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Influence of maternal adiposity, preterm birth and birth weight centiles on early childhood obesity in an Indigenous Australian pregnancy-through-to-early-childhood cohort study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 May 2018

K. G. Pringle
Affiliation:
Priority Research Centre in Reproductive Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia Gomeroi gaaynggal Centre, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia
Y. Q. Lee
Affiliation:
Priority Research Centre in Reproductive Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia Gomeroi gaaynggal Centre, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia
L. Weatherall
Affiliation:
Gomeroi gaaynggal Centre, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia
L. Keogh
Affiliation:
Gomeroi gaaynggal Centre, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia
C. Diehm
Affiliation:
Gomeroi gaaynggal Centre, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia Department of Rural Health, University of Newcastle, Tamworth, NSW, Australia
C. T. Roberts
Affiliation:
Adelaide Medical School and Robinson Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
S. Eades
Affiliation:
Aboriginal Health, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
A. Brown
Affiliation:
Aboriginal Research Unit, South Australian Health & Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
R. Smith
Affiliation:
Priority Research Centre in Reproductive Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia Mothers and Babies Research Centre, Hunter Medical Research Institute, Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia
E. R. Lumbers
Affiliation:
Priority Research Centre in Reproductive Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia
L. J. Brown
Affiliation:
Department of Rural Health, University of Newcastle, Tamworth, NSW, Australia Priority Research Centre of Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia
C. E. Collins
Affiliation:
Priority Research Centre of Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia School of Health Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia
K. M. Rae
Affiliation:
Priority Research Centre in Reproductive Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia Gomeroi gaaynggal Centre, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia Department of Rural Health, University of Newcastle, Tamworth, NSW, Australia Mothers and Babies Research Centre, Hunter Medical Research Institute, Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia Priority Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia
Corresponding

Abstract

Childhood obesity rates are higher among Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous Australian children. It has been hypothesized that early-life influences beginning with the intrauterine environment predict the development of obesity in the offspring. The aim of this paper was to assess, in 227 mother–child dyads from the Gomeroi gaaynggal cohort, associations between prematurity, Gestation Related-Optimal Weight (GROW) centiles, maternal adiposity (percentage body fat, visceral fat area), maternal non-fasting plasma glucose levels (measured at mean gestational age of 23.1 weeks) and offspring BMI and adiposity (abdominal circumference, subscapular skinfold thickness) in early childhood (mean age 23.4 months). Maternal non-fasting plasma glucose concentrations were positively associated with infant birth weight (P=0.005) and GROW customized birth weight centiles (P=0.008). There was a significant association between maternal percentage body fat (P=0.02) and visceral fat area (P=0.00) with infant body weight in early childhood. Body mass index (BMI) in early childhood was significantly higher in offspring born preterm compared with those born at term (P=0.03). GROW customized birth weight centiles was significantly associated with body weight (P=0.01), BMI (P=0.007) and abdominal circumference (P=0.039) at early childhood. Our findings suggest that being born preterm, large for gestational age or exposed to an obesogenic intrauterine environment and higher maternal non-fasting plasma glucose concentrations are associated with increased obesity risk in early childhood. Future strategies should aim to reduce the prevalence of overweight/obesity in women of child-bearing age and emphasize the importance of optimal glycemia during pregnancy, particularly in Indigenous women.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press and the International Society for Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 2018 

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Footnotes

Joint first authors.

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Influence of maternal adiposity, preterm birth and birth weight centiles on early childhood obesity in an Indigenous Australian pregnancy-through-to-early-childhood cohort study
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Influence of maternal adiposity, preterm birth and birth weight centiles on early childhood obesity in an Indigenous Australian pregnancy-through-to-early-childhood cohort study
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