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Human fetal growth restriction: a cardiovascular journey through to adolescence

  • A. Sehgal (a1) (a2), M. R. Skilton (a3) and F. Crispi (a4)


Intrauterine growth restriction has been noted to adversely impact morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period as well as cardiovascular well-being in adolescence and adulthood. Recent data based on a wide range of ultrasound parameters during fetal and neonatal life has noted early and persistent involvement of the cardiovascular system. Some of these measures are predictive of long-term morbidities. Assessment of vascular mechanics is a new and novel concept in this population, and opens up avenues for diagnosis, monitoring and evaluation of the likely effectiveness of interventions. Prevention of these adverse vascular and cardiac outcomes secondary to fetal growth restriction may be feasible and of clinical relevance. This review focuses on growth restriction in humans with respect to cardiovascular remodeling and dysfunction during fetal life, persistence of functional cardiac impairment during early childhood and adolescence, and possible preventive strategies.


Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: A. Sehgal, Neonatologist, Monash Newborn, Monash Children’s Hospital, Monash University, 246, Clayton Road, Clayton, Melbourne, VIC 3168, Australia. (Email


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Arvind Sehgal wrote the first draft but all authors are equal first authors.



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Human fetal growth restriction: a cardiovascular journey through to adolescence

  • A. Sehgal (a1) (a2), M. R. Skilton (a3) and F. Crispi (a4)


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