Berenson, GS, Srinivasan, SR, Bao, W, et al. Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. N Engl J Med. 1998; 338, 1650–1656.
Owen, CG, Rudnicka, AR, Nightingale, CM, et al. Retinal arteriolar tortuosity and cardiovascular risk factors in a multi-ethnic population study of 10-year-old children; the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE). Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011; 31, 1933–1938.
Li, S, Chen, W, Srinivasan, SR, et al. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors and carotid vascular changes in adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. JAMA. 2003; 290, 2271–2276.
Raitakari, OT, Juonala, M, Kahonen, M, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and carotid artery intima-media thickness in adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. JAMA. 2003; 290, 2277–2283.
Barceloux, DG. Selenium. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1999; 37, 145–172.
Barceloux, DG. Copper. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1999; 37, 217–230.
Stern, BR, Solioz, M, Krewski, D, et al. Copper and human health: biochemistry, genetics, and strategies for modeling dose-response relationships. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2007; 10, 157–222.
Flores-Mateo, G, Navas-Acien, A, Pastor-Barriuso, R, Guallar, E. Selenium and coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 84, 762–773.
Navas-Acien, A, Bleys, J, Guallar, E. Selenium intake and cardiovascular risk: what is new?
Curr Opin Lipidol. 2008; 19, 43–49.
Rayman, MP, Bode, P, Redman, CW. Low selenium status is associated with the occurrence of the pregnancy disease preeclampsia in women from the United Kingdom. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003; 189, 1343–1349.
Reunanen, A, Knekt, P, Marniemi, J, et al. Serum calcium, magnesium, copper and zinc and risk of cardiovascular death. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996; 50, 431–437.
Salonen, JT, Salonen, R, Korpela, H, Suntioinen, S, Tuomilehto, J. Serum copper and the risk of acute myocardial infarction: a prospective population study in men in eastern Finland. Am J Epidemiol. 1991; 134, 268–276.
Stranges, S, Marshall, JR, Trevisan, M, et al. Effects of selenium supplementation on cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality: secondary analyses in a randomized clinical trial. Am J Epidemiol. 2006; 163, 694–699.
Bleys, J, Navas-Acien, A, Stranges, S, et al. Serum selenium and serum lipids in US adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 88, 416–423.
Ghayour-Mobarhan, M, Taylor, A, New, SA, Lamb, DJ, Ferns, GA. Determinants of serum copper, zinc and selenium in healthy subjects. Ann Clin Biochem. 2005; 42(Pt 5), 364–375.
Laclaustra, M, Stranges, S, Navas-Acien, A, Ordovas, JM, Guallar, E. Serum selenium and serum lipids in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004. Atherosclerosis. 2010; 210, 643–648.
Stranges, S, Laclaustra, M, Ji, C, et al. Higher selenium status is associated with adverse blood lipid profile in British adults. J Nutr. 2010; 140, 81–87.
Ghayour-Mobarhan, M, Taylor, A, Kazemi-Bajestani, SM, et al. Serum zinc and copper status in dyslipidaemic patients with and without established coronary artery disease. Clin Lab. 2008; 54, 321–329.
Obeid, O, Elfakhani, M, Hlais, S, et al. Plasma copper, zinc, and selenium levels and correlates with metabolic syndrome components of Lebanese adults. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2008; 123, 58–65.
Al-Sabaawy, OM. The relationship between serum lipid profile and selected trace elements for adult men in mosul city. Oman Med J. 2012; 27, 300–303.
Bo, S, Durazzo, M, Gambino, R, et al. Associations of dietary and serum copper with inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolic variables in adults. J Nutr. 2008; 138, 305–310.
Pavao, ML, Figueiredo, T, Santos, V, et al. Whole blood glutathione peroxidase and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities, serum trace elements (Se, Cu, Zn) and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects from the city of Ponta Delgada, Island of San Miguel, The Azores Archipelago, Portugal. Biomarkers. 2006; 11, 460–471.
Boskabadi, H, Maamouri, G, Rezagholizade Omran, F, et al. Effect of prenatal selenium supplementation on cord blood selenium and lipid profile. Pediatr Neonatol. 2012; 53, 334–339.
Bastida, S, Vaquero, MP, Veldhuizen, M, Sanchez-Muniz, FJ. Selected trace elements and minerals in cord blood: association with lipids and lipoproteins at birth. Acta Paediatr. 2000; 89, 1201–1206.
Wells, EM, Jarrett, JM, Lin, YH, et al. Body burdens of mercury, lead, selenium and copper among Baltimore newborns. Environ Res. 2011; 111, 411–417.
Herbstman, JB, Sjodin, A, Apelberg, BJ, et al. Determinants of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in an urban population. Environ Health Perspect. 2007; 115, 1794–1800.
Hornung, RW, Reed, RD. Estimation of average concentration in the presence of nondetectable values. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 1990; 5, 46–51.
Lin, YH, Salem, N Jr., Wells, EM, et al. Automated high-throughput fatty acid analysis of umbilical cord serum and application to an epidemiological study. Lipids. 2012; 47, 527–539.
Masood, MA, Salem, N Jr. High-throughput analysis of plasma fatty acid methyl esters employing robotic transesterification and fast gas chromatography. Lipids. 2008; 43, 171–180.
Wells, EM, Navas-Acien, A, Herbstman, JB, et al. Low-level lead exposure and elevations in blood pressure during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect. 2011; 119, 664–669.
Park, K, Mozaffarian, D. Omega-3 fatty acids, mercury, and selenium in fish and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2010; 12, 414–422.
Shearer, GC, Savinova, OV, Harris, WS. Fish oil – how does it reduce plasma triglycerides?
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 2012; 1821, 843–851.
Navarro-Alarcon, M, Cabrera-Vique, C. Selenium in food and the human body: a review. Sci Total Environ. 2008; 400, 115–141.
Stranges, S, Tabak, AG, Guallar, E, et al. Selenium status and blood lipids: the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns study. J Intern Med. 2011; 270, 469–477.
Yang, KC, Lee, LT, Lee, YS, et al. Serum selenium concentration is associated with metabolic factors in the elderly: a cross-sectional study. Nutr Metab. 2010; 7, 38.
Suadicani, P, Hein, HO, Gyntelberg, F. Serum selenium concentration and risk of ischaemic heart disease in a prospective cohort study of 3000 males. Atherosclerosis. 1992; 96, 33–42.
Karita, K, Yamanouchi, Y, Takano, T, et al. Associations of blood selenium and serum lipid levels in Japanese premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2008; 15, 119–124.
Cominetti, C, de Bortoli, MC, Garrido, AB Jr., Cozzolino, SM. Brazilian nut consumption improves selenium status and glutathione peroxidase activity and reduces atherogenic risk in obese women. Nutr Res. 2012; 32, 403–407.
Miyazaki, Y, Koyama, H, Nojiri, M, Suzuki, S. Relationship of dietary intake of fish and non-fish selenium to serum lipids in Japanese rural coastal community. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2002; 16, 83–90.
Strunz, CC, Oliveira, TV, Vinagre, JC, et al. Brazil nut ingestion increased plasma selenium but had minimal effects on lipids, apolipoproteins, and high-density lipoprotein function in human subjects. Nutr Res. 2008; 28, 151–155.
Rayman, MP, Stranges, S, Griffin, BA, Pastor-Barriuso, R, Guallar, E. Effect of supplementation with high-selenium yeast on plasma lipids: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2011; 154, 656–665.
Rees, K, Hartley, L, Day, C, et al. Selenium supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 1, CD009671.
Stranges, S, Galletti, F, Farinaro, E, et al. Associations of selenium status with cardiometabolic risk factors: an 8-year follow-up analysis of the Olivetti Heart study. Atherosclerosis. 2011; 217, 274–278.
Elcarte Lopez, T, Villa Elizaga, I, Gost Garde, JI, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in relation to the serum concentrations of copper and zinc: epidemiological study on children and adolescents in the Spanish province of Navarra. Acta Paediatr. 1997; 86, 248–253.
Kim, MH, Choi, MK. Seven dietary minerals (Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) and their relationship with blood pressure and blood lipids in healthy adults with self-selected diet. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013; 153, 69–75.
DiSilvestro, RA, Joseph, EL, Zhang, W, Raimo, AE, Kim, YM. A randomized trial of copper supplementation effects on blood copper enzyme activities and parameters related to cardiovascular health. Metabolism. 2012; 61, 1242–1246.