Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-78dcdb465f-xl52z Total loading time: 0.458 Render date: 2021-04-19T01:27:24.420Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by red-winged blackbirds and projected impacts on dairy cow performance

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 August 2018

James C. Carlson
Affiliation:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 LaPorte Avenue, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
Randal S. Stahl
Affiliation:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 LaPorte Avenue, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
John J. Wagner
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Science, Colorado State University, College of Agricultural Sciences, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
Terry E. Engle
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Science, Colorado State University, College of Agricultural Sciences, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
Shelagh T. DeLiberto
Affiliation:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 LaPorte Avenue, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
Dustin A. Reid
Affiliation:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 LaPorte Avenue, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
Scott J. Werner
Affiliation:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 LaPorte Avenue, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
Corresponding

Abstract

This Research Communication describes an investigation of the nutritional depletion of total mixed rations (TMR) by pest birds. We hypothesized that species-specific bird depredation of TMR can alter the nutritional composition of the ration and that these changes can negatively impact the performance of dairy cows. Blackbirds selected the high energy fraction of the TMR (i.e., flaked corn) and reduced starch, crude fat and total digestible nutrients during controlled feeding experiments. For Holsteins producing 37·1 kg of milk/d, dairy production modeling illustrated that total required net energy intake (NEI) was 35·8 Mcal/d. For the reference TMR unexposed to blackbirds and the blackbird-consumed TMR, NEI supplied was 41·2 and 37·8 Mcal/d, and the resulting energy balance was 5·4 and 2·0 Mcal/d, respectively. Thus, Holsteins fed the reference and blackbird-consumed TMR were estimated to gain one body condition score in 96 and 254 d, and experience daily weight change due to reserves of 1·1 and 0·4 kg/d, respectively. We discuss these results in context of an integrated pest management program for mitigating the depredation caused by pest birds at commercial dairies.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Hannah Dairy Research Foundation 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Benjamini, Y & Hochberg, Y 1995 Controlling for false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 57 289300Google Scholar
Besser, JF, DeGrazio, JW & Guarino, JL 1968 Costs of wintering starlings and red-winged blackbirds at feedlots. Journal of Wildlife Management 32 179180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carlson, JC, Stahl, RS, DeLiberto, ST, Wagner, JJ, Engle, TE, Engeman, RM, Olson, CS, Ellis, JW & Werner, SJ 2018 Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by European starlings: projected effects on dairy cow performance and potential intervention strategies to mitigate damage. Journal of Dairy Science 101 17771784CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Depenbusch, BE, Drouillard, JS & Lee, CD 2011 Feed depredation by European starlings in a Kansas feedlot. Human-Wildlife Interactions 5 5865Google Scholar
Dolbeer, RA, Wornecki, PA, Strickley, JR & White, SB 1978 Agricultural impact of a winter population of blackbirds and starlings. Wilson Bulletin 90 3144Google Scholar
Glahn, JF, Twedt, DJ & Otis, DL 1983 Estimating feed loss from starling use of livestock feed troughs. Wildlife Society Bulletin 11 366372Google Scholar
National Research Council (NRC) 2001 Nutrient Requirement of Dairy Cattle, Seventh edition. National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
Shwiff, SA, Carlson, JC, Glass, H, Suckow, J, Lowney, MS, Moxcey, KM, Larson, B & Linz, GM 2012 Producer survey of bird livestock interactions in commercial dairies. Journal of Dairy Science 95 68206829CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Twedt, DJ & Glahn, JF 1982 Reducing starling depredation at livestock feeding operations through changes in management practices. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 10 159163Google Scholar
White, SB, Dolbeer, RA & Bookhout, TA 1985 Ecology, bioenergetics, and agricultural impacts of a winter-roosting population of blackbirds and starlings. Wildlife Monographs 93 142Google Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 11
Total number of PDF views: 50 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 29th August 2018 - 19th April 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by red-winged blackbirds and projected impacts on dairy cow performance
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by red-winged blackbirds and projected impacts on dairy cow performance
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by red-winged blackbirds and projected impacts on dairy cow performance
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *