Serum protein distribution and concentration can be affected by different physiological and pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the concentration of serum protein fractions and haptoglobin in clinically healthy dairy buffaloes during late pregnancy and early lactation. Blood and milk samples were collected from 30 buffaloes at around 7 d before expected calving (blood only) and 7, 30 and 50 d after calving. In serum samples, the total protein, haptoglobin, albumin, α1-, α2-, β1-, β2-, γ-globulins, and albumin/globulin ratio (A/G) values were evaluated. In milk, fat%, protein%, lactose%, somatic cell score (SCS) were assessed, along with milk yield (MY) and daily milk production (DMP). The peripartum period significantly influenced (P < 0.005) total protein, albumin, haptoglobin, α2-, β2- and γ-globulins (P < 0.005). Milk yield, DMP and fat% changed significantly throughout the monitoring period (P < 0.005). Milk yield and DMP were positively correlated with total protein, albumin, β2-globulins and A/G ratio, and negatively correlated with haptoglobin and α2-globulins. These results provide new knowledge about the serum protein electrophoretic pattern in Italian Mediterranean Buffaloes during the last phase of pregnancy and early stages of lactation.