Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Effects of increased milking frequency for the first 21 days post partum on selected measures of mammary gland health, milk yield and milk composition

  • Shannon L Shields (a1), Pedram Rezamand (a1), Dallace L Sevier (a1), Keun S Seo (a1), William Price (a1) and Mark A McGuire (a1)...

Abstract

Somatic cell count (SCC) is a widely used marker of udder health and a predictor of inflammation caused by an immune response. The objective of this study was to determine whether selected measures of mammary gland health as well as milk fatty acid profile were altered by an increase in milking frequency using a unilateral frequent milking (UFM) model. Holstein cows at parturition were assigned to UFM, in which the left udder half of each cow was milked four-times daily (4X) and the right udder half was milked twice daily (2X) for the first 21 days in milk (DIM). Milk yields from each udder half were measured from 1–21 DIM and samples were collected on days 3, 7, 10, 14 and 21 for determination of SCC and milk composition. Flow cytometric analysis with bovine monoclonal antibodies was used to identify milk immune cell populations and milk fatty acid (FA) composition was determined using gas chromatography. Gene expression analysis was used to determine whether there was an alteration in mRNA expression of genes involved in milk fat production including lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and FA-binding protein 3 (FABP3) with ribosomal protein S9 (RPS9) as a house-keeping gene. No difference was detected for milk SCC or cell populations between the udder halves milked 4X as compared with the udder halves milked 2X. In addition, no difference was detected for any FA in milk from the udder half milked 4X as compared with the udder half milked 2X. Overall, using a UFM model, increased milking frequency for the first 21 DIM did not affect selected measures of mammary gland health or milk FA, but was associated with greater milk yield, milk fat percent and yield, and milk protein and lactose yields.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*For correspondence; e-mail: rezamand@uidaho.edu

References

Hide All
Aitken, SL, Karcher, EL, Rezamand, P, Gandy, JC, VandeHaar, MJ, Capuco, AV & Sordillo, LM 2009 Evaluation of antioxidant and pro-inflammatory gene expression in bovine mammary tissue during the periparturient period. Journal of Dairy Science 92 589598
Allen, DB, DePeters, EJ & Laben, RC 1986 Three times a day milking: Effects on milk production, reproduction efficiency, and udder health. Journal of Dairy Science 69 14411446
Amos, HE, Kiser, T & Loewenstein, M 1985 Influence of milking frequency on productive and reproductive efficiencies of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 68 732739
Barnes, MA, Pearson, RE & Lukes-Wilson, AJ 1990 Effects of milking frequency and selection for milk yield on productive efficiency of Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 73 16031611
Bionaz, M & Loor, JJ 2008 Gene networks driving bovine milk fat synthesis during the lactation cycle. BMC Genomics 9 366
Boutinaud, M, Rulquin, H, Keisler, DH, Djiane, J & Jammes, H 2002 Use of somatic cells from goat milk for dynamic studies of gene expression in the mammary gland. Journal of Animal Science 80 12581269
Campos, MS, Wilcox, CJ, Head, HH, Webb, DW & Haven, J 1994 Effects on production of milking three times daily on first lactation Holsteins and Jerseys in Florida. Journal of Dairy Science 77 770773
Christie, WW 1982 A simple procedure for rapid transmethylation of glycerolipids and cholesteryl esters. Journal of Lipid Research 23 10721075
Clark, RM, Ferris, AM, Fey, M, Brown, PB, Hundrieser, KE & Jensen, RG 1982 Changes in the lipids of human milk from 2 to 16 weeks post partum. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1 311315
Clegg, RA, Barber, MC, Pooley, L, Ernens, I, Larondelle, Y & Travers, MT 2001 Milk fat synthesis and secretion: molecular and cellular aspects. Livestock Production Science 70 314
Concha, C, Holmberg, O & Aström, G 1986 Cells found in non-infected and Staphylococcus-infected bovine mammary quarters and their ability to phagocytose fluorescent microspheres. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 33 371378
Dahl, GE, Wallace, RL, Shanks, RD & Lueking, D 2004 Hot Topic: Effect of frequent milking in early lactation on milk yield and udder health. Journal of Dairy Science 87 882885
Delamaire, E & Guinard-Flament, J 2006 Longer milking intervals alter mammary epithelial permeablility and the udder's ability to extract nutrients. Journal of Dairy Science 89 20072016
DePeters, EJ, Smith, NE & Acedo-Rico, J 1985 Three or two times daily milking of older cows, and first lactation cows for entire lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 68 123132
Erdman, RA & Varner, M 1995 Fixed yield responses to increased milking frequency. Journal of Dairy Science 78 11991203
Folch, J, Lees, M & Sloan Stanley, GH 1957 A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. Journal of Biological Chemistry 226 497509
Gisi, DD, DePeters, EJ & Pelissier, CL 1986 Three times daily milking of cows in California dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science 69 863868
Hale, SA, Capuco, AV & Erdman, RA 2003 Milk yield and mammary growth effects due to increased milking frequency during early lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 86 20612071
Ingvartsen, KL, Dewhurst, RJ & Friggens, NC 2003 On the relationship between lactational performance and health: Is it yield or metabolic imbalance that cause production disease in dairy cattle? A position paper. Livestock Production Science 83 277308
Ismail, HI, Hashimoto, Y, Kon, Y, Okada, K, Davis, WC & Iwanaga, T 1996 Lymphocyte subpopulations in the mammary gland of the goat. Veterinary Immunology and Immunophathology 52 201212
Jensen, DL & Eberhart, RJ 1981 Total and differential cell counts in secretions of the nonlactating bovine mammary gland. American Journal of Veterinary Research 42 743747
Klei, LR, Lynch, JM, Barbano, DM, Oltenacu, PA, Lednor, AJ & Bandler, DK 1997 Influence of milking three times a day on milk quality. Journal of Dairy Science 80 427436
Lee, CS, Wooding, FBP & Kemp, P 1980 Identification, properties and differential counts of cell populations using electron microscopy of dry cow secretions, colostrum, and milk from normal cows. Journal of Dairy Research 47 3950
Lindmark-Månsson, H, Bränning, C, Aldén, G & Paulsson, M 2006 Relationship between somatic cell count, individual leukocyte populations and milk components in bovine udder quarter milk. International Dairy Journal 16 717727
Ollier, S, Leroux, C, de la Foye, A, Bernard, L, Rouel, J & Chilliard, Y 2009 Whole intact rapeseeds or sunflower oil in high-forage or high-concentrate diets affects milk yield, milk composition, and mammary gene expression profile in goats. Journal of Dairy Science 92 55445560
Österman, S & Bertilsson, J 2003 Extended calving interval in combination with milking two or three times per day: effects on milk production and milk composition. Livestock Production Science 82 139149
Österman, S, Östensson, K, Svennersten-Sjauna, K & Bertilsson, J 2005 How does extended lactation in combination with different milking frequencies affect somatic cell counts in dairy cows? Livestock Production Science 96 225232
Paape, M, Mehrzad, J, Zhao, X, Detilleux, J & Burvenich, C 2002 Defence of the bovine mammary gland by polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 7 109121
Park, YH, Fox, LK, Hamilton, MJ & Davis, WC 1992 Bovine mononuclear leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and mammary gland secretions during lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 75 9981006
Patton, J, Kenny, DA, Mee, JF, O'Mara, FP, Wathes, DC, Cook, M & Murphy, JJ 2006 Effect of milking frequency and diet on milk production, energy balance, and reproduction in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 89 14781487
Riollet, C, Rainard, P & Poutrel, B 2000 Kinetics of cells and the cytokines during immune-mediated inflammation in the mammary gland of cows systemically immunized with Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin. Inflammation Research 49 486496
Selsted, ME, Tang, YQ, Morris, WL, McGuire, PA, Nonotny, MJ, Smith, W, Henschen, AH & Cullor, HS 1993 Purification, primary structures, and antibacterial activities of beta-defensin, a new family of antimicrobial proteins from bovine neutrophils. Journal of Biological Chemistry 268 66416648
Smith, JW, Ely, LO, Graves, WM & Gilson, WD 2002 Effect of milking frequency on DHI performance measures. Journal of Dairy Science 85 35263533
Sordillo, LM & Nickerson, SC 1988 Quantification and immunoglobulin classification of plasma cells in nonlactating bovine mammary tissue. Journal of Dairy Science 71 8491
Sordillo, LM & Babiuk, LA 1991 Modulation of mammary neutrophil function during the periparturient period following in vitro exposure to recombinant bovine interferon-gamma. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 27 393402
Sordillo, LM, Shafer-Weaver, K & DeRosa, D 1997 Immunobiology of the mammary gland. Journal of Dairy Science 80 18511865
Sordillo, LM, Contreras, GA & Aitken, SL 2009 Metabolic factors affecting the inflammatory response of periparturient dairy cows. Animal Health Research Review 10 5363
Stelwagen, K 2001 Effect of milking frequency on mammary functioning and shape of the lactation curve. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (E. Suppl.) E204E211
Svennersten-Sjaunja, K, Persson, S & Wiktorsson, H 2002 The effect of milking interval on milk yield, milk composition, and raw milk quality. In Proceedings International Symposium: The First North American Conference on Robotic Milking, pp. V-43–V-48. Toronto ON, Canada
Wall, EH & McFadden, TB 2007 The milk yield response to frequent milking in early lactation of dairy cows is locally regulated. Journal of Dairy Science 90 716720
Wiking, L, Stagsted, J, Björck, L & Nielsen, JH 2004 Milk fat globule size is affected by fat production in dairy cows. International Dairy Journal 14 909913
Wiking, L, Nielsen, JH, Båvius, AK, Edvardsson, A & Svennersten-Sjaunja, K 2006 Impact of milking frequencies on the level of free fatty acids in milk, fat globule size, and fatty acid composition. Journal of Dairy Science 89 10041009
Wiktorsson, H, Svennersten-Sjaunja, K & Salomonsson, M 2000 Short or irregular milking intervals in dairy cows—Effects on milk quality, milk composition, and cow performance. In Proceedings International Symposium on Robotic Milking, Lelystad, pp. 128129. The Netherlands

Keywords

Effects of increased milking frequency for the first 21 days post partum on selected measures of mammary gland health, milk yield and milk composition

  • Shannon L Shields (a1), Pedram Rezamand (a1), Dallace L Sevier (a1), Keun S Seo (a1), William Price (a1) and Mark A McGuire (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed