Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The impact of positive parenting behaviors and maternal depression on the features of young children's home language environments

  • Amy E. TREAT (a1), Amanda SHEFFIELD MORRIS (a1), Jennifer HAYS-GRUDO (a1) and Amy C. WILLIAMSON (a1)

Abstract

This study investigated the associations between maternal depression when infants were 3 to 11 months old (M = 6 months), and positive parenting behaviors when children were between 12 and 22 months (M = 17 months) and the home language environment assessed when children were 18 to 28 months old (M = 23.5 months) in a sample of 29 low-income mother–child dyads. After controlling for maternal education, only teaching behaviors remained a moderate and significant predictor of adult word counts. Observed teaching behaviors significantly predicted conversational turns and marginally predicted child vocalizations; effects sizes were small. Encouraging behaviors were a small and significant predictor of conversational turns and a marginally significant predictor of adult word counts. Maternal depression was a moderate and significant predictor of children's vocal productivity scores and a small, marginal predictor of conversational turns. These findings have important implications for parenting and children's language outcomes.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Oklahoma State University – HDFS, 700 North Greenwood Main Hall, Tulsa Oklahoma 74070, United States. E-mail: amy.treat@okstate.edu

References

Hide All
Beebe, B., Jaffe, J., Buck, K., Chen, H., Cohen, P., Feldstein, S., & Andrews, H. (2008). Six-week postpartum maternal depressive symptoms and 4-month mother–infant self-and interactive contingency. Infant Mental Health Journal: Official Publication of The World Association for Infant Mental Health, 29(5), 442–71.
Becerra, R. M. (1998). The Mexican-American family. In Mindel, C. H., Havenstein, R. W., & Wright, R. (Eds.), Ethnic families in America: patterns and variations (pp. 153–71). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Belsky, J., Bell, B., Bradley, R. H., Stallard, N., & Stewart-Brown, S. L. (2007). Socioeconomic risk, parenting during the preschool years and child health age 6 years. European Journal of Public Health, 17(5), 508–13.
Bornstein, M. H., & Putnick, D. L. (2012). Cognitive and socioemotional caregiving in developing countries. Child Development, 83(1), 4661.
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Morgan, J., Rutter, M., Taylor, A., Arseneault, L. et al. (2004). Maternal expressed emotion predicts children's antisocial behavior problems: using monozygotic-twin differences to identify environmental effects on behavioral development. Developmental Psychology, 40(2), 149–61.
Cohn, J. F., & Tronick, E. Z. (1983). Three-month-old infants’ reaction to simulated maternal depression. Child Development, 54(1), 185–93.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). The support of autonomy and the control of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(6), 1024–37.
Du, S., Xu, D., Richards, J. A., Hannon, S. M., & Gilkerson, J. (2017). The LENA™ Vocal Productivity Measure. Boulder, CO: LENA Foundation. Retrieved from <http://www.lena.org/wp-content/uploads/pdf/technical-reports/LTR-11-1_Vocal%20Productivity.pdf>.
Eaton, W. W., Smith, C., Ybarra, M., Muntaner, C., & Tien, A. (2004). Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Review and Revision (CESD and CESD-R). In Maruish, M. E. (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment: instruments for adults (pp. 363–77). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Feldman, R. (2009). The development of regulatory functions from birth to 5 years: insights from premature infants. Child Development, 80(2), 544–61.
Fernald, A., Marchman, V. A., & Weisleder, A. (2013). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 16(2), 234–48.
Fiester, L. (2010). Early warning! Why reading by the end of third grade matters. KIDS COUNT special report. Annie E. Casey Foundation. Online <https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED509795>.
Fuligni, A. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2013). Mother–child interactions in Early Head Start: age and ethnic differences in low-income dyads. Parenting, 13(1), 126.
Gann, C., Bowers, L., & Walton, T. (2018). Small area income and poverty estimates: 2017 (SAIPE) program. December, 2018 - (P30-04). Retrieved from <https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2018/demo/p30-04.html>
Gilkerson, J. (2017). Pathways to Opportunity. LENA Research Conference Beaver Creek, CO, September, 2017.
Gilkerson, J., & Richards, J. A. (2008). The LENA natural language study (Technical Report LTR-02-2). Boulder, CO: LENA Foundation. Retrieved from <https://www.lena.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/LTR-02-2_Natural_Language_Study.pdf>.
Golinkoff, R. M. (1983). Infant social cognition: self, people, and objects. In Liben, L. (Ed.), Piaget and the foundations of knowledge (pp. 179200). New York: Psychology Press.
Golinkoff, R. M., Hoff, E., Rowe, M. L., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (2019). Language matters: denying the existence of the 30-million-word gap has serious consequences. Child Development, 90(3), 985–92.
Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes.
Hirsh-Pasek, K., Adamson, L. B., Bakeman, R., Owen, M. T., Golinkoff, R. M., Pace, A., … & Suma, K. (2015). The contribution of early communication quality to low-income children's language success. Psychological Science, 26(7), 1071–83.
Hoff, E. (2013). Interpreting the early language trajectories of children from low-SES and language minority homes: implications for closing achievement gaps. Developmental Psychology, 49(1), 414.
Hollich, G., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2000). Breaking the language barrier: an emergentist coalition model for the origins of word learning. Society for Research in Child Development Monograph Series. Serial no. 262, 65(3).
Huttenlocher, J., Haight, W., Bryk, A., Seltzer, M., & Lyons, T. (1991). Early vocabulary growth: relation to language input and gender. Developmental Psychology, 27(2), 236–48.
Huttenlocher, J., Waterfall, H., Vasilyeva, M., Vevea, J., & Hedges, L. V. (2010). Sources of variability in children's language growth. Cognitive Psychology, 61(4), 343–65.
Kaminski, J. W., Perou, R., Visser, S. N., Scott, K. G., Beckwith, L., Howard, J., … & Danielson, M. L. (2013). Behavioral and socioemotional outcomes through age 5 years of the legacy for children public health approach to improving developmental outcomes among children born into poverty. American Journal of Public Health, 103(6), 1058–66.
Kaplan, P. S., Danko, C. M., Everhart, K. D., Diaz, A., Asherin, R. M., Vogeli, J. M., & Fekri, S. M. (2014). Maternal depression and expressive communication in one-year-old infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 37(3), 398405.
Kuhl, P. K., Tsao, F. M., & Liu, H. M. (2003). Foreign-language experience in infancy: effects of short-term exposure and social interaction on phonetic learning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(15), 9096–101.
Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., & Swank, P. R. (2006). Responsive parenting: establishing early foundations for social, communication, and independent problem-solving skills. Developmental Psychology, 42(4), 627–42.
Leffel, K., & Suskind, D. (2013). Parent-directed approaches to enrich the early language environments of children living in poverty. Seminars in Speech and Language, 34(4), 267–78.
Leigh, P., Nievar, M. A., & Nathans, L. (2011). Maternal sensitivity and language in early childhood: a test of the transactional model. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 113(1), 281–99.
Lovejoy, M. C., Graczyk, P. A., O'Hare, E., & Neuman, G. (2000). Maternal depression and parenting behavior: a meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 20(5), 561–92.
Matsunaga, M. (2010). How to factor-analyze your data right: do's, don'ts, and how-to's. International Journal of Psychological Research, 3(1), 97110.
Minkovitz, C. S., Hughart, N., Strobino, D., Scharfstein, D., Grason, H., Hou, W., … & Guyer, B. (2003). A practice-based intervention to enhance quality of care in the first 3 years of life: the Healthy Steps for Young Children Program. Jama, 290(23), 3081–91.
Mittal, P. (2011). Centering parenting: pilot implementation of a group model for teaching family medicine residents well-child care. Permanente Journal, 15(4), 40–1.
Oller, D. K., Buder, E. H., Ramsdell, H. L., Warlaumont, A. S., Chorna, L., & Bakeman, R. (2013). Functional flexibility of infant vocalization and the emergence of language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(16), 6318–23.
Pace, A., Luo, R., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2017). Identifying pathways between socioeconomic status and language development. Annual Review of Linguistics, 3, 285308.
Perou, R., Elliott, M. N., Visser, S. N., Claussen, A. H., Scott, K. G., Beckwith, L. H., … & Smith, D. C. (2012). Legacy for Children™: a pair of randomized controlled trials of a public health model to improve developmental outcomes among children in poverty. BMC Public Health, 12, 691. Online <https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-12-691>.
Pungello, E. P., Iruka, I. U., Dotterer, A. M., Mills-Koonce, R., & Reznick, J. S. (2009). The effects of socioeconomic status, race, and parenting on language development in early childhood. Developmental Psychology, 45(2), 544–57.
Roggman, L. A., Cook, G. A., Innocenti, M. S., Jump Norman, V., & Christiansen, K. (2013). Parenting interactions with children: checklist of observations linked to outcomes (PICCOLO) in diverse ethnic groups. Infant Mental Health Journal, 34(4), 290306.
Roggman, L. A., Langlois, J. H., & Hubbs-Tait, L. (1987). Mothers, infants, and toys: social play correlates of attachment. Infant Behavior and Development, 10(2), 233–37.
Romeo, R. R., Leonard, J. A., Robinson, S. T., West, M. R., Mackey, A. P., Rowe, M. L., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2018). Beyond the 30-million-word gap: children's conversational exposure is associated with language-related brain function. Psychological Science, 29(5), 700–10.
Roseberry, S., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2014). Skype me! Socially contingent interactions help toddlers learn language. Child Development, 85(3), 956–70.
Rowe, M. (2018). Understanding socioeconomic differences in parents’ speech to children. Child Development Perspectives, 12(2), 122–7.
Schmit, S., Golden, O., & Beardslee, W. (2014). Maternal depression: why it matters to an anti-poverty agenda for parents and children. Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.
Sohr-Preston, S. L., & Scaramella, L. V. (2006). Implications of timing of maternal depressive symptoms for early cognitive and language development. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 9(1), 6583.
Stein, A., Malmberg, L. E., Sylva, K., Barnes, J., Leach, P., & the FCCC team (2008). The influence of maternal depression, caregiving, and socioeconomic status in the post-natal year on children's language development. Child: Care, Health and Development, 34(5), 603–12.
Suskind, D. L., Leffel, K. R., Graf, E., Hernandez, M. W., Gunderson, E. A., Sapolich, S. G., … & Levine, S. C. (2016). A parent-directed language intervention for children of low socioeconomic status: a randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Child Language, 43(2), 366406.
Talking is Teaching (2017). Talk, read, sing, community campaign guide: too small to fail. Retrieved from <https://talkingisteaching.org/communities/resources/community-campaign-guide-2017-edition>.
Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., & Bornstein, M. H. (2002). Maternal responsiveness and early language acquisition. Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 29, 89127.
Van Dam, N. T., & Earleywine, M. (2011). Validation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale–Revised (CESD-R): pragmatic depression assessment in the general population. Psychiatry Research, 186(1), 128–32.
Vericker, T., Macomber, J., & Golden, O. A. (2010). Infants of depressed mothers living in poverty: opportunities to identify and serve. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Interaction between learning and development. In Gauvain, M. & Cole, M. (Eds.), Readings on the development of children (pp. 3441). New York: Worth.
Weisleder, A., & Fernald, A. (2013). Talking to children matters: early language experience strengthens processing and builds vocabulary. Psychological Science, 24(11), 2143–52.
Weizman, Z. O., & Snow, C. E. (2001). Lexical output as related to children's vocabulary acquisition: effects of sophisticated exposure and support for meaning. Developmental Psychology, 37(2), 265–79.
Xu, D., Yapanel, U., & Gray, S. (2009). Reliability of the LENA Language Environment Analysis System in young children's natural home environment. Boulder, CO: LENA Foundation. Retrieved from <https://www.lena.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/LTR-05-2_Reliability.pdf>.

Keywords

The impact of positive parenting behaviors and maternal depression on the features of young children's home language environments

  • Amy E. TREAT (a1), Amanda SHEFFIELD MORRIS (a1), Jennifer HAYS-GRUDO (a1) and Amy C. WILLIAMSON (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed