Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Relationship between prenatal and postnatal conditions and accelerated postnatal growth. Impact on the rigidity of the arterial wall and obesity in childhood

  • A. I. Mora-Urda (a1), P. Acevedo (a1) and M. P. Montero López (a1)

Abstract

Restricted growth in utero and accelerated postnatal growth (APG) in the postnatal period have been associated with the development of overweight, obesity and an increased cardiovascular risk in childhood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of prenatal and perinatal conditions on APG and to evaluate the influence of this APG on different cardiovascular risk factors such as body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI), blood pressure (BP) and arterial wall stiffness [carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV)]. All measurements were performed in 355 children (185 boys and 170 girls; 8–11 years). Data on mother weight before and during pregnancy, gestational age (weeks), birth weight (g) and breastfeeding of children were obtained through interviews with families. Children who presented APG were born of mothers with lower BMIs before pregnancy and who gained less weight during the second trimester of pregnancy. They also have a lower gestational age and birth weight, a shorter duration of breastfeeding and a longer duration of artificial feeding (AF). Later in childhood, they had higher values of cf-PWV, BMI, FMI and higher prevalence of hypertension. Low maternal gestational weight gain, inadequate fetal development (low birth weight, shorter gestational age) and reduced breastfeeding duration favor APG. Infants with such APG had higher values of cf-PWV, BP, BMI and FMI later in childhood, along with a higher risk of hypertension and obesity. The interaction between APG and a longer duration of AF had a negative effect on cf-PWV (arterial stiffness) and FMI.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: Dr A. I. Mora-Urda, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain. E-mail: ana.mora@uam.es

References

Hide All
1. Dennison, BA, Edmunds, LS, Stratton, HH, Pruzek, RM. Rapid infant weight gain predicts childhood overweight. Obesity. 2006; 14, 491499.
2. Holzhauer, S, Hokken Koelega, ACS, Ridder, M, et al. Effect of birth weight and postnatal weight gain on body composition in early infancy: The Generation R Study. Early Hum Dev. 2009; 85, 285290.
3. Monteiro, POA, Victora, CG. Rapid growth in infancy and childhood and obesity in later life – a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2005; 6, 143154.
4. Fabricius-Bjerre, S, Jensen, RB, Færch, K, et al. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence. PLoS One. 2011; 6, e20595.
5. Rolland-Cachera, MF. Rate of growth in early life: a predictor of later health? In: Early Nutrition and its Later Consequences: New Opportunities, 2005; pp. 35–39. Springer-Verlag: Berlin/Heidelberg.
6. Chrestani, MA, Santos, IS, Horta, BL, Dumith, SC, de Oliveira Dode, MAS. Associated factors for accelerated growth in childhood: a systematic review. Matern Child Health J. 2013; 17, 512519.
7. Ong, KK. Size at birth and early childhood growth in relation to maternal smoking, parity and infant breast-feeding: longitudinal birth cohort study and analysis. Pediatric Res. 2002; 52, 863867.
8. Costa-Silva, JH, Simões-Alves, AC, Fernandes, MP. Developmental origins of cardiometabolic diseases: role of the maternal diet. Front Physiol. 2016; 7, 504.
9. Hediger, ML, Overpeck, MD, Maurer, KR, et al. Growth of infants and young children born small or large for gestational age: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998; 152, 12251231.
10. Wells, JCK. The programming effects of early growth. Early Hum Dev. 2007; 83, 743748.
11. Hales, C, Barker, D. Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Int J Epidemiol. 2013; 42, 12151222.
12. Luyckx, VA, Bertram, JF, Brenner, BM, et al. Effect of fetal and child health on kidney development and long-term risk of hypertension and kidney disease. Lancet. 2013; 382, 273283.
13. Smith, CJ, Ryckman, KK, Barnabei, VM, et al. The impact of birth weight on cardiovascular disease risk in the Women’s Health Initiative. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2016; 26, 239245.
14. Zhou, J, Dang, S, Zeng, L, et al. Rapid infancy weight gain and 7- to 9-year childhood obesity risk: a prospective cohort study in rural western China. Medicine. 2016; 95, e3425.
15. Ong, K, Loos, R. Rapid infancy weight gain and subsequent obesity: systematic reviews and hopeful suggestions. Acta Paediatr. 2006; 95, 904908.
16. Griffiths, LJ, Smeeth, L, Hawkins, SS, Cole, TJ, Dezateux, C. Effects of infant feeding practice on weight gain from birth to 3 years. Arch Dis Child. 2009; 94, 577582.
17. Singhal, A, Lucas, A. Early origins of cardiovascular disease: is there a unifying hypothesis? Lancet. 2004; 363, 16421645.
18. Victora, CG, Barros, FC, Horta, BL, Martorell, R. Short-term benefits of catch-up growth for small-for-gestational-age infants. Int J Epidemiol. 2001; 30, 13251330.
19. Gardiner, HM. Early environmental influences on vascular development. Early Hum Dev. 2007; 83, 819823.
20. Giles, LC, Whitrow, MJ, Davies, MJ, et al. Growth trajectories in early childhood, their relationship with antenatal and postnatal factors, and development of obesity by age 9 years: results from an Australian birth cohort study. Int J Obes. 2015; 39, 10491056.
21. Gillman, MW. Early infancy – a critical period for development of obesity. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2010; 1, 292299.
22. Horta, BL, Barros, FC, Victora, CG, Cole, TJ. Early and late growth and blood pressure in adolescence. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003; 57, 226230.
23. Lucas, A. Growth and later health: a general perspective. In: Importance of Growth for Health and Development (vol. 65), 2010; pp. 1–11. Karger: Basel.
24. Nilsson, P. The early life origins of vascular ageing and cardiovascular risk: the EVA syndrome. J Hypertens. 2008; 26, 10491057.
25. Slining, MM, Herring, AH, Popkin, BM, Mayer-Davis, EJ, Adair, LS. Infant BMI trajectories are associated with young adult body composition. J Dev Orig Health and Dis. 2012; 4, 5668.
26. Sandboge, S, Osmond, C, Kajantie, E, Eriksson, JG. Early growth and changes in blood pressure during adult life. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2016; 7, 306313.
27. Wells, JCK, Hallal, PC, Wright, A, Singhal, A, Victora, CG. Fetal, infant and childhood growth: relationships with body composition in Brazilian boys aged 9 years. Int J Obes. 2005; 29, 11921198.
28. Ong, KK, Ahmed, ML, Emmett, PM, Preece, MA, Dunger, DB. Association between postnatal catch-up growth and obesity in childhood: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2000; 967971.
29. Mitchell, GF. Arterial stiffness and hypertension: chicken or egg? Hypertension. 2014; 64, 210214.
30. Sebastiani, G, Díaz, M, Bassols, J, et al. The sequence of prenatal growth restraint and post-natal catch-up growth leads to a thicker intima-media and more pre-peritoneal and hepatic fat by age 3-6 years. Pediatr Obes. 2016; 11, 251257.
31. Tauzin, L, Rossi, P, Grosse, C, et al. Increased systemic blood pressure and arterial stiffness in young adults born prematurely. J Dev Orig Health and Dis. 2014; 5, 448452.
32. Evelein, AMV, Visseren, FLJ, van der Ent, CK, Grobbee, DE, Uiterwaal, CSPM. Excess early postnatal weight gain leads to thicker and stiffer arteries in young children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98, 794801.
33. Arribas, SM, Hinek, A, González, MC. Elastic fibres and vascular structure in hypertension. Pharmacol Ther. 2006; 111, 771–91.
34. Vlachopoulos, C, Xaplanteris, P, Aboyans, V, et al. The role of vascular biomarkers for primary and secondary prevention. A position paper from the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on peripheral circulation: Endorsed by the Association for Research into Arterial Structure and Physiology (ARTERY). Atherosclerosis. 2015; 241, 507532.
35. Martyn, CN, Greenwald, SE. Impaired synthesis of elastin in walls of aorta and large conduit arteries during early development as an initiating event in pathogenesis of systemic hypertension. Lancet. 1997; 350, 953955.
36. Martyn, CN, Greenwald, SE. A hypothesis about a mechanism for the programming of blood pressure and vascular disease in early life. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2001; 28, 948951.
37. Greenwald, SE. Ageing of the conduit arteries. J Pathol. 2007; 2011, 157172.
38. WHO. Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. JAMA. 2000; 284, 30453046.
39. National Research Council. Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. 2010. National Academies Press: Washington, D.C.
40. WHO. Indicators for Assessing Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices: Conclusions of a Consensus Meeting Held 6-8 November 2007 in Washington DC, USA, 2008. World Health Organization: Geneva.
41. Ng, SK, Olog, A, Spinks, AB, et al. Risk factors and obstetric complications of large for gestational age births with adjustments for community effects: results from a new cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2010; 10, 460.
42. de Onis, M, Onyango, AW, Borghi, E, Siyam, A, Nishida, CSJ. Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull World Health Organ. 2007; 85, 660667.
43. WHO. Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents, 2014. World Health Organization: Geneva.
44. Karaolis-Danckert, N, Buyken, AE, Kulig, M, et al. How pre- and postnatal risk factors modify the effect of rapid weight gain in infancy and early childhood on subsequent fat mass development: results from the Multicenter Allergy Study 90. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87, 13561364.
45. Oyama, M, Nakamura, K, Tsuchiya, Y, Yamamoto, M. Unhealthy maternal lifestyle leads to rapid infant weight gain: prevention of future chronic diseases. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2009; 217, 6772.
46. Cole, TJ. Modeling postnatal exposures and their interactions with birth size. J Nutr. 2004; 134, 201204.
47. Weiner, JS, Lourie, JA. Practical Human Biology. 1981. Academic Press: London/New York.
48. Ahmad, N, Adam, SIM, Nawi, AM, Hassan, MR, Ghazi, HF. Abdominal obesity indicators: waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio in malaysian adults population. Int J Prev Med. 2016; 7, 82.
49. Mccarthy, HD. Body fat measurements in children as predictors for the metabolic syndrome: focus on waist circumference. Proc Nutr Soc. 2006; 65, 385392.
50. Brook, CG. Determination of body composition of children from skinfold measurements. Arch Dis Child. 1971; 46, 182184.
51. Siri, WE. Body composition from fluid spaces and density. In: Techniques for Measuring Body Composition (ed. Brozeck HA), 1961; p. 300. National Academy of Sciences: Washington.
52. Peltz, G, Aguirre, MT, Sanderson, M, Fadden, MK. The role of fat mass index in determining obesity. Am J Hum Biol. 2010; 22, 639–47.
53. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2004; 114, 555576.
54. Laurent, S, Cockcroft, J, Van Bortel, L, et al. Expert consensus document on arterial stiffness: methodological issues and clinical applications. Eur Heart J. 2006; 27, 25882605.
55. Jatoi, N, Mahmud, A, Bennett, K, Feely, J. Assessment of arterial stiffness in hypertension: comparison of oscillometric (Arteriograph), piezoelectronic (Complior) and tonometric (SphygmoCor) techniques. J Hypertens. 2009; 27, 21862191.
56. Mancia, G, De Backer, G, Dominiczak, A, et al. The task force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology. Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: The Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Euro Heart J. 2007; 28, 14621536.
57. Laurent, S, Katsahian, S, Fassot, C, et al. Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of fatal stroke in essential. Hypertension. 2003; 34, 12031206.
58. Laurent, S, Boutouyrie, P, Asmar, R, et al. Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 2001; 37, 12361241.
59. Reusz, GS, Cseprekal, O, Temmar, M, et al. Reference values of pulse wave velocity in healthy children and teenagers. Hypertension. 2010; 56, 217224.
60. Silva, ABT, Capingana, DP, Magalhães, P, et al. Predictors and reference values of pulse wave velocity in Prepubertal Angolan children. J Clin Hypertens. 2016; 18, 725732.
61. Urbina, EM, Williams, RV, Alpert, BS, et al. Noninvasive assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis in children and adolescents: recommendations for standard assessment for clinical research: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension. 2009; 54, 919950.
62. Mora-Urda, AI, Molina, MCB, Mill, JG, Montero-López, P. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in healthy Spanish children: reference percentile curves. J Clin Hypertens. 2017; 19, 227234.
63. AtCor Medical. Sphygmocor Software Operator´s Guide. Retrieved January 20, 2017, from http://atcormedical.com/.
64. Van Bortel, LM, Laurent, S, Boutouyrie, P, et al. Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. J Hypertens. 2012; 30, 445448.
65. Brisbois, TD, Farmer, AP, McCargar, LJ. Early markers of adult obesity: a review. Obes Rev. 2012; 13, 347367.
66. Ong, KK, Kennedy, K, Castañeda-Gutiérrez, E, et al. Postnatal growth in preterm infants and later health outcomes: a systematic review. Acta Paediatr. 2015; 104, 974986.
67. Mora-Urda, AI, Espinoza, A, López-Ejeda, N, et al. Indicadores de riesgo cardiovascular, patrones de lactancia y estilo de vida de la madre durante el proceso de crecimiento y desarrollo fetal e infantil. Nutricion Clinica y Dietetica Hospitalaria. 2015; 35, 91100.
68. Bernis, C, López Giménez, R, Montero-López, P. Determinantes biológicos, psicológicos, y sociales de la maternidad en el siglo XXI: mitos y realidades : XVII Jornadas de Investigación Interdisciplinaria. 2009. Instituto Universitario de Estudios de la Mujer, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid: Madrid, Spain.
69. Alonso, V, Fuster, V, Luna, F. La evolución del peso al nacer en España (1981-2002) y su relación con las características de la reproducción. Antropo. 2005; 10, 5160.
70. WHO. Pregnancy, Childbirth, Postpartum and Newborn Care, 2016. World Health Organization: Geneva.
71. Barker, DJP, Gluckman, PD, Godfrey, KM, et al. Fetal nutrition and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Lancet. 1993; 341, 938941.
72. Curhan, GC, Chertow, GM, Willett, WC, et al. Birth weight and adult hypertension and obesity in women. Circulation. 1996; 94, 13101315.
73. Curhan, GC, Willett, WC, Rimm, EB, et al. Birth weight and adult hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity in US men. Circulation. 1996; 94, 32463250.
74. Jelenkovic, A, Yokoyama, Y, Sund, R, et al. Association between birthweight and later body mass index: an individual-based pooled analysis of 27 twin cohorts participating in the CODATwins project. Int J Epidemiol. 2017; 46, 14881498.
75. Morley, R, Lister, G, Leeson-Payne, C, Lucas, A. Size at birth and later blood pressure. Arch Dis Child. 1994; 70, 536537.
76. Lurbe, E, Torro, MI, Carvajal, E, Alvarez, V, Redón, J. Birth weight impacts on wave reflections in children and adolescents. Hypertension. 2003; 41, 646650.
77. Oren, A. Gestational age and birth weight in relation to aortic stiffness in healthy young adults: two separate mechanisms? Am J Hypertension. 2003; 16, 7679.
78. Dalziel, SR, Parag, V, Rodgers, A, Harding, JE. Cardiovascular risk factors at age 30 following pre-term birth. Int J Epidemiol. 2007; 36, 907915.
79. Franko, DL, Blais, MA, Becker, AE, et al. Pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes in women with eating disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2001; 158, 14611466.
80. Park, RJ, Senior, R, Stein, A. The offspring of mothers with eating disorders. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003; 12, 11.
81. Montero, MP. La alimentación del recién nacido: condiciones culturales y sociales. In Determinantes biológicos, psicológicos y sociales de la maternidad en el siglo XXI (eds. Bernis C, López R, Montero MP), 2009; pp. 125147. Instituto Universitario de Estudios de la Mujer, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid: Madrid, Spain.
82. WHO. The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding report of an expert consultation. 2001. WHO: Geneva, Switzerland.
83. Fewtrell, M. The long-term benefits of having been breast-fed. Curr Paediatr. 2004; 14, 97103.
84. Linhares, RS, Petrucci Gigante, D, Lopes, FC, Fernandes de Barros, B, Horta, L. Carotid intima-media thickness at age 30, birth weight, accelerated growth during infancy and breastfeeding: a birth cohort study in southern Brazil – asset. PLoS One. 2015; 1, 19.
85. Salvi, P, Revera, M, Joly, L, et al. Role of birth weight and postnatal growth on pulse wave velocity in teenagers. J Adolescent Health. 2012; 51, 373379.
86. Oken, E, Gillman, MW. Fetal origins of obesity. Obes Res. 2003; 11, 496506.
87. Ohmi, H, Kato, C, Meadows, M, et al. Early infantile growth and cardiovascular risks in adolescent Japanese women. J Rural Med. 2013; 8, 176180.
88. Michaelsen, KF. Are there negative effects of an excessive protein intake? Pediatrics. 2000; 106, 12931294.
89. Rolland-Cachera, MF, Deheeger, M, Akrout, M, Bellisle, F. Influence of macronutrients on adiposity development: a follow up study of nutrition and growth from 10 months to 8 years of age. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995; 19, 573578.
90. Butt, RP, Laurent, GJ, Bishop, JE. Collagen production and replication by cardiac fibroblasts is enhanced in response to diverse classes of growth factors. Eur J Cell Biol. 1995; 68, 330335.
91. Sproul, EP, Argraves, WS. A cytokine axis regulates elastin formation and degradation. Matrix Biol. 2013; 32, 8694.
92. Westenberg, JJM, Scholte, AJHA, Vaskova, Z, et al. Age-related and regional changes of aortic stiffness in the Marfan syndrome: assessment with velocity-encoded MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2011; 34, 526531.
93. Bhatt, AB, Buck, JS, Zuflacht, JP, et al. Distinct effects of losartan and atenolol on vascular stiffness in Marfan syndrome. Vasc Med. 2015; 20, 317325.
94. Grillo, A, Pini, A, Marelli, S, et al. Marfan syndrome: assessment of aortic dissection risk by analysis of aortic viscoelastic properties. J Hypertens. 2015; 33, 67.
95. Paisley, AN, Banerjee, M, Rezai, M, et al. Changes in arterial stiffness but not carotid intimal thickness in acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96, 14861492.
96. Cansu, GB, Yılmaz, N, Yanıkoğlu, A, et al. Assessment of diastolic dysfunction, arterial stiffness, and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with acromegaly. Endocr Pract. 2017; 23, 536545.
97. Romero Gutiérrez, G, Urbina Ortiz, FJ, de Leon, A, Amador, N. Morbilidada materno-fetal en embarazadas obesas. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 2006; 74, 483487.
98. Salazar de Dugarte, G, González de Chirivella, X, Faneite Antique, P. Incidencia y factores de riesgo de macrosomía fetal. Rev Obs Ginecol Venez. 2004; 64, 1521.
99. Palinski, W, Napoli, C. The fetal origins of atherosclerosis: maternal hypercholesterolemia, and cholesterol-lowering or antioxidant treatment during pregnancy influence in utero programming and postnatal susceptibility to atherogenesis. FASEB J. 2002; 16, 13481360.

Keywords

Relationship between prenatal and postnatal conditions and accelerated postnatal growth. Impact on the rigidity of the arterial wall and obesity in childhood

  • A. I. Mora-Urda (a1), P. Acevedo (a1) and M. P. Montero López (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed