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Exposures in early life: associations with DNA promoter methylation in breast tumors

  • M.-H. Tao (a1), C. Marian (a2), P. G. Shields (a2), N. Potischman (a3), J. Nie (a4), S. S. Krishnan (a2), D. L. Berry (a5), B. V. Kallakury (a5), C. Ambrosone (a6), S. B. Edge (a7), M. Trevisan (a4) (a8), J. Winston (a9) and J. L. Freudenheim (a4)...


There is evidence that epigenetic changes occur early in breast carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that early-life exposures associated with breast cancer would be associated with epigenetic alterations in breast tumors. In particular, we examined DNA methylation patterns in breast tumors in association with several early-life exposures in a population-based case–control study. Promoter methylation of E-cadherin, p16 and RAR-β2 genes was assessed in archived tumor blocks from 803 cases with real-time methylation-specific PCR. Unconditional logistic regression was used for case–case comparisons of those with and without promoter methylation. We found no differences in the prevalence of DNA methylation of the individual genes by age at menarche, age at first live birth and weight at age 20. In case–case comparisons of premenopausal breast cancer, lower birth weight was associated with increased likelihood of E-cadherin promoter methylation (OR = 2.79, 95% CI, 1.15–6.82, for ⩽2.5 v. 2.6–2.9 kg); higher adult height with RAR-β2 methylation (OR = 3.34, 95% CI, 1.19–9.39, for ⩾1.65 v. <1.60 m); and not having been breastfed with p16 methylation (OR = 2.75, 95% CI, 1.14–6.62). Among postmenopausal breast cancers, birth order was associated with increased likelihood of p16 promoter methylation. Being other than first in the birth order was inversely associated with likelihood of ⩾1 of the three genes being methylated for premenopausal breast cancers, but positively associated with methylation in postmenopausal women. These results suggest that there may be alterations in methylation associated with early-life exposures that persist into adulthood and affect breast cancer risk.


Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: Dr M.-H. Tao, Institute for Translational Epidemiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, PO BOX 1057, New York, NY 10029, USA. Email


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Exposures in early life: associations with DNA promoter methylation in breast tumors

  • M.-H. Tao (a1), C. Marian (a2), P. G. Shields (a2), N. Potischman (a3), J. Nie (a4), S. S. Krishnan (a2), D. L. Berry (a5), B. V. Kallakury (a5), C. Ambrosone (a6), S. B. Edge (a7), M. Trevisan (a4) (a8), J. Winston (a9) and J. L. Freudenheim (a4)...


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