Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684bc48f8b-l9xz9 Total loading time: 9.864 Render date: 2021-04-13T09:09:04.672Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Pathways to language: a naturalistic study of children with Williams syndrome and children with Down syndrome*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 December 2012

YONATA LEVY
Affiliation:
The Hebrew University, Jerusalem
ARIELA EILAM
Affiliation:
The Hebrew University, Jerusalem
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

This is a naturalistic study of the development of language in Hebrew-speaking children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with Down syndrome (DS), whose MLU extended from 1·0 to 4·4. Developmental curves over the entire span of data collection revealed minor differences between children with WS, children with DS, and typically developing (TD) controls of similar MLU. Development within one calendar year showed remarkable synchrony among the variables. However, age of language onset and pace of acquisition departed significantly from normal timing. It is argued that in view of the centrality of genetic timing and the network properties of cognition, normal schedules are crucial determinants of intact development. Consequently, with respect to neurodevelopmental syndromes, the so-called ‘language delay’ is indicative of deviance that is likely to impact development in critical ways.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

Footnotes

[*]

This work was supported by grants from the Israeli Science Foundation (ISF) and from the Shalem Foundation to the first author, and the Levin Center for Child and Adolescent Psychopathology at the Hebrew University to the second author. The data were collected by the second author as part of her PhD work.

References

Anderson, M. (1998). Mental retardation, general intelligence and modularity. Learning and Individual Differences 10, 159–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arshavsky, Y. I. (2009). Two functions of early language experience. Brian Research Reviews 60, 327–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beckner, C. & Bybee, J. (2009). A usage-based account of constituency and reanalysis. Language Learning 59 (Supplement 1), 2746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bellugi, U., Marks, S., Bihrle, A. M. & Sabo, H. (1988). Dissociation between language and cognitive functions in Williams syndrome. In Bishop, D. & Mogford, K. (eds), Language development in exceptional circumstances, 177–89. London: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
Bol, G. W. & Kasparian, K. (2009). The production of pronouns in Dutch children with developmental language disorders: A comparison between children with SLI, hearing impairment, and Down's syndrome. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics 23(9), 631–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, R. (1973). A first language: The early stages. Oxford: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brock, J. (2007). Language abilities in Williams syndrome: A critical review. Development and Psychopathology 19(1), 97127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Capirci, O., Sabbadini, L. & Volterra, V. (1996). Language development in Williams syndrome: A case study. Cognitive Neuropsychology 13, 1017–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Caprin, C. & Guasti, M. T. (2009). The acquisition of morphosyntax in Italian: A cross-sectional study. Applied Psycholinguistics 30(1), 2352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2006). Improved national prevalence estimates for 18 selected major birth defects–United States, 1999–2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 54, 1301–05.Google ScholarPubMed
Devescovi, A., Caselli, M. C., Marchione, D., Pasqualetti, P., Reilly, J. & Bates, E. (2005). A cross-linguistic study of the relationship between grammar and lexical development. Journal of Child Language 32(4), 759–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dromi, E. & Berman, R. A. (1982). A morphemic measure of early language development: Data from Modern Hebrew. Journal of Child Language 9(2), 403424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duffield, N. (2008). Roots and rogues in German child language. Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics 15(4), 225–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eadie, P. A., Fey, M. E., Douglas, J. M. & Parsons, C. L. (2002). Profiles of grammatical morphology and sentence imitation in children with specific language impairment and Down syndrome. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research 45, 720–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elliot, C. D. (1990). Differential Ability Scales. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
Fowler, A. E., Gelman, R. & Gleitman, L. R. (1994). The course of language learning in children with Down syndrome. In Tager-Flusberg, H. (ed.), Constraints on language acquisition: Studies of atypical children, 91140. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Friedmann, N. & Novogrodsky, R. (2004). The acquisition of relative clause comprehension in Hebrew: A study of SLI and normal development. Journal of Child Language 31(3), 661–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenough, W. T., Black, J. E. & Wallace, C. S. (1987). Experience and brain development. Child Development 58(3), 539–59.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harris, N. S., Bellugi, U., Bates, E., Jones, W. & Rossen, M. (1997). Contrasting profiles of language development in children with Williams and Down syndromes. Developmental Neuropsychology 13(3), 345–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hazlett, H. C., Hammer, J., Hooper, S. R. & Kamphaus, R. W. (2011). Down syndrome. In Goldstein, S. & Reynolds, C. R. (eds), Handbook of neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders in children, 2nd edn.362–81. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Jacobson, P. F. & Cairns, H. S. (2010). Exceptional rule learning in a longitudinal case study of Williams syndrome: Acquisition of past tense. Communication Disorders Quarterly 31(4), 231–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jarrold, C., Baddeley, A. D. & Phillips, C. (2002). Verbal short-term memory in Down syndrome: A problem of memory, audition, or speech? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 45, 531–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karmiloff-Smith, A., Grant, J., Berthoud, I., Davies, M., Howlin, P. & Udwin, O. (1997). Language and Williams syndrome: How intact is ‘intact’? Child Development 68(2), 246–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klein, B. P. & Mervis, C. B. (1999). Contrasting patterns of cognitive abilities of 9- and 10-year-olds with Williams Syndrome or Down Syndrome. Developmental Neuropsychology 16(2), 177–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laing, E., Butterworth, G., Ansari, D., Gsodl, M., Longhi, E., Panagiota, G., Paterson, S. & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2002). Atypical development of language and social communication in toddlers with Williams syndrome. Developmental Science 5(2), 233–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laws, G. & Bishop, D. V. M. (2003). A comparison of language abilities in adolescents with Down syndrome and children with specific language impairments. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research 46, 1324–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lenroot, R. K. & Giedd, J. N. (2011). Annual research review: Developmental considerations of gene by environment interactions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 52(4), 429–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levy, Y. (1995). Coding manual for Hebrew texts–Revised (Publications in Developmental Psychology 2). Jerusalem: Levin Institute, the Hebrew University.Google Scholar
Levy, Y. (1997). Autonomous, linguistic systems in the language of young children. Journal of Child Language 24, 651–71.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levy, Y. & Hermon, S. (2000). Morphology in children with Williams Syndrome – Evidence from Hebrew. In Howell, S. C., Fish, S. A. & Keith-Lucas, T. (eds), The 24th Boston University Conference on Language Development, 498509. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.Google Scholar
Levy, Y. & Vainikka, A. (2000). The development of a mixed null subject system: A cross-linguistic perspective with data on the acquisition of Hebrew. Language Acquisition 8(4), 363–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maitel, S. L., Dromi, E., Sagi, A. & Bornstein, M. H. (2000). The Hebrew Communicative Development Inventory: Language specific properties and cross-linguistic generalizations. Journal of Child Language 27(1), 4367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mervis, C. B., Morris, C. A., Bertrand, J. & Robinson, B. F. (1999). Williams syndrome: Findings from an integrated program of research. In Tager-Flusberg, H. (ed.), Neurodevelopmental disorders, 65110. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Mervis, C. B. & Robinson, B. F. (2000). Expressive vocabulary ability of toddlers with Williams syndrome or Down syndrome: A comparison. Developmental Neuropsychology 17(1), 111–26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mervis, C. B., Robinson, B. F., Rowe, M. L., Becerra, A. M. & Klein-Tasman, B. P. (2003). Language abilities of individuals with Williams syndrome. In Abbeduto, L. (ed.), International review of research in mental retardation: Language and communication in mental retardation, Vol. 27, 3581. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miolo, G., Chapman, R. S. & Sindberg, H. A. (2005). Sentence comprehension in adolescents with Down syndrome and typically developing children: Role of sentence voice, visual context, and auditory-verbal short-term memory. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 48(1), 172–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morris, C. A., Dilts, C., Demsey, S. A., Leonard, C. O. & Blackburn, B. L. (1988). The natural history of Williams syndrome: Physical characteristics. Journal of Pediatrics 113, 318–26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Musolino, J., Chunyo, G. & Landau, B. (2010). Uncovering knowledge of core syntactic and semantic principles in individuals with Williams syndrome. Language Learning and Development 6, 126–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paterson, S. J., Brown, J. H., Gsödl, M. K., Johnson, M. H. & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1999). Cognitive modularity and genetic disorders. Science 286(5448), 2355–58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paterson, S. J., Girelli, L., Butterworth, B. & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2006). Are numerical impairments syndrome specific? Evidence from Williams syndrome and Down's syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 47(2), 190204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perovic, A. & Wexler, K. (2007). Complex grammar in Williams syndrome. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics 21(9), 729–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perovic, A. & Wexler, K. (2010). Development of verbal passive in Williams syndrome. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 53(5), 1294–306.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Plante, E., Swisher, L., Kiernan, B. & Restrepo, M. A. (1993). Language matches: Illuminating or confounding? Journal of Speech & Hearing Research 36(4), 772–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Price, J. R., Roberts, J. E., Hennon, E. A., Berni, M. C., Anderson, K. L. & Sideris, J. (2008). Syntactic complexity during conversation of boys with fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 51(1), 315.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rice, M. L., Hoffman, L. & Wexler, K. (2009). Judgments of omitted BE and DO in questions as extended finiteness clinical markers of specific language impairment (SLI) to 15 years: A study of growth and asymptote. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 52(6), 1417–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rice, M. L., Redmond, S. M. & Hoffman, L. (2006). Mean length of utterance in children with specific language impairment and in younger control children shows concurrent validity and stable and parallel growth trajectories. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 49(4), 793808.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roeper, T. (2010). Interference, frequency and the primary linguistic data. Lingua 120, 2538–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seung, H.-K. & Chapman, R. S. (2000). Digit span in individuals with Down syndrome and typically developing children: Temporal aspects. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 43, 609620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strømme, P., Bjørnstad, P. G. & Ramstad, K. (2002). Prevalence estimation of Williams syndrome. Journal of Child Neurology 17, 269–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, M. S. C. & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2003). Modeling language acquisition in atypical phenotypes. Psychological Review 110(4), 647–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, M. S. C. & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2005). Can developmental disorders reveal the component parts of the language faculty? Language Learning and Development 1, 6592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vicari, S., Caselli, M. C., Gagliardi, C., Tonucci, F. & Volterra, V. (2002). Language acquisition in special populations: A comparison between Down and Williams syndrome. Neuropsychologia 40(13), 2461–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiig, E. H., Secord, W. A. & Semel, E. (2004). Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals–Preschool, 2nd edn (CELF Preschool-2). Toronto: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Ypsilanti, A., Grouios, G., Alevriadou, A. & Tsapkini, K. (2005). Expressive and receptive vocabulary in children with Williams and Down syndromes. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 49(5), 353–64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zimmerman, I., Steiner, V. & Pond, R. (2002). Preschool Language Scale, 4th edn. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 84
Total number of PDF views: 336 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 13th April 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Pathways to language: a naturalistic study of children with Williams syndrome and children with Down syndrome*
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Pathways to language: a naturalistic study of children with Williams syndrome and children with Down syndrome*
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Pathways to language: a naturalistic study of children with Williams syndrome and children with Down syndrome*
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *