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Erasmus and Spain: The Vision of Marcel Bataillon

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 February 2009


Marcel Bataillon is a notable instance of a scholar who found his line early and pursued it unremittingly. His Érasme et I'Espagne was published in 1937; a translation into Spanish appeared in 1950, with a second edition in 1966; but the original work has long been out of print and commonly unavailable. Thanks to Bataillon for ‘most important help’ were expressed in volume vii of P. S. Allen's Opus epistolarum Erasmi Roterodami, published in 1928, and again by Allen's widow in volume xi, published in 1947.

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Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1994

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1 Marcel Bataillon, Érasme et l'Espagne, nouvelle édition en trois volumes, texte établipar Daniel Devoto, édite par les soins de Charles Amiel, Geneva 1991 (Travaux d'humanisme et renaissance, CCL). Tome i: note préliminaire, texte revu de l'édition de 1937 Par Daniel Devoto; tome ii: prologues, notes additionnelles, bibliographic établie par Daniel Devoto; tome iii: annexes (études diverses de Marcel Bataillon sur Érasme et l'érasmisme) établies par Daniel Devoto, bibliographic de Marcel Bataillon par Charles Amiel.

2 Érasme et l'Espagne, ii. 11; cf. iii. 10.

3 Ibid. iii. 117; cf. ii. 11. The reference is to L. Febvre, Leprobléme de l'incrqyance au XVI6 siecle, Paris 1947, 491.

4 Érasme et l'Espagne, i, 61; cf. i. 75, 97, 199, 442.

5 Ibid. i. 61–2.

6 Ibid. i. 195; cf. i. 804 n. 4 (‘la complication raciale, condition d'universalité chez lesêtres humains’).

7 Ibid.

8 Ibid. i. 598; cf. i. 226. The reference is to Febvre, L., ‘Une question mal posee: les origines de la Réforme francaise et le probléme général des causes de la Réforme’, Revue historique 156 (1929), 173.Google Scholar

9 Érasme el l'Espagne, i. 535.

10 Ibid. i. 550; cf. ii. 169.

11 Ibid. i. 555; cf. ii. 170.

12 Ibid. i. 845.

13 Cf. Ibid. i. 220; i. 174.

14 Cf. Ibid. i. 176, 221 n. 3.

15 Ibid. i. 20, 272; cf. i. 280.

16 Ibid. iii. 168.

18 Ibid. iii. 286.

19 Ibid. i. 190.

21 Ibid. iii. 286.

22 Ibid. i. 174.

23 Ibid. iii. 117.

24 Ibid. iii. 118.

25 Ibid. iii. 498.

26 Ibid. iii. 165.

27 Ibid. iii. 164.

28 Ibid. i. 175.

29 Ibid. i. 388.

30 Ibid. i. 599; cf. ii. 16.

31 Ibid. i. 222 and n. 1.

32 Opus epistolarum Erasmi Roterodami, Oxford 1906–47, ed. P. S. Allen, H. M. Allen and H. W. Garrod, letter 164, intro.

33 Érasme et l'Espagne, i. 154 n. 2; Opus, letter 1474, intro.

34 Ibid., letter 2884, intro.

35 Érasme et l'Espagne, i. 205; for Oldνich Velenský, who translated the Enchiridion into Czech and printed it at Bνlá, see Contemporaries of Erasmus: a biographical register of the Renaissance and Reformation, ed. P. G. Bietenholz, Toronto–Buffalo–London 1985–7, i. 175, s.v. Arkleb of Boskovice.

36 Érasme et l'Espagne, i. 307; Margaret Roper translated the Precatio into English.

37 Opus, letter 1474, intro. (where the reference to letter 1698 is a slip for 1697).

38 Telle, E.V., L'‘Erasmianus sive Ciceronianus’ d' Étienne Dolet (1535), Geneva 1974, 307.Google Scholar

39 Érasme et l'Espagne, i. 301.

40 Ibid. i. 319.

41 Ibid. i. 176.

42 Ibid. i. 174.

43 Ibid. i. 208.

45 Ibid. i. 221.

46 Ibid. i. 208.

47 Ibid. i. 209.

48 Ibid. i. 222.

49 Ibid. i. 225.

50 Ibid. i. 209.

51 Ibid. iii. 136.

52 Ibid. i. 209.

53 Ibid. i. 206; cf. ii. 402-3.

54 Ibid. i. 222.

55 Ibid. i. 306.

56 Ibid. i. 308.

57 Ibid. i. 599.

58 Ibid. i. 603.

59 Ibid. i. 604.

60 See Alastair, Hamilton, Heresy and mysticism in sixteenth-century Spain: the alumbrados, Cambridge 1992.Google Scholar

61 Cf., for example, Baruzi, J., Saint Jean de la Croix et le probléme de l'experience mystique, Paris 1931;Google ScholarBakhuizen van den Brink, J. N., Juan de Valdés: réformateur en Espagne et en Italie, Geneva 1969;Google ScholarNieto, J. C., Juan de Vald´s and the origins of the Spanish and Italian Reformation, Geneva 1970. Bataillon's account of alumbrismo is, in fact, fuller than those in any of the foregoing books: he draws attention both to the appeal it h a d for the marranos and to its links with the Reformed Franciscans, the order to which Cisneros belonged; but his primary interest is not so much in the alumbrados themselves as in the powerful, if indirect, evidence they provide for the Erasmus he presents.Google Scholar

62 Cf. Érasme et l'Espagne, i. 179; ‘l’érasmisme mêlé à l'illuminisme de facon si inextricable’.

63 Ibid. i. 189–90.

64 Ibid. i. 229.

65 Ibid. i. 209; cf. i. 208.

66 See Opus, letter 1010, intro.

67 The polyglot edition of the Bible commissioned by Cisneros and produced at Alcalá in the years from 1514 to 1517 (though not on sale till 1522) was in rivalry with Erasmus' Novum instrumentum, and in 1520 the university printer responsible for it, Arnao Guillén de Brocar, printed Annotationes attacking Erasmus’ work by López Zúniga (see Contemporaries, s.v. Jim´nez de Cisneros; López Zúniga).

68 See Opus, letter 710, intro.

69 Érasme et l'Espagne, i. 174–6 and notes; ii. 406. Eguia had succeeded de Brocar, who in 1523 was still publishing at Alcalá (Opus, letter 1277. 24n.), but who by 1525 ‘avait disparu’ (Érasme et l'Espagne, i. 47, 170).

70 Opus, letter 1737. 7n.

71 Ibid. letter 2165. 41 n.

72 Érasme et l'Espagne, i. 174; ii. 62–3, 402–5. The Paraclesis was first printed in 1516 in the Novum instrumentum (Opus, letter 1253. 22n); a translation of it into Spanish was issued by Eguiá in 1529. The Institutum was first printed in 1514 in Opuscula (Opus, letter 298, intro.).

73 Érasme et l'Espagne, i. 174; ii. 63, 405–7. The Paraphrasis was first printed in 1524 in the Exomolegesis (Opus, letter 1427, intro.). The De libero arbitrio was also first printed in 1524 (Opus, letter 1419, intro.).

74 Érasme et l'Espagne, i. 176.

75 Ibid. i. 206–7, 222 and n.1; ii. 4O1–3.

76 Ibid. i. 304 n. 4; ii. 404.

77 For example, a translation into Spanish of the Concio de puero Iesu was printed at Seville in 1516, and at Toledo in 1523; of the Precatio at Léon in 1528; and of the Enchiridion at Guadalajara (a ‘foyer d'illuminisme’: Érasme et l'spagne, i. 228), at Valencia, and also at Seville, in 1528. The Seville Concio is established as the first piece by Erasmus translated into Spanish (not, as was supposed, a translation in 1520 of the Querela pacis: Ibid. ii. 52, 81–2).

78 For example, in 1525 Eguía printed an edition of the De duplici copia verborum, supplemented by the De conscribendis epistolis and the De ratione studii; and in 1529 a translation of the Querela pacis.

79 Érasme et l'Espagne, i. 176, 206.

80 Some of Eguía's editions and translations carry a Toledo or a Logrono imprint, but most were printed at Alcala1´ ‘c'est à Alcala surtout que réussit l'érasmisme': Ibid. i. 169.

81 Ibid. i. 205. For Fernández, see Contemporaries, s.v.

82 Opus, letter 1904: his translation of the Enchiridion was so popular ‘vt nihil hodie apud nos aeque atque ipse manibus omnium teratur… nemo fere est qui Erasmi Enchiridion Hispanum non habeat’.

83 The Concio de puero lesu was translated by Diego de Alcocer: Érasme et l'spagne, ii. 52, 81–2, 401; the De praeparatione ad mortem, and probably also the De precatione in the edition printed by Eguía, by Bernardo Pérez de Chinchon: Ibid. ii. 101, 406–7, 460, correcting i. 307; the translator of the Misericordia has not been identified: Ibid. i. 306.

84 Ibid. i. 198.

85 Ibid. i. 229 and n. 1.

86 Ibid. i. 374; ii. 485.

87 Ibid. i. 480, 515.

88 For Fonseca, ‘ an assiduous reader of Erasmus’, to whom Éguia dedicated several of his editions of Erasmus' works, see Contemporaries, s.v.; as also for another ‘ardent Erasmian’ whose works were printed by Éguia, Francisco de Vergara.

89 Opus, letter 1748.

90 Érasme et l'spagne, i. 229.

91 Contemporaries, s.v.

92 Opus, letters 1961, 2127, 2251.

93 Érasme et l‘Espagne, i. p. vi.

94 Contemporaries, s.v.

95 'Espagne, i. 375, 389: Valdés's aim is ‘árajeunir l'Evangile, á le faire renaître en sa fraicheur’, ‘une incantation génératrice de béatitude’.

96 Ibid. i. 376.

97 Ibid. i. 386–90.

98 Ibid. i. 377.

99 Ibid. i. 389–91.

100 Ibid. iii. 142; Opus, letter 1791.

101 Contemporaries, s.v.

102 Opus, letters 1839, 1907, 2109, 2163, 2198; for identification of the writer of other letters whom P.S. Allen conjecturally identified with Valdés, see Contemporaries, s.v. Petrus Decimarius.

103 Érasme et l'Espagne, i. 365; cf. i. 258.

104 Ibid. i. 413, 436; cf. i. 442: this messianism had roots going back to Cisneros (i. 75, 97).

105 Ibid. i. 422; cf. i. 433, 435.

106 Contemporaries, s.v.

107 Érasme et l'Espagne, iii. 308–9; cf. iii. 148.

108 Ibid. iii. 11; cf. iii. 169.

109 Ibid. ii. 10 n. 2, 75–7; iii. 146.

110 Ibid. iii. 18; cf. Opus, letter 1334. 916 (‘scripsere suo seculo’).

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