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Effects of maternal low-protein diet and spontaneous physical activity on the transcription of neurotrophic factors in the placenta and the brains of mothers and offspring rats

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 August 2020

Jéssica Fragoso
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Pernambuco, 50670-901Recife, PE, Brazil Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Federal University of Pernambuco, 55608-680Vitória de Santo Antão, PE, Brazil
Gabriela Carvalho Jurema Santos
Affiliation:
Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Federal University of Pernambuco, 55608-680Vitória de Santo Antão, PE, Brazil
Helyson Thomaz da Silva
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Pernambuco, 50670-901Recife, PE, Brazil
Emmanuelle Loizon
Affiliation:
CarMeN (Cardiology, Metabolism and Nutrition) Laboratory, INSERM U1060, Lyon-1 University, South Lyon Medical Faculty, 69921Oullins, France
Viviane de Oliveira Nogueira Souza
Affiliation:
Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Federal University of Pernambuco, 55608-680Vitória de Santo Antão, PE, Brazil
Hubert Vidal
Affiliation:
CarMeN (Cardiology, Metabolism and Nutrition) Laboratory, INSERM U1060, Lyon-1 University, South Lyon Medical Faculty, 69921Oullins, France
Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Pernambuco, 50670-901Recife, PE, Brazil
João Henrique Costa-Silva
Affiliation:
Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Federal University of Pernambuco, 55608-680Vitória de Santo Antão, PE, Brazil
Raquel da Silva Aragão
Affiliation:
Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Federal University of Pernambuco, 55608-680Vitória de Santo Antão, PE, Brazil
Luciano Pirola*
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Pernambuco, 50670-901Recife, PE, Brazil CarMeN (Cardiology, Metabolism and Nutrition) Laboratory, INSERM U1060, Lyon-1 University, South Lyon Medical Faculty, 69921Oullins, France
Carol Gois Leandro
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Pernambuco, 50670-901Recife, PE, Brazil
*
Address for correspondence: Luciano Pirola, U1060 INSERM, INRA 1397, CARMEN Laboratory, Lyon South Hospital, Sector 2, 165 Chemin du grand Revoyet, F - 69310Pierre Benite, France. Email: luciano.pirola@univ-lyon1.fr

Abstract

Maternal protein restriction and physical activity can affect the interaction mother–placenta–fetus. This study quantified the gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurothrophin 4, tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB/NTRK2), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1r) in the different areas of mother’s brain (hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cortex), placenta, and fetus’ brain of rats. Female Wistar rats (n = 20) were housed in cages containing a running wheel for 4 weeks before gestation. According to the distance spontaneously traveled daily, rats were classified as inactive or active. During gestation, on continued access to the running wheel, active and inactive groups were randomized to receive normoprotein diet (18% protein) or a low-protein (LP) diet (8% protein). At day 20 of gestation, gene expression of neurotrophic factors was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in different brain areas and the placenta. Dams submitted to a LP diet during gestation showed upregulation of IGF-1r and BDNF messenger RNA in the hypothalamus, IGF-1r and NTRK2 in the hippocampus, and BDNF, NTRK2, IGF-1 and IGF-1r in the cortex. In the placenta, there was a downregulation of IGF-1. In the brain of pups from mothers on LP diet, IGF-1r and NTRK2 were downregulated. Voluntary physical activity attenuated the effects of LP diet on IGF-1r in the hypothalamus, IGF-1r and NTRK2 in the hippocampus, IGF-1 in the placenta, and NTRK2 in the fetus’ brain. In conclusion, both maternal protein restriction and spontaneous physical activity influence the gene expression of BDNF, NTRK2, IGF-1, and IGF-1r, with spontaneous physical activity being able to normalize in part the defects caused by protein restriction during pregnancy.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press and the International Society for Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 2020

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Footnotes

*

LP and CGL equally contributed to this work

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