1. Poston, L, Harthoorn, LF, Van Der Beek, EM. Obesity in pregnancy: implications for the mother and lifelong health of the child. A consensus statement. Pediatr Res. 2011; 69, 175–180.
2. Katzmarzyk, PT, Pérusse, L, Malina, RM, et al. Stability of indicators of the metabolic syndrome from childhood and adolescence to young adulthood: the Quebec Family Study. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001; 54, 190–195.
3. Van Sluijs, EM, McMinn, AM, Griffin, SJ. Effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity in children and adolescents: systematic review of controlled trials. BMJ. 2007; 335, 703.
4. Barker, DJ, Winter, PD, Osmond, C, Margetts, B, Simmonds, SJ. Weight in infancy and death from ischaemic heart disease. Lancet. 1989; 2, 577–580.
5. Barker, DJ. Adult consequences of fetal growth restriction. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 49, 270–283.
6. Heerwagen, MJ, Miller, MR, Barbour, LA, Friedman, JE. Maternal obesity and fetal metabolic programming: a fertile epigenetic soil. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010; 299, R711–R722.
7. Donovan, EL, Miller, BF. Exercise during pregnancy: developmental origins of disease prevention? Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2011; 39, 111.
8. Chalk, TE, Brown, WM. Exercise epigenetics and the fetal origins of disease. Epigenomics. 2014; 6, 469.
9. Alegría-Torres, JA, Baccarelli, A, Bollati, V. Epigenetics and lifestyle. Epigenomics. 2011; 3, 267–277.
10. Huse, SM, Gruppuso, PA, Boekelheide, K, Sanders, JA. Patterns of gene expression and DNA methylation in human fetal and adult liver. BMC Genomics. 2015; 16, 981.
11. Heijmans, BT, Tobi, EW, Stein, AD, et al. Persistent epigenetic differences associated with prenatal exposure to famine in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2008; 105, 17046–17049.
12. Dominguez-Salas, P, Moore, SE, Baker, MS, et al. Maternal nutrition at conception modulates DNA methylation of human metastable epialleles. Nat Commun. 2014; 5, 3746.
13. Haggarty, P, Hoad, G, Campbell, DM, et al. Folate in pregnancy and imprinted gene and repeat element methylation in the offspring. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 97, 94–99.
14. Liang, H, Ward, WF. PGC-1α: a key regulator of energy metabolism. Adv Physiol Educ. 2006; 30, 145–151.
15. Semple, RK, Chatterjee, VKK, O’Rahilly, S. PPARγ and human metabolic disease. J Clin Invest. 2006; 116, 581–589.
16. Barres, R, Yan, J, Egan, B, et al. Acute exercise remodels promoter methylation in human skeletal muscle. Cell Metab. 2012; 15, 405–411.
17. Constância, M, Hemberger, M, Hughes, J, Dean, W. Placental-specific IGF-II is a major modulator of placental and fetal growth. Nature. 2002; 417, 945–948.
18. Leamy, LJ, Pomp, D, Lightfoot, JT. An epistatic genetic basis for physical activity traits in mice. J Hered. 2008; 99, 639–646.
19. Simonen, RL, Rankinen, T, Perusse, L, et al. Genome-wide linkage scan for physical activity levels in the Quebec Family study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003; 35, 1355–1359.
20. Grant, SF, Thorleifsson, G, Reynisdottir, I, et al. Variant of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene confers risk of type 2 diabetes. Nat Genet. 2006; 38, 320–323.
21. Morris, J, Pollard, R, Everitt, M, Chave, S, Semmence, A. Vigorous exercise in leisure-time: protection against coronary heart disease. Lancet. 1980; 316, 1207–1210.
22. King, GA, Fitzhugh, E, Bassett, D Jr, et al. Relationship of leisure-time physical activity and occupational activity to the prevalence of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001; 25, 606–612.
23. Adkins, RM, Krushkal, J, Tylavsky, FA, Thomas, F. Racial differences in gene‐specific DNA methylation levels are present at birth. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2011; 91, 728–736.
24. Adkins, RM, Thomas, F, Tylavsky, FA, Krushkal, J. Parental ages and levels of DNA methylation in the newborn are correlated. BMC Med Genet. 2011; 12, 47.
25. Borghol, N, Suderman, M, McArdle, W, et al. Associations with early-life socio-economic position in adult DNA methylation. Int J Epidemiol. 2011; 41, 62–74.
26. El-Maarri, O, Becker, T, Junen, J, et al. Gender specific differences in levels of DNA methylation at selected loci from human total blood: a tendency toward higher methylation levels in males. Hum Genet. 2007; 122, 505–514.
27. Gemma, C, Sookoian, S, Alvariñas, J, et al. Maternal pregestational BMI is associated with methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter in newborns. Obesity. 2009; 17, 1032–1039.
28. Michels, KB, Harris, HR, Barault, L. Birthweight, maternal weight trajectories and global DNA methylation of LINE-1 repetitive elements. PLoS One. 2011; 6, e25254.
29. Knopik, VS, Maccani, MA, Francazio, S, McGeary, JE. The epigenetics of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and effects on child development. Deve Psychopathol. 2012; 24, 1377–1390.
30. Haggarty, P, Hoad, G, Horgan, GW, Campbell, DM. DNA methyltransferase candidate polymorphisms, imprinting methylation, and birth outcome. PLoS One. 2013; 8, e68896.
31. White, AJ, Sandler, DP, Bolick, SC, et al. Recreational and household physical activity at different time points and DNA global methylation. Eur J Cancer. 2013; 49, 2199–2206.
32. Kile, ML, Baccarelli, A, Tarantini, L, et al. Correlation of global and gene-specific DNA methylation in maternal-infant pairs. PloS One. 2010; 5, e13730.
33. Zhang, FF, Cardarelli, R, Carroll, J, et al. Physical activity and global genomic DNA methylation in a cancer-free population. Epigenetics. 2011; 6, 293–299.
34. Luttropp, K, Nordfors, L, Ekström, TJ, Lind, L. Physical activity is associated with decreased global DNA methylation in Swedish older individuals. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2013; 73, 184–185.
35. Clapp, JF, Capeless, EL. Neonatal morphometrics after endurance exercise during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990; 163, 1805–1811.
36. Clapp, JF, Kim, H, Burciu, B, et al. Continuing regular exercise during pregnancy: effect of exercise volume on fetoplacental growth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002; 186, 142–147.
37. Perkins, CC, Pivarnik, JM, Paneth, N, Stein, AD. Physical activity and fetal growth during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2007; 109, 81–87.
38. Hoyo, C, Murtha, AP, Schildkraut, JM, et al. Methylation variation at IGF2 differentially methylated regions and maternal folic acid use before and during pregnancy. Epigenetics. 2011; 6, 928–936.
39. Cui, H, Cruz-Correa, M, Giardiello, FM, et al. Loss of IGF2 imprinting: a potential marker of colorectal cancer risk. Science. 2003; 299, 1753–1755.
40. Cruz-Correa, M, Cui, H, Giardiello, FM, et al. Loss of imprinting of insulin growth factor II gene: a potential heritable biomarker for colon neoplasia predisposition. Gastroenterology. 2004; 126, 964–970.
41. Nehrenberg, DL, Wang, S, Hannon, RM, Garland, T Jr, Pomp, D. QTL underlying voluntary exercise in mice: interactions with the ‘mini muscle’ locus and sex. J Hered. 2009; 101, 42–53.
42. Sayer, AA, Syddall, H, O’dell, SD, et al. Polymorphism of the IGF2 gene, birth weight and grip strength in adult men. Age Ageing. 2002; 31, 468–470.
43. Joubert, BR, Håberg, SE, Bell, DA. et al. Maternal smoking and DNA methylation in newborns: in utero effect or epigenetic inheritance? Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention: a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2014; 23, 1007–1017.
44. Liu, X, Chen, Q, Tsai, HJ, et al. Maternal preconception body mass index and offspring cord blood DNA methylation: exploration of early life origins of disease. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2014; 55, 223–230.
45. Hyatt, HW, Toedebusch, RG, Ruegsegger, G, et al. Comparative adaptations in oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers in a low voluntary wheel running rat model performing three levels of physical activity. Physiol Rep. 2015; 3, e12619.
46. Aagaard-Tillery, KM, Grove, K, Bishop, J, et al. Developmental origins of disease and determinants of chromatin structure: maternal diet modifies the primate fetal epigenome. J Mol Endocrinol. 2008; 41, 91–102.
47. Bauer, PW, Pivarnik, JM, Feltz, DL, Paneth, N, Womack, CJ. Validation of an historical physical activity recall tool in postpartum women. J Phys Act Health. 2010; 7, 658–661.