1. Koyanagi, A, Zhang, J, Dagvadorj, A, et al. Macrosomia in 23 developing countries: an analysis of a multicountry, facility-based, cross-sectional survey. Lancet. 2013; 381, 476–483.
2. McIntire, DD, Bloom, SL, Casey, BM, Leveno, KJ. Birth weight in relation to morbidity and mortality among newborn infants. New Engl J Med. 1999; 340, 1234–1238.
3. Mei, Z, Grummer-Strawn, LM, Thompson, D, Dietz, WH. Shifts in percentiles of growth during early childhood: analysis of longitudinal data from the California Child Health and Development Study. Pediatrics. 2004; 113, e617–627.
4. Barker, DJ, Hales, CN, Fall, CH, et al. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia: relation to reduced fetal growth. Diabetologia. 1993; 36, 62–67.
5. Wei, JN, Sung, FC, Li, CY, et al. Low birth weight and high birth weight infants are both at an increased risk to have type 2 diabetes among schoolchildren in Taiwan. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26, 343–348.
6. Sugihara, S, Sasaki, N, Amemiya, S, et al. Analysis of weight at birth and at diagnosis of childhood-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus in Japan. Pediatr Diabetes. 2008; 28, 285–290.
7. Regnault, N, Botton, J, Forhan, A, et al. Determinants of early ponderal and statural growth in full-term infants in the EDEN mother-child cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 92, 594–602.
8. Botton, J, Heude, B, Maccario, J, et al. Parental body size and early weight and height growth velocities in their offspring. Early Hum Dev. 2010; 86, 445–450.
9. Knight, B, Shields, BM, Hill, A, et al. The impact of maternal glycemia and obesity on early postnatal growth in a nondiabetic Caucasian population. Diabetes Care. 2007; 30, 777–783.
10. Miletic, T, Stoini, E, Mikulandra, F, et al. Effect of parental anthropometric parameters on neonatal birth weight and birth length. Coll Antropol. 2007; 31, 993–997.
11. Morrison, J, Williams, GM, Najman, JM, Andersen, MJ. The influence of paternal height and weight on birth-weight. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1991; 31, 114–116.
12. To, WW, Cheung, W, Kwok, JS. Paternal height and weight as determinants of birth weight in a Chinese population. Am J Perinatol. 1998; 15, 545–548.
13. Knight, B, Shields, BM, Turner, M, et al. Evidence of genetic regulation of fetal longitudinal growth. Early Hum Dev. 2005; 81, 823–831.
14. Leary, S, Fall, C, Osmond, C, et al. Geographical variation in relationships between parental body size and offspring phenotype at birth. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006; 85, 1066–1079.
15. Griffiths, LJ, Dezateux, C, Cole, TJ, Millennium Cohort Study Child Health Group. Differential parental weight and height contributions to offspring birthweight and weight gain in infancy. Int J Epidemiol. 2007; 36, 104–107.
16. Albouy-Llaty, M, Thiebaugeorges, O, Goua, V, et al. Influence of fetal and parental factors on intrauterine growth measurements: results of the EDEN mother–child cohort. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 38, 673–680.
17. Kuzawa, CW, Eisenberg, DTA. Intergenerational predictors of birth weight in the Philippines: correlations with mother’s and father’s birth weight and test of maternal constraint. PLoS One. 2012; 7, e40905.
18. Kawamoto, T, Nitta, H, Murata, K, et al. Rationale and study design of the Japan environment and children’s study (JECS). BMC Public Health. 2014; 14, 25.
20. Michikawa, T, Nitta, H, Nakayama, SF, et al. Baseline profile of participants in the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS). J Epidemiol. 2018; 28, 99–104.
21. Itabashi, K, Fujimura, M, Kusuda, S, et al. New normative birthweight among Japanese infants according to gestational week at delivery. Acta Paediatr Jpn. 2010; 114, 1271–1293, (in Japanese).
22. Furukawa, TA, Kawakami, N, Saitoh, M, Ono, Y, Nakane, Y. The performance of the Japanese version of the K6 and K10 in the World Mental Health Survey Japan. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2008; 17, 152–158.
23. Mark, W. Epidemiology: Study Design and Data Analysis, 3rd edn, 2014. Chapman and Hall/CRC: New York.
24. Cawley, RH, McKeown, T, Record, RG. Parental stature and birth weight. Am J Hum Genet. 1954; 6, 448–456.
25. Pritchard, CW, Sutherland, HW, Carr-Hill, RA. Birthweight and paternal height. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1983; 90, 156–161.
26. Shar, PS. Knowledge Synthesis Group on determinants of preterm/low birthweight births. Paternal factors and low birthweight, preterm, and small for gestational age births; a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 202, 103–123.
27. Pomeroy, E, Wells, JCK, Cole, TJ, O’Callaghan, M, Stock, JT. Relationships of maternal and paternal anthropometry with neonatal body size, proportions and adiposity in an Australian cohort. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2015; 156, 625–636.
28. Chen, YP, Xiao, XM, Li, J, et al. Paternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with offspring intrauterine growth in a gender dependent manner. PLoS One. 2012; 7, e36329.
30. Ng, S-F, Lin, RCY, Laybutt, DR, et al. Chronic high fat diet in fathers programs b-cell dysfunction in female rat offspring. Nature. 2010; 467, 963–966.
31. Ng, S-F, Lin, RC, Maloney, CA, et al. Paternal high-fat diet consumption induces common changes in the transcriptomes of retroperitoneal adipose and pancreatic islet tissues in female rat offspring. FASEB J. 2014; 28, 1830–1841.
32. Terashima, M, Barbour, S, Ren, J, et al. Effect of high fat diet on paternal sperm histone distribution and male offspring liver gene expression. Epigenetics. 2015; 10, 861–871.
33. Gorber, SC, Tremblay, M, Moher, D, Gorber, B. A comparison of direct vs. self-report measures for assessing height, weight and body mass index: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2007; 8, 307–326.
34. McAdams, MA, Van Dam, RM, Hu, FB. Comparison of self-reported and measured BMI as correlates of disease markers in US adults. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007; 15, 188–196.
35. Lawlor, DA, Smith, GD, O’Callaghan, M, et al. Epidemiologic evidence for the fetal overnutrition hypothesis: findings from the mater-university study of pregnancy and its outcomes. Am J Epidemiol. 2007; 165, 418–424.
36. Sekine, M, Yamagami, T, Hamanishi, S, et al. Parental obesity, lifestyle factors and obesity in preschool children: results of the Toyama birth cohort study. J Epidemiol. 2002; 12, 33–39.
37. Esposito-Del, PA, Scalfi, L, De, FE, et al. Familial and environmental influences on body composition and body fat distribution in childhood in southern Italy. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994; 18, 596–601.
38. Morgen CS, Ängquist L, Baker JL, et al. Prenatal risk factors influencing childhood BMI and overweight independent of birth weight and infancy BMI: a path analysis within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Int J Obes (Lond). 2017; Epub ahead of print.
39. Mikkelsen, SH, Hohwü, L, Olsen, J, et al. Parental body mass index and behavioral problems in their offspring: A Danish National Birth Cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2017; 186, 593–602.
40. Pirkola, J, Pouta, A, Bloigu, A, et al. Risks of overweight and abdominal obesity at age 16 years associated with prenatal exposures to maternal prepregnancy overweight and gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2010; 33, 1115–1121.