Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Using milk leukocyte differentials for diagnosis of subclinical bovine mastitis

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 June 2017

Juliano Leonel Gonçalves
Affiliation:
Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Department of Animal Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences. University of São Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP, Brazil
Roberta L. Lyman
Affiliation:
Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
Mitchell Hockett
Affiliation:
Advanced Animal Diagnostics, Durham, NC, USA
Rudy Rodriguez
Affiliation:
Advanced Animal Diagnostics, Durham, NC, USA
Marcos Veiga dos Santos
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences. University of São Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP, Brazil
Kevin L. Anderson
Affiliation:
Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

This research study aimed to evaluate the use of the milk leukocyte differential (MLD) to: (a) identify quarter milks that are culture-positive; and (b) characterize the milk leukocyte responses to specific groups of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis. The MLD measures the absolute number and relative percentage of inflammatory cells in milk samples. Using the MLD in two dairy herds (170 and 172 lactating cows, respectively), we studied all lactating cows with a most recent monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) >200 × 103 cells/ml. Quarter milk samples from 78 cows meeting study criteria were analysed by MLD and aseptically collected milk samples were subjected to microbiological culture (MC). Based upon automated instrument evaluation of the number and percentage of inflammatory cells in milk, samples were designated as either MLD-positive or – negative for subclinicial mastitis. Positive MC were obtained from 102/156 (65·4%) of MLD-positive milk samples, and 28/135 (20·7%) of MLD-negative milk samples were MC-positive. When MC was considered the gold standard for mastitis diagnosis, the calculated diagnostic Se of the MLD was 65·4% (IC95% = 57·4 to 72·8%) and the Sp was 79·3% (IC95% = 71·4 to 85·7%). Quarter milks positive on MC had higher absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, with higher neutrophils% and lymphocytes% but lower macrophages%. The Log10 (N/L) ratios were the most useful ratio to differentiate specific subclinical mastitis quarters from healthy quarters. Use of the MLD on cows with monthly composite SCC > 200 × 103 cells/ml for screening at quarter level identified quarters more likely to be culture-positive.

In conclusion, the MLD can provide an analysis of mammary quarter status more detailed than provided by SCC alone; however, the MLD response to subclinical mastitis was not found useful to specifically identify the causative pathogen.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Proprietors of Journal of Dairy Research 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Arruda, AG, Godden, S, Rapnicki, P, Gorden, P, Timms, L, Aly, SS, Lehenbauer, TW & Champagne, J 2013 Randomized noninferiority clinical trial evaluating 3 commercial dry cow mastitis preparations: I. Quarter-level outcomes. Journal of Dairy Science 96 44194435 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bansal, BK, Hamann, J, Grabowskit, NT & Singh, KB 2005 Variation in the composition of selected milk fraction samples from healthy and mastitic quarters, and its significance for mastitis diagnosis. Journal of Dairy Research 72 144152 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barreiro, JR, Ferreira, CR, Sanvido, GB, Kostrzewa, M, Maier, T, Wegemann, B, Bottcher, V, Eberlin, MN & dos Santos, MV 2010 Short communication: identification of subclinical cow mastitis pathogens in milk by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Journal of Dairy Science 93 56615667 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dohoo, I, Andersen, S, Dingwell, R, Hand, K, Kelton, D, Leslie, K, Schukken, Y & Godden, S 2011 Diagnosing intramammary infections: comparison of multiple versus single quarter milk samples for the identification of intramammary infections in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 94 55155522 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dosogne, H, Vangroenweghe, F, Mehrzad, J, Massart-Leen, AM & Burvenich, C 2003 Differential leukocyte count method for bovine low somatic cell count milk. Journal of Dairy Science 86 828834 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dulin, AM, Paape, MJ & Weinland, BT 1982 Cytospin centrifuge in differential counts of milk somatic cells. Journal of Dairy Science 65 12471251 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DVG (German Veterinary Society). 2002. Leitlinien zur Bekämpfung der Mastitis als Bestandsproblem. Giessen, Germany: DVG.Google Scholar
Halasa, T, Nielen, M, De Roos, AP, Van Hoorne, R, de Jong, G, Lam, TJ, van Werven, T & Hogeveen, H 2009 Production loss due to new subclinical mastitis in Dutch dairy cows estimated with a test-day model. Journal of Dairy Science 92 599606 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hand, KJ, Godkin, A & Kelton, DF 2012 Milk production and somatic cell counts: a cow-level analysis. Journal of Dairy Science 95 13581362 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hockett, M, Payne, M & Rodriguez, R 2014a Evaluation of cow-level selective dry cow therapy based on diagnosis by milk leukocyte differential. In National Mastitis Council Regional Meeting Proceedings, Ghent, BE. Madison, WI, USA: National Mastitis Council Inc.. p. 207Google Scholar
Hockett, M, Payne, M & Rodriguez, R 2014b Milk Leukocyte Differential as a Tool to Guide Quarter-Level, Selective Dry Cow Therapy. Madison, WI, USA: National Mastitis Council Inc.. p. 208 Google Scholar
Kelly, AL, Tiernan, D, O'Sullivan, C & Joyce, P 2000 Correlation between bovine milk somatic cell count and polymorphonuclear leukocyte level for samples of bulk milk and milk from individual cows. Journal of Dairy Science 83 300304 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Makovec, JA & Ruegg, PL 2003 Results of milk samples submitted for microbiological examination in Wisconsin from 1994 to 2001. Journal of Dairy Science 86 34663472 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MedCalc Statistical Software version 16·8. 2016. Accessed Aug. 4, 2016. https://www.medcalc.org/calc/diagnostic_test.php.Google Scholar
Oliver, SPO, González, RN, Hogan, JS, Jayarao, BM & Owens, WE 2004 Microbiological Procedures for the Diagnosis of bovine udder infection and determination of milk quality. In Oliver, SPO, González, RN, Hogan, JS, Jayarao, BM & Owens, WE (Eds) A Global Organization for Mastitis Control and Milk Quality , 4th ed., pp. 140, 44–46. Verona, WI, USA: National Mastitis Council Inc.Google Scholar
Pilla, R, Schwarz, D, Konig, S & Piccinini, R 2012 Microscopic differential cell counting to identify inflammatory reactions in dairy cow quarter milk samples. Journal of Dairy Science 95 44104420 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pilla, R, Malvisi, M, Snel, GG, Schwarz, D, Konig, S, Czerny, CP & Piccinini, R 2013 Differential cell count as an alternative method to diagnose dairy cow mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 96 16531660 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pillai, SR, Kunze, E, Sordillo, LM & Jayarao, BM 2001 Application of differential inflammatory cell count as a tool to monitor udder health. Journal of Dairy Science 84 14131420 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pitkala, A, Haveri, M, Pyorala, S, Myllys, V & Honkanen-Buzalski, T 2004 Bovine mastitis in Finland 2001 – prevalence, distribution of bacteria, and antimicrobial resistance. Journal of Dairy Science 87 24332441 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reneau, JK & Packard, VL 1991 Monitoring mastitis, milk quality and economic losses in dairy fields. Dairy, Food, and Environmental Sanitation (11) 411 Google Scholar
Schwarz, D, Diesterbeck, US, Konig, S, Brugemann, K, Schlez, K, Zschock, M, Wolter, W & Czerny, CP 2011a Flow cytometric differential cell counts in milk for the evaluation of inflammatory reactions in clinically healthy and subclinically infected bovine mammary glands. Journal of Dairy Science 94 50335044 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schwarz, D, Diesterbeck, US, Konig, S, Brugemann, K, Schlez, K, Zschock, M, Wolter, W & Czerny, CP 2011b Microscopic differential cell counts in milk for the evaluation of inflammatory reactions in clinically healthy and subclinically infected bovine mammary glands. Journal of Dairy Research 78 448455 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tomazi, T, Goncalves, JL, Barreiro, JR, Arcari, MA & Dos Santos, MV 2015 Bovine subclinical intramammary infection caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci increases somatic cell count but has no effect on milk yield or composition. Journal of Dairy Science 98 30713078 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilson, DJ, Gonzalez, RN & Das, HH 1997 Bovine mastitis pathogens in New York and Pennsylvania: prevalence and effects on somatic cell count and milk production. Journal of Dairy Science 80 25922598 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Gonçalves supplementary material

Gonçalves supplementary material 1

PDF 428 KB

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 51
Total number of PDF views: 282 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 27th June 2017 - 27th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Linked content

Please note a has been issued for this article.

Hostname: page-component-898fc554b-wphb9 Total loading time: 0.249 Render date: 2021-01-27T05:09:27.261Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Using milk leukocyte differentials for diagnosis of subclinical bovine mastitis
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Using milk leukocyte differentials for diagnosis of subclinical bovine mastitis
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Using milk leukocyte differentials for diagnosis of subclinical bovine mastitis
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *