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Kinetics of hydroxymethylfurfural, lactulose and furosine formation in milk with different fat content

  • Wendie L Claeys (a1), Ann M Van Loey (a1) and Marc E Hendrickx (a1)


In the context of the general applicability of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), lactulose and furosine as time-temperature integrators (TTIs) for thermal processing of milk, the influence of milk fat content was studied. Formation kinetics were analysed for milk with fat content of 4·0±<0·1%. In previous experiments, it was observed that, under isothermal and non-isothermal heating conditions, formation of the three chemical compounds could be described by pseudo-zero order kinetics. Since the kinetic model was known, the experimental design could be simplified. Data were analysed by a non-linear regression procedure and results were evaluated by construction of joint confidence regions and temperature time tolerance (TTT-) diagrams. Formation kinetics of HMF and lactulose was not affected by milk fat content. Regarding furosine, significant differences were observed between kinetic parameters in whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed milk. The observed differences however were negligible in the context of process impact evaluation.


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