpubl. DLitt diss. ii. 321–6; and Sociologie, 31, 44–7; Williams, ‘Change or decay?’, 31; Sheils, ‘Catholicism’, 248. Currie, Gilbert and Horsley venture (without explanation) 120,000 in 1781: Churches and churchgoers, 50.

167 Lesourd, ‘Catholiques’, Information Historique, 37; unpubl. DLitt diss. ii. 327; and Sociologie, 46, 97–102, 159.

168 Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 23, 25; cf. Ward, Bernard, The eve of Catholic emancipation, London 1911–12, i. 18, 186; Carson, ‘Multiplication’, 21–3.

169 Williams, Dictionary, 302; Morris, John, ‘Catholic England in modern times’, The Month lxxiv (1892), 356–74 at p. 374; Ward, Eve of Catholic emancipation, i. 186; ii. 53; Watkin, Roman Catholicism, 158; Steel and Samuel, Sources, 837; Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 25.

170 Hulbert, Religions, 462; Brady, Annals, 192, 227. 276, 312; Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 25.

171 McCulloch, Statistical account, ii. 416; [Wylie, Macleod], The progress of popery, London 1838, 7; Statistics of popery, 3rd edn, London 1839, 37; Catholic Directory (1840), 60; Morris, ‘Catholic England’, 374; Herbert Thurston, ‘Statistical progress of the Catholic Church’, in Catholic emancipation, London 1929, 245–64 at pp. 253–7; Carson, ‘Multiplication’, 21; Philip Hughes, ‘The English Catholics in 1850’, in George Beck (ed.), The English Catholics, London 1950, 42–85 at p. 44; Gilbert, Religion, 46; Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 25, 154.

172 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

173 Connolly, Gerard, ‘“With more than ordinary devotion to God”’, North West Catholic History x (1983), 831 at pp. 12–14, and ‘The transubstantiation of myth’, this Journal xxxv (1984), 78–104 at pp. 88–90.

174 Although some Muslims came as slaves and servants in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and as seamen and traders in the early nineteenth century, there was limited permanent Muslim settlement during this period: Matar, Nabil, ‘Muslims in seventeenth-century England’, Journal of Islamic Studies viii (1997), 6382; Islam in Britain, 1559–1685, Cambridge 1998; Islam in Britain, 1689–1750’, Journal of British Studies xlvii (2008), 284300; and Britons and Muslims in the early modern period’, Patterns of Prejudice xliii (2009), 213–31, repr. in Malik, Maleiha (ed.), Anti-Muslim prejudice, London 2010, 725; Ansari, Humayun, The infidel within, London 2004, 2640; Gilliat-Ray, Sophie, Muslims in Britain, Cambridge 2010, 1327.

175 Roth, Cecil, A history of the Jews in England, Oxford 1941, 173; Lipman, Vivian, Social history of the Jews in England, London 1954, 5; Perry, Thomas, Public opinion, propaganda and politics, Cambridge, Ma 1962, 6; Katz, David, The Jews in the history of England, Oxford 1994, 162, 185.

176 Tovey, D'Bloissiers, Anglia-Judaica, Oxford 1738, 302; Lipman, Social history, 6; Endelman, Todd, The Jews of Georgian England, Philadelphia 1979, 172.

177 Philo-Patriae, , Considerations on the bill to permit persons professing the Jewish religion to be naturalized, London 1753, 17; Hyamson, Albert, A history of the Jews in England, 2nd edn, London 1928, 221; Roth, History of the Jews in England, 223; Lipman, Social history, 6; Endelman, Jews of Georgian England, 172; Katz, Jews in the history of England, 250.

178 Wendeborn, View of England, ii. 468; Endelman, Jews of Georgian England, 172.

179 Colquhoun, Patrick, A treatise on the police of the metropolis, 5th edn, London 1797, 120; Lipman, Social history, 6; Endelman, Jews of Georgian England, 172; Jonathan Campbell, ‘The Jewish community in Britain’, in Gilley and Sheils, History, 427–48 at p. 432; Katz, Jews in the history of England, 317.

180 Samuel, Moses, An address from an Israelite, Liverpool 1827, 4; Pellatt, Apsley, Brief memoir of the Jews, London 1829, p. iv; Blunt, John, A history of the establishment … of the Jews, London 1830, 75; Goldsmid, Francis, Remarks on the civil disabilities of British Jews, London 1830, 6971; Hyamson, History, 260; Roth, History of the Jews in England, 239; Lipman, Social history, 7; Endelman, Jews of Georgian England, 341.

181 Hannah Neustatter, ‘Demographic and other statistical aspects of Anglo–Jewry’, in Maurice Freedman (ed.), A minority in Britain, London 1955, 53–133, 243–62 at p. 261.

182 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Lipman, Vivian, ‘A survey of Anglo–Jewry in 1851’, Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England xvii (1951–2), 171–88.

183 Thomas, Keith, Religion and the decline of magic, Harmondsworth 1973, 198206; Gerald Aylmer, ‘Unbelief in seventeenth-century England’, in Donald Pennington and Keith Thomas (eds), Puritans and revolutionaries, Oxford 1978, 1–21; Hunter, Michael, ‘The problem of “atheism” in early modern England’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 5th ser. xxxv (1985), 135–57; Berman, David, A history of atheism in Britain, London 1988; Priestman, Martin, Romantic atheism, Cambridge 1999.

184 Aston, Nigel and Cragoe, Matthew (eds), Anticlericalism in Britain, Thrupp 2000; Jacob, William, The clerical profession in the long eighteenth century, Oxford 2007, 291303.

185 Nash, David, Blasphemy in modern Britain, Aldershot 1999.

186 Field, Clive, ‘Churchgoing in the cradle of English Christianity’, Archaeologia Cantiana cxxviii (2008), 335–63 at p. 346.

187 For example, in the diocese of Chester in 1804 and 1811: McLeod, Hugh, Religion and the working class in nineteenth-century Britain, London 1984, 20–1; Field, ‘A shilling’, 240.

188 Groth Lyon, Eileen, Politicians in the pulpit, Aldershot 1999.

189 Royle, Edward, Radical politics, 1790–1900, London 1971; Victorian infidels, Manchester 1974; The infidel tradition, London 1976; and ‘Secularists and rationalists, 1800–1940’, in Gilley and Sheils, History, 406–22.

190 For example, JSSL ii (1839–40), 374; iii (1840–1), 19; vi (1843), 21; xi (1848), 215.

191 Gentleman's Magazine xvii (1747), 326.

192 Bodleian Library, Oxford, ms Top. Cheshire b 1, p. 129; Heginbotham, Henry, Stockport, London 1882–92, 87.

193 Young, Arthur, General view of the agriculture of … Suffolk, 3rd edn,London 1804, 331.

194 Hume, Abraham, Missions at home, London 1850, 24–5, 29; HCP, 1851 ix, pp. 117–22; cf. JSSL ii (1839–40), 374; iii (1840–1), 19; vi (1843), 21, 255; xi (1848), 215.

195 Currie, , Gilbert, and Horsley, , Churches and churchgoers, 223.

196 Field, ‘A shilling’, 221–45.

197 Gilbert, Religion, 11–12, 28; Currie, Gilbert and Horsley, Churches and churchgoers, 22–3, 25–6, 85. Also to be found here, and of limited worth, are back-projections to 1800 of national totals for Anglican communicants.

198 Gill, Robin, The myth of the empty church, London 1993, 17, 169, 296–7, and The ‘empty’ church revisited, Aldershot 2003, 13, 124.

199 Obelkevich, Religion, 137–43; Barrie-Curien, Clergé, 312–19, 334–8, 431; Smith, Religion, 51–3, 244; Knight, Nineteenth-century Church, 80–2; Jacob, Lay people, 57–61; Spaeth, Church in an age of danger, 176–88; Gregory, Restoration, 262–70; Snape, Church of England, 16–19; Field, ‘A shilling’, 233–4; Marshall, Church life, 98–104.

200 CM n.s. x (1834), supplement; Monthly Repository n.s. viii (1834), 69.

201 Field, Clive, ‘A godly people?’, Southern History xiv (1992), 46–73 at pp. 50–3; ‘Counting the flock’, Norfolk Archaeology xliii (1998–2001), 317–26; ‘A shilling’, 221–45; and ‘Churchgoing’, 339–49.

202 HCP, 1818, xviii, p. 215.

203 Soloway, Richard, Prelates and people, London 1969, 306–15; Field, ‘Godly people’, 53–4; Gill, ‘Empty’ church, 13, 81, 220–4, 248–9.

204 HCP, 1852–3, lxxxix, p. clxxxii; Watts, Dissenters, ii. 28.

205 Dallas, Alexander, Pastoral superintendence, London 1841, 141. In a slum district of Liverpool, however, more than two-thirds of nominal Anglicans neglected worship: Hume, Missions, 29.

206 Mann, Horace, ‘On the statistical position of religious bodies’, JSSL xviii (1855), 141–59 at pp. 152–3.

207 For example, Religion in Hertfordshire, 1847 to 1851, ed. Judith Burg (Hertfordshire Record Publications xi, 1995), p. xxix; Yorkshire returns of the 1851 census of religious worship, ed. John Wolffe (Borthwick Texts and Calendars xxv, 2000), p. v; Church and chapel in … Shropshire, p. xxiii.

208 Gilbert, Memoir, 351; Spinks, Allen and Parkes, Religion in Britain, 15–16.

209 This is suggested by Clark, Jonathan, English society, 1688–1832, Cambridge 1985, and English society, 1660–1832, Cambridge 2000.

210 Brown, Callum, The death of Christian Britain, 2nd edn, London 2009.

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