Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A critical evaluation of diagnostic methods used to identify dairy cows with acute post-partum metritis in the current literature

  • Ines Sannmann (a1), Sebastian Arlt (a1) and Wolfgang Heuwieser (a1)

Abstract

The overall objective of this study was to investigate how relevant research publications address the validity of diagnostic methods for acute puerperal metritis (APM) in dairy cows, a disease commonly treated with antibiotic drugs. Therefore, a literature search was conducted in Journal of Dairy Science, Theriogenology, Animal Reproduction Science and The Veterinary Journal utilizing the ScienceDirect database. The search revealed 259 articles addressing APM. After applying exclusion criteria, a total of 48 trials remained. It was determined whether the author gave a clear definition of APM, the time of diagnosis relative to calving, and the person who performed the diagnosis. Studies were checked for the presence of definitions of possible findings, thresholds, and test characteristics of the methods used. Overall 9 different diagnostic methods were employed. On average 2·5 ± 1·75 diagnostic methods were used in a study. References to support the use of the diagnostic methods were provided in 10 of 48 articles (20·8%). Vaginal discharge, transrectal palpation and rectal temperature were examined in 39, 22, and 21 of the studies, respectively. Thresholds for diagnostic tests and test characteristics were mentioned in 6 and 3 of the 48 articles, respectively. Based on this systematic review of 48 research papers the evidence supporting the use of the diagnostic methods to identify cows with APM has either been not reported or is weak. In conclusion, the reporting of the diagnostic methods to identify cows with APM needs to be improved and further high-quality research is necessary to improve diagnostic performance of the methods employed.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*For correspondence; e-mail: w.heuwieser@fu-berlin.de

References

Hide All
Allen, KJ & Poppe, C 2002 Occurrence and characterization of resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins mediated by β-lactamase CMY-2 in Salmonella isolated from food-producing animals in Canada. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 66 137144
Azawi, OI 2008 Postpartum uterine infection in cattle. Animal Reproduction Science 105 187208
Benzaquen, ME, Risco, CA, Archbald, LF, Melendez, P, Thatcher, MJ & Thatcher, WW 2007 Rectal temperature, calving-related factors, and the incidence of puerperal metritis in postpartum dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 90 28042814
Burfeind, O, von Keyserlingk, MAG, Weary, DM, Veira, DM & Heuwieser, W 2010 Short communication: repeatability of measures of rectal temperature in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 93 624627
Chenault, JR, McAllister, JF, Chester, T, Dame, J, Kausche, FM & Robb, EJ 2004 Efficacy of ceftiofur hydrochloride sterile suspension administered parenterally for the treatment of acute postpartum metritis in dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 224 16341639
Cook, NB & Nordlund, KV 2009 The influence of the environment on dairy cow behavior, claw health and herd lameness dynamics. Veterinary Journal 179 360369
Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use (CVMP) 2009 Revised reflection paper on the use of 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins in food producing animals in the european union: Development of resistance and impact on human and animal health EMEA/CVMP/SAGAM/81730/2006
Currin, J 2010 Management and prevention of metritis. Dairy Pipeline 31 12
Dann, HM, Morin, DE, Bollero, GA, Murphy, MR & Drackley, JK 2005 Prepartum intake, postpartum induction of ketosis, and periparturient disorders affect the metabolic status of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 88 32493264
Dohmen, MJW, Lohuis, JACM, Huszenicza, G, Nagy, P & Gacs, M 1995 The relationship between bacteriological and clinical findings in cows with subacute/chronic endometritis. Theriogenology 43 13791388
Drillich, M, Beetz, O, Pfützner, A, Sabin, M, Sabin, HJ, Kutzer, P, Nattermann, H & Heuwieser, W 2001 Evaluation of a systemic antibiotic treatment of toxic puerperal metritis in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84 20102017
Drillich, M, Voigt, D, Forderung, D & Heuwieser, W 2007 Treatment of acute puerperal metritis with flunixin meglumine in addition to antibiotic treatment. Journal of Dairy Science 90 37583763
Dubuc, J, Duffield, TF, Leslie, KE, Walton, JS & LeBlanc, SJ 2010 Risk factors for postpartum uterine diseases in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 93 57645771
Dubuc, J, Duffield, TF, Leslie, KE, Walton, JS & LeBlanc, SJ 2011 Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic and prostaglandin treatments for uterine health and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 94 13251338
Fahie, MA & Shettko, D 2007 Evidence-based wound management: a systematic review of therapeutic agents to enhance granulation and epithelialization. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 37 559577
Fishman, N 2006 Antimicrobial stewardship. American Journal of Medicine 119 S53S61
Földi, J, Kulcsár, M, Pécsi, A, Huyghe, B, de Sa, C, Lohuis, JACM, Cox, P, & Huszenicza, G 2006 Bacterial complications of postpartum uterine involution in cattle. Animal Reproduction Science 96 265281
Frye, JG & Fedorka-Cray, PJ 2007 Prevalence, distribution and characterisation of ceftiofur resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from animals in the USA from 1999 to 2003. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 30 134142
Glasziou, P, Meats, E, Heneghan, C & Shepperd, S 2008 What is missing from descriptions of treatment in trials and reviews? British Medical Journal 336 14721474
Haimerl, P, Arlt, S & Heuwieser, W 2012 Evidence based medicine: Quality and comparability of clinical trials investigating the efficacy of prostaglandin F2α for the treatment of bovine endometritis. Journal of Dairy Research 79 287296
Hirvonen, J, Huszenicza, G, Kulcsàr, M & Pyörälä, S 1999 Acute-phase response in dairy cows with acute postpartum metritis. Theriogenology 51 10711083
Huzzey, JM, Veira, DM, Weary, DM & von Keyserlingk, MAG 2007 Prepartum behavior and dry matter intake identify dairy cows at risk for metritis. Journal of Dairy Science 90 32203233
Jackson, PG & Cockcroft, PD 2002 The general clinical examination in cattle. In: Clinical Examination of Farm Animals. Blackwell Sciences Ltd, Oxford pp 911
Kristula, M, Smith, B & Simeone, A 2001 The use of dairy postpartum temperatures to select dairy cows for treatment with systemic antibiotics. Bovine Practitioners 35 117125
LeBlanc, SJ 2008 Postpartum uterine disease and dairy herd reproductive performance: a review. Veterinary Journal 176 102114
LeBlanc, SJ, Duffield, TF, Leslie, KE, Bateman, KG, Keefe, GP, Walton, JS & Johnson, WH 2002 Defining and diagnosing postpartum clinical endometritis and its impact on reproductive performance in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 85 22232236
Leutert, C, von Krueger, X, Plöntzke, J & Heuwieser, W 2012 Evaluation of vaginoscopy for the diagnosis of clinical endometritis in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 95 206212
Lowder, MQ 1993 Diagnosing and treating bovine postpartum endometritis. Veterinary medicine 88 474479
Mann, S, Siler, JD, Jordan, D & Warnick, LD 2011 Antimicrobial susceptibility of fecal Escherichia coli isolates in dairy cows following systemic treatment with ceftiofur or penicillin. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 8 861867
Markusfeld, O 1987 Periparturient traits in seven high dairy herds. incidence rates, association with parity, and interrelationships among traits. Journal of Dairy Science 70 158166
Morrow, DA, Roberts, S J, McEntee, K & Gray, HG 1966 Postpartum ovarian activity and uterine involution in dairy cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medicine Association 149 1596
Okano, A & Tomizuka, T 1987 Ultrasonic observation of postpartum uterine involution in the cow. Theriogenology 27 369376
Olson, JD, Bretzlaff, KN, Mortimer, RG & Ball, L 1986 The metritis-pyometra complex. In: Current Therapy in Theriogenology: Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of reproductive diseases in small and large animals, 2nd Ed., W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia PA, USA, pp 227236
Overton, MW & Fetrow, J 2008 Economics of Postpartum Uterine Health. Dairy Cattle Reproduction Council, Omaha NE, USA. November 7–8, 2008
Paleniki, T, Dolezeli, R, Kratochvilz, J, Cechi, S, Zajici, J, Jani, Z & Vyskocil, M 2009 Evaluation of rectal temperature in diagnosis of puerperal metritis in dairy cows. Veterinarni Medicina 54 149155
Paisley, LG, Mickelsen, WD & Anderson, PB 1986. Mechanism and therapy for retained fetal membranes and uterine infections of cows: a review. Theriogenology 25 353381
Pleticha, S, Drillich, M & Heuwieser, W 2009 Evaluation of the Metricheck device and the gloved hand for the diagnosis of clinical endometritis in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 92 54295435
Qin, J & Zhang, B 2010 Best combination of multiple diagnostic tests for screening purposes. Statistics in Medicine 29 29052919
Rajala-Schultz, PJ, Gröhn, YT & McCulloch, CE 1999 Effects of milk fever, ketosis, and lameness on milk yield in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 82 288294
Regassa, F & Noakes, DE 1999 Acute phase protein response of ewes and the release of PGFM in relation to uterine involution and the presence of intrauterine bacteria. Veterinary record 144 502506
Reuters, T 2011 Journal Citation Report http://thomsonreuters.com/
Roberts, SJ 1986. Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases. 3rd Ed., S.J. Roberts-Woodstock, NY, pp. 381–359
Schirmann, K, Chapinal, N, Weary, DM, Heuwieser, W & von Keyserlingk, MAG 2011 Short-term effects of regrouping on behavior of prepartum dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 94 23122319
Sheldon, IM, Cronin, J, Goetze, L, Donofrio, G & Schuberth, H-J 2009a Defining postpartum uterine disease and the mechanisms of infection and immunity in the female reproductive tract in cattle. Biology of Reproduction
Sheldon, IM & Dobson, H 2004 Postpartum uterine health in cattle. Animal Reproduction Science 82–83 295306
Sheldon, IM, Lewis, GS, LeBlanc, S & Gilbert, RO 2006 Defining postpartum uterine disease in cattle. Theriogenology 65 15161530
Sheldon, IM, Williams, EJ, Miller, ANA, Nash, DM & Herath, S 2009b Uterine diseases in cattle after parturition. Veterinary Journal 176 115121
Simoneit, C, Heuwieser, W & Arlt, S 2011 Evidence-based medicine in bovine, equine and canine reproduction: quality of current literature. Theriogenology 76 10421050
Smidt, N, Rutjes, AWS, van der Windt, DAWM, Ostelo, RWJG, Bossuyt, PM, Reitsma, JB, Bouter, LM & de Vet, HCW 2006 The quality of diagnostic accuracy studies since the STARD statement: Has it improved? Neurology 67 792797
Smith, BI, Arthur Donovan, G, Risco, C, Littell, R, Young, C, Stanker, LH & Elliott, J 1998 Comparison of various antibiotic treatments for cows diagnosed with toxic puerperal metritis. Journal of Dairy Science 81 15551562
Studer, E & Morrow, DA 1978 Postpartum evaluation of bovine reproductive potential: Comparison of findings from genital tract examination per rectum, uterine culture and endometrial biopsy. Journal of the American Veterinary Medicine Association 172 489
Suthar, VS, Burfeind, O, Bonk, S, Voigtsberger, R, Keane, C & Heuwieser, W 2011 Factor associated with body temperature of healthy Holstein dairy cows during the first 10 days in milk. Journal of Dairy Research 87 18
Tennant, B & Peddicord, RD 1968. The influence of delayed uterine involution and endometritis on bovine fertility. Cornell Veterinarian 59 185
Thomsen, PT, Ostergaard, S, Sorensen, JT & Houe, H 2007 Loser cows in Danish dairy herds: Definition, prevalence and consequences. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 79 116135
Tragesser, LA, Wittum, TE, Funk, JA, Winokur, PL & Rajala-Schultz, PJ 2006. Association between ceftiofur use and isolation of Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone from fecal samples of dairy cows. American Journal of Veterinary Research 67 16961700
Urton, G, von Keyserlingk, MAG & Weary, DM 2005 Feeding behavior identifies dairy cows at risk for metritis. Journal of Dairy Science 88 28432849
Wagner, SA, Schimeck, DE & Cend, FC 2007 Body temperature and white blood cell count in postpartum dairy cows. Bovine Practitioner 42 1826
Williams, EJ, Fischer, DP, Noakes, DE, England, GCW, Rycroft, A, Dobson, H & Sheldon, IM 2007 The relationship between uterine pathogen growth density and ovarian function in the postpartum dairy cow. Theriogenology 68 549559
Williams, EJ, Fischer, DP, Pfeiffer, DU, England, GCW, Noakes, DE, Dobson, H & Sheldon, IM 2005 Clinical evaluation of postpartum vaginal mucus reflects uterine bacterial infection and the immune response in cattle. Theriogenology 63 102117
Wittrock, JM, Proudfoot, KL, Weary, DM & von Keyserlingk, MAG 2011 Short communication: Metritis affects milk production and cull rate of Holstein multiparous and primiparous dairy cows differently. Journal of Dairy Science 94 24082412
Zhou, C, Boucher, JF, Dame, KJ, Moreira, M, Graham, R, Nantel, J, Zuidhof, S, Arfi, L, Flores, R, Neubauer, G & Olson, J 2001 Multilocation trial of ceftiofur for treatment of postpartum cows with fewer. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219 805808

Keywords

A critical evaluation of diagnostic methods used to identify dairy cows with acute post-partum metritis in the current literature

  • Ines Sannmann (a1), Sebastian Arlt (a1) and Wolfgang Heuwieser (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed