Gluck, L. Conceptualization and Initiation of a Neonatal Intensive Care Nursery in 1960. 1992, National Institutes of Health: Bethesda, MD.
Mallow, EB, Fox, MA. Phthalates and critically ill neonates: device-related exposures and non-endocrine toxic risks. J Perinatol. 2014; 34, 892–897.
Ferguson, KK, McElrath, TF, Meeker, JD. Environmental phthalate exposure and preterm birth. JAMA Pediatr. 2014; 168, 61–67.
Shen, Q, Shi, H, Zhang, Y, Cao, Y. Dietary intake and phthalates body burden in boys and girls. Arch Public Health. 2015; 73, 5.
Anway, MD, Rekow, SS, Skinner, MK. Transgenerational epigenetic programming of the embryonic testis transcriptome. Genomics. 2008; 91, 30–40.
Perera, F, Herbstman, J. Prenatal environmental exposures, epigenetics, and disease. Reprod Toxicol. 2011; 31, 363–373.
Waring, RH, Harris, RM, Mitchell, SC. In utero exposure to carcinogens: epigenetics, developmental disruption and consequences in later life. Maturitas. 2016; 86, 59–63.
Woodruff, TJ. Making it real – the environmental burden of disease. What does it take to make people pay attention to the environment and health?
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015; 100, 1241–1244.
Albert, O, Jégou, B. A critical assessment of the endocrine susceptibility of the human testis to phthalates from fetal life to adulthood. Hum Reprod Update. 2014; 20, 231–249.
Berge, A, Cladiere, M, Gasperi, J, et al. Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by phthalates. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2013; 20, 8057–8076.
Schettler, T. Human exposure to phthalates via consumer products. Int J Androl. 2006; 29, 134–139, discussion 181–185.
Meeker, JD, Sathyanarayana, S, Swan, SH. Phthalates and other additives in plastics: human exposure and associated health outcomes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009; 364, 2097–2113.
Latini, G, Ferri, M, Chiellini, F. Materials degradation in PVC medical devices, DEHP leaching and neonatal outcomes. Curr Med Chem. 2010; 17, 2979–2989.
Trasande, L, Attina, TM. Association of exposure to di-2-ethylhexylphthalate replacements with increased blood pressure in children and adolescents. Hypertension. 2015; 66, 301–308.
Mankidy, R, Wiseman, S, Ma, H, Giesy, JP. Biological impact of phthalates. Toxicol Lett. 2013; 217, 50–58.
Jaeger, RJ, Rubin, RJ. Contamination of blood stored in plastic packs. Lancet. 1970; 2, 151.
Mayer, FL, Stalling, DL, Johnson, JL. Phthalate esters as environmental contaminants. Nature. 1972; 238, 411–413.
Rozek, LS, Dolinoy, DC, Sartor, MA, Omenn, GS. Epigenetics: relevance and implications for public health. Annu Rev Public Health. 2014; 35, 105–122.
Singh, S, Li, SS. Epigenetic effects of environmental chemicals bisphenol a and phthalates. Int J Mol Sci. 2012; 13, 10143–10153.
Skinner, MK, Manikkam, M, Guerrero-Bosagna, C. Epigenetic transgenerational actions of environmental factors in disease etiology. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 21, 214–222.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate. 2002. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: Atlanta, GA.
Tomita, I, Nakamura, Y, Yagi, Y, Tutikawa, K. Teratogenicity/fetotoxicity of DEHP in mice. Environ Health Perspect. 1982; 45, 71–75.
Rubin, RJ, Ness, PM. What price progress? An update on vinyl plastic bags. Transfusion (Paris). 1989; 29, 358–361.
Scientific Panel on Food Addities, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food. (Packaging) EFFIa. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) for use in food contact materials. EFSA J. 2005; 243, 1–20. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2005.243.
NTP (National Toxicology Program). Report on Carcinogens, 13th edn, 2014. National Toxicology Program: Research Triangle Park, NC.
Nachman, RM, Hartle, JC, Lees, PSJ, Groopman, JD. Early life metabolism of bisphenol A: a systematic review of the literature. Curr Environ Health Rep. 2014; 1, 90–100.
Beko, G, Weschler, CJ, Langer, S, et al. Children’s phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers. PLoS One. 2013; 8, e62442.
Koch, HM, Preuss, R, Angerer, J. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP): human metabolism and internal exposure – an update and latest results. Int J Androl. 2006; 29, 155–165, discussion 181–185.
Cuzzolin, L. Drug metabolizing enzymes in the perinatal and neonatal period: differences in the expression and activity. Curr Drug Metab. 2013; 14, 167–173.
Dotta, A, Chukhlantseva, N. Ontogeny and drug metabolism in newborns. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012; 25(Suppl. 4), 83–84.
Choi, K, Joo, H, Campbell, JL Jr, et al. In vitro metabolism of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) by various tissues and cytochrome P450s of human and rat. Toxicol In Vitro. 2012; 26, 315–322.
Van Overmeire, B, Touw, D, Schepens, PJ, Kearns, GL, van den Anker, JN. Ibuprofen pharmacokinetics in preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001; 70, 336–343.
Sharma, PK, Garg, SK, Narang, A. Pharmacokinetics of oral ibuprofen in premature infants. J Clin Pharmacol. 2003; 43, 968–973.
Ito, Y, Kamijima, M, Hasegawa, C, et al. Species and inter-individual differences in metabolic capacity of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) between human and mouse livers. Environ Health Prev Med. 2014; 19, 117–125.
Koch, HM, Rossbach, B, Drexler, H, Angerer, J. Internal exposure of the general population to DEHP and other phthalates – determination of secondary and primary phthalate monoester metabolites in urine. Environ Res. 2003; 93, 177–185.
Ligi, I, Boubred, F, Grandvuillemin, I, Simeoni, U. The neonatal kidney: implications for drug metabolism and elimination. Curr Drug Metab. 2013; 14, 174–177.
Chen, N, Aleksa, K, Woodland, C, Rieder, M, Koren, G. Ontogeny of drug elimination by the human kidney. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006; 21, 160–168.
Levey, AS, Inker, LA, Coresh, J. GFR estimation: from physiology to public health. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014; 63, 820–834.
Lorber, M, Koch, HM, Angerer, J. A critical evaluation of the creatinine correction approach: can it underestimate intakes of phthalates? A case study with di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2011; 21, 576–586.
Lorber, M, Angerer, J, Koch, HM. A simple pharmacokinetic model to characterize exposure of Americans to Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate. J Expos Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2009; 20, 38–53.
Enke, U, Schleussner, E, Palmke, C, Seyfarth, L, Koch, HM. Phthalate exposure in pregnant women and newborns – the urinary metabolite excretion pattern differs distinctly. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013; 216, 735–742.
Green, R, Hauser, R, Calafat, AM, et al. Use of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-containing medical products and urinary levels of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in neonatal intensive care unit infants. Environ Health Perspect. 2005; 113, 1222–1225.
Latini, G, De Felice, C, Verrotti, A. Plasticizers, infant nutrition and reproductive health. Reprod Toxicol. 2004; 19, 27–33.
Loff, S, Kabs, F, Subotic, U, et al. Kinetics of diethylhexyl-phthalate extraction From polyvinylchloride-infusion lines. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2002; 26, 305–309.
Rose, RJ, Priston, MJ, Rigby-Jones, AE, Sneyd, JR. The effect of temperature on di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate leaching from PVC infusion sets exposed to lipid emulsions. Anaesthesia. 2012; 67, 514–520.
Bagel, S, Dessaigne, B, Bourdeaux, D, et al. Influence of lipid type on bis (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) leaching from infusion line sets in parenteral nutrition. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2011; 35, 770–775.
Loff, S, Subotic, U, Reinicke, F, Wischmann, H, Brade, J. Extraction of di-ethylhexyl-phthalate from perfusion lines of various material, length and brand by lipid emulsions. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2004; 39, 341–345.
Bourdeaux, D, Sautou-Miranda, V, Bagel-Boithias, S, Boyer, A, Chopineau, J. Analysis by liquid chromatography and infrared spectrometry of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate released by multilayer infusion tubing. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2004; 35, 57–64.
Calafat, AM, Needham, LL, Silva, MJ, Lambert, G. Exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate among premature neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatrics. 2004; 113, e429–e434.
Centers for Disease Control. Second National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. 2003. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Atlanta, GA.
Weuve, J, Sanchez, BN, Calafat, AM, et al. Exposure to phthalates in neonatal intensive care unit infants: urinary concentrations of monoesters and oxidative metabolites. Environ Health Perspect. 2006; 114, 1424–1431.
Frederiksen, H, Kuiri-Hanninen, T, Main, KM, Dunkel, L, Sankilampi, U. A longitudinal study of urinary phthalate excretion in 58 full-term and 67 preterm infants from birth through 14 months. Environ Health Perspect. 2014; 122, 998–1005. doi:10.1289/ehp.1307569.
Karle, VA, Short, BL, Martin, GR, et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation exposes infants to the plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Crit Care Med. 1997; 25, 696–703.
Sjoberg, P, Bondesson, U, Sedin, G, Gustafsson, J. Dispositions of di- and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in newborn infants subjected to exchange transfusions. Eur J Clin Invest. 1985; 15, 430–436.
Sjoberg, PO, Bondesson, UG, Sedin, EG, Gustafsson, JP. Exposure of newborn infants to plasticizers. Plasma levels of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate during exchange transfusion. Transfusion (Paris). 1985; 25, 424–428.
Latini, G, Wittassek, M, Del Vecchio, A, et al. Lactational exposure to phthalates in Southern Italy. Environ Int. 2009; 35, 236–239.
Calafat, AM, Slakman, AR, Silva, MJ, Herbert, AR, Needham, LL. Automated solid phase extraction and quantitative analysis of human milk for 13 phthalate metabolites. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004; 805, 49–56.
Mortensen, GK, Main, KM, Andersson, AM, Leffers, H, Skakkebaek, NE. Determination of phthalate monoesters in human milk, consumer milk, and infant formula by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Anal Bioanal Chem. 2005; 382, 1084–1092.
Kelley, KE, Hernandez-Diaz, S, Chaplin, EL, Hauser, R, Mitchell, AA. Identification of phthalates in medications and dietary supplement formulations in the United States and Canada. Environ Health Perspect. 2012; 120, 379–384.
Koniecki, D, Wang, R, Moody, RP, Zhu, J. Phthalates in cosmetic and personal care products: concentrations and possible dermal exposure. Environ Res. 2011; 111, 329–336.
Braun, JM, Just, AC, Williams, PL, et al. Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2014; 24, 459–466.
Sathyanarayana, S, Karr, CJ, Lozano, P, et al. Baby care products: possible sources of infant phthalate exposure. Pediatrics. 2008; 121, e260–e268.
Whyatt, RM, Adibi, JJ, Calafat, AM, et al. Prenatal di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate exposure and length of gestation among an inner-city cohort. Pediatrics. 2009; 124, e1213–e1220.
Silva, MJ, Reidy, JA, Herbert, AR, et al. Detection of phthalate metabolites in human amniotic fluid. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2004; 72, 1226–1231.
Latini, G, De Felice, C, Presta, G, et al. In utero exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and duration of human pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect. 2003; 111, 1783–1785.
Huang, Y, Li, J, Garcia, JM, et al. Phthalate levels in cord blood are associated with preterm delivery and fetal growth parameters in Chinese women. PLoS One. 2014; 13, e87430.
Tefre de Renzy-Martin, K, Frederiksen, H, Christensen, JS, et al. Current exposure of 200 pregnant Danish women to phthalates, parabens and phenols. Reproduction. 2014; 147, 443–453.
Adibi, JJ, Hauser, R, Williams, PL, et al. Maternal urinary metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in relation to the timing of labor in a US multicenter pregnancy cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009; 169, 1015–1024.
Wolff, MS, Engel, SM, Berkowitz, GS, et al. Prenatal phenol and phthalate exposures and birth outcomes. Environ Health Perspect. 2008; 116, 1092–1097.
Suzuki, Y, Niwa, M, Yoshinaga, J, et al. Prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and PAHs and birth outcomes. Environ Int. 2010; 36, 699–704.
Parets, SE, Bedient, CE, Menon, R, Smith, AK. Preterm birth and its long-term effects: methylation to mechanisms. Biology (Basel). 2014; 3, 498–513.
Gao, F, Zhang, J, Jiang, P, et al. Marked methylation changes in intestinal genes during the perinatal period of preterm neonates. BMC Genomics. 2014; 15, 716.
Meruvu, S, Zhang, J, Bedi, YS, Choudhury, M. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces apoptosis through miR-16 in human first trimester placental cell line HTR-8/SVneo. Toxicol In Vitro. 2016; 31, 35–42.
Kay, VR, Chambers, C, Foster, WG. Reproductive and developmental effects of phthalate diesters in females. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2013; 43, 200–219.
Yoon, K, Kwack, SJ, Kim, HS, Lee, BM. Estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals: molecular mechanisms of actions on putative human diseases. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2014; 17, 127–174.
Culty, M, Thuillier, R, Li, W, et al. In utero exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exerts both short-term and long-lasting suppressive effects on testosterone production in the rat. Biol Reprod. 2008; 78, 1018–1028.
Bustamante-Montes, LP, Hernandez-Valero, MA, Flores-Pimentel, D, et al. Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with decreased anogenital distance and penile size in male newborns. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2013; 4, 300–306.
Fisher, JS, Macpherson, S, Marchetti, N, Sharpe, RM. Human ‘testicular dysgenesis syndrome’: a possible model using in-utero exposure of the rat to dibutyl phthalate. Hum Reprod. 2003; 18, 1383–1394.
Olesen, IA, Sonne, SB, Hoei-Hansen, CE, Rajpert-De Meyts, E, Skakkebaek, NE. Environment, testicular dysgenesis and carcinoma in situ testis. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 21, 462–478.
Wu, S, Zhu, J, Li, Y, et al. Dynamic epigenetic changes involved in testicular toxicity induced by di-2-(ethylhexyl) phthalate in mice. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2010; 106, 118–123.
Wu, S, Zhu, J, Li, Y, et al. Dynamic effect of di-2-(ethylhexyl) phthalate on testicular toxicity: epigenetic changes and their impact on gene expression. Int J Toxicol. 2010; 29, 193–200.
Chen, J, Wu, S, Wen, S, et al. The mechanism of environmental endocrine disruptors (DEHP) induces epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of cryptorchidism. PLoS One. 2015; 10, e0126403.
Swan, SH, Main, KM, Liu, F, et al. Decrease in anogenital distance among male infants with prenatal phthalate exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2005; 113, 1056–1061.
Suzuki, Y, Yoshinaga, J, Mizumoto, Y, Serizawa, S, Shiraishi, H. Foetal exposure to phthalate esters and anogenital distance in male newborns. Int J Androl. 2012; 35, 236–244.
Howdeshell, KL, Furr, J, Lambright, CR, et al. Cumulative effects of dibutyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate on male rat reproductive tract development: altered fetal steroid hormones and genes. Toxicol Sci. 2007; 99, 190–202.
Gaspari, L, Paris, F, Jandel, C, et al. Prenatal environmental risk factors for genital malformations in a population of 1442 French male newborns: a nested case-control study. Hum Reprod. 2011; 26, 3155–3162.
Hart, R, Doherty, DA, Frederiksen, H, et al. The influence of antenatal exposure to phthalates on subsequent female reproductive development in adolescence: a pilot study. Reproduction. 2013; 147, 379–390. doi:10.1530/REP-13-0331.
Mouritsen, A, Frederiksen, H, Sorensen, K, et al. Urinary phthalates from 168 girls and boys measured twice a year during a 5-year period: associations with adrenal androgen levels and puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98, 3755–3764.
Martinez-Arguelles, DB, Culty, M, Zirkin, BR, Papadopoulos, V. In utero exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate decreases mineralocorticoid receptor expression in the adult testis. Endocrinology. 2009; 150, 5575–5585.
Martinez-Arguelles, DB, Guichard, T, Culty, M, Zirkin, BR, Papadopoulos, V. In utero exposure to the antiandrogen di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate decreases adrenal aldosterone production in the adult rat. Biol Reprod. 2011; 85, 51–61.
Martinez-Arguelles, D, Campioli, E, Lienhart, C, et al. In utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces long-term changes in gene expression in the adult male adrenal gland. Endocrinology. 2014; 155, 1667–1678. doi:10.1210/en.2013-1921.
Martinez-Arguelles, DB, Campioli, E, Culty, M, Zirkin, BR, Papadopoulos, V. Fetal origin of endocrine dysfunction in the adult: the phthalate model. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013; 137, 5–17.
Kang, SC, Lee, BM. DNA methylation of estrogen receptor alpha gene by phthalates. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2005; 68, 1995–2003.
Li, L, Zhang, T, Qin, XS, et al. Exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) results in a heritable modification of imprint genes DNA methylation in mouse oocytes. Molecular Biology Reports. 2014; 41, 1227–1235.
Gupta, RK, Singh, JM, Leslie, TC, et al. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibit growth and reduce estradiol levels of antral follicles in vitro. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010; 242, 224–230.
Thomas, JA, Curto, KA, Thomas, MJ. MEHP/DEHP: gonadal toxicity and effects on rodent accessory sex organs. Environ Health Perspect. 1982; 45, 85–88.
Erkekoglu, P, Rachidi, W, Yuzugullu, OG, et al. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damaging effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP) on MA-10 Leydig cells and protection by selenium. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010; 248, 52–62.
Rose, ML, Rivera, CA, Bradford, BU, et al. Kupffer cell oxidant production is central to the mechanism of peroxisome proliferators. Carcinogenesis. 1999; 20, 27–33.
Wan, X, Zhu, Y, Ma, X, et al. Effect of DEHP and its metabolite MEHP on in vitro rat follicular development. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2010; 39, 268–270, 274.
Sjoberg, P, Bondesson, U, Gray, TJ, Ploen, L. Effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and five of its metabolites on rat testis in vivo and in in vitro. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh). 1986; 58, 225–233.
Naville, D, Labaronne, E, Vega, N, et al. Metabolic outcome of female mice exposed to a mixture of low-dose pollutants in a diet-induced obesity model. PLoS One. 2015; 10, e0124015.
Manikkam, M, Tracey, R, Guerrero-Bosagna, C, Skinner, MK. Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP) induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations. PLoS One. 2013; 8, e55387.
Newbold, RR. Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol and long-term impact on the breast and reproductive tract in humans and mice. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2012; 3, 73–82.
Kavlock, R, Barr, D, Boekelheide, K, et al. NTP-CERHR expert panel update on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Reprod Toxicol. 2006; 22, 291–399.
Braun, JM, Sathyanarayana, S, Hauser, R. Phthalate exposure and children’s health. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2013; 25, 247–254.
Goodman, M, Lakind, JS, Mattison, DR. Do phthalates act as obesogens in humans? A systematic review of the epidemiological literature. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2014; 44, 151–175.