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Basement membrane integrity and keratinization in healthy and ulcerated bovine hoof tissue

  • Kay AK Hendry (a1), Christopher H Knight (a1), Hugh Galbraith (a2) and Colin J Wilde (a1)

Abstract

Damage to, or deterioration of, the keratinized horn tissue of the bovine hoof claw culminates ultimately in the development of solear ulceration. We have observed abnormal keratin distribution at the site of solear ulceration in the bovine claw that may be due to alteration of the positional cues of the keratinocytes. In this study we have characterized key cell biological changes associated with ulceration in the claw that may precipitate abnormal keratinization. Loss of basement membrane at sites of ulceration was found by immunofluorescent detection of laminin and integrins. In other tissues, basement membrane breakdown results from degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Similarly, elevated levels of MMPs 2 and 9 were observed in ulcerated bovine claw tissue both by zymography and, quantitatively, by assay of enzyme activity. In the sole of claws that contained an ulcer, tissue distal to the ulcer site also had elevated MMP 2 when compared with healthy sole tissue from the same animals, as did sole tissue of claws recovering from ulceration. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP 2) was detected by ELISA in healthy tissue. TIMP 2 tended to be lower in diseased tissue distal to ulcer sites, and was significantly lower in ulcerated tissue. MMP 2 was located by immunofluorescence in the dermal and basal epidermal region of sole tissue, in the region of the basement membrane. Increased punctate staining of material in the dermis was associated with ulcerated material. ELISA of TIMP 2 in tissue extracts enriched for dermis or epidermis confirmed that the inhibitor was located predominantly in the dermis. To investigate a possible causal relationship between basement membrane anchorage and epidermal keratinization, the effect of function-blocking antibodies to laminins and integrins was tested in tissue explant cultures prepared from healthy sole tissue. Anti-integrin antibody treatment had no effect on either protein or DNA synthesis. In contrast, in the presence of anti-laminin antibody, protein synthesis was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, a significant effect being observed at the highest concentration after treatment for 24 h. At this concentration, DNA synthesis was also decreased after 48 h of culture, an effect that may be relevant to a hibernal reduction in claw cell turnover, and the associated seasonal vulnerability of cows to claw damage. The results provide evidence for basement membrane disruption at ulcer sites, and an increased potential for disruption in the diseased claw, and a causal link between this and abnormal epidermal keratinization. Basement membrane disruption is in turn associated with reciprocal changes in MMPs and their inhibitors, favouring extracellular proteolysis. Whether MMP activation is the primary cause of dermal–epidermal deterioration and, if so, how MMP activation is triggered, remains to be determined.

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