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The Englishness of English Architecture: Modernism and the Making of a National International Style, 1927–1957

  • William Whyte

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1 For opening quote, see Jencks, Charles, “History as Myth,” in Meaning in Architecture, ed. Charles Jencks and George Baird (London, 1969), 244–65, 265. Pevsner, Nikolaus, The Englishness of English Art (London, 1956), 182.

2 Mandler, Peter, The English National Character: The History of an Idea from Edmund Burke to Tony Blair (New Haven, CT, 2006), 213.

3 Corbusier, Le, Towards a New Architecture, trans. Frederick Etchells (London, 1927).

4 Editorial, “Recent English Domestic Architecture,” Architectural Review 64 (December 1928): 333–36, at 327.

5 Waugh, Evelyn, Decline and Fall (1928; repr., London, 2001), 107–32.

6 Knevitt, Charles, From Pecksniff to the Prince of Wales: 150 Years of Punch on Architecture, Planning, and Development (Streatley-on-Thames, 1990).

7 Summerson, John, “The MARS Group and the Thirties,” in English Architecture: Public and Private, ed. Bold, John and Chaney, Edward (London, 1993), 303–9; Denys Lasdun, “MARS Group, 1953–1957,” Architects’ Year Book 8 (1957): 57–60. See also William Whyte, “MARS Group (Act. 1933–1957),” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, ed. Lawrence Goldman, http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/theme/96308.

8 John Summerson, unpublished autobiography (hereafter Summerson MS), St. John's College, Oxford, n.d., chap. 11, 22.

9 Summerson, John, “Introduction,” in Modern Architecture in Britain, ed. Dannatt, Trevor (London, 1959), 1128.

10 On the self-consciously modern character of the 1950s, see Samuel, Raphael, Theatres of Memory (London, 1994), 5182. However, see also Gold, John, The Practice of Modernism: Modern Architecture and Urban Transformation, 1954–1972 (London, 2007), chaps. 1–2, for a gloomier assessment.

11 McKeller, Elizabeth, “Popularism versus Professionalism: John Summerson and the Twentieth-Century Creation of the ‘Georgian,’” in Articulating British Classicism: New Approaches to Eighteenth-Century Architecture, ed. Arciszewska, Barbara and McKeller, Elizabeth (Aldershot, 2004), 3556, at 42.

12 A good comparative study can be found in Tournikiotis, Panayotis, The Historiography of Modern Architecture (Cambridge, MA, 1999), chap. 1.

13 Generally, see Jackson, Anthony, The Politics of Architecture: A History of Modern Architecture in Britain (London, 1970). Specifically, see, e.g., Dean, David, The Thirties: Recalling the English Architectural Scene (London, 1983); Bullock, Nicholas, Building the Post-war World: Modern Architecture and Reconstruction in Britain (London, 2002).

14 Banham, Mary and Hillier, Bevis, eds., A Tonic to the Nation: The Festival of Britain 1951 (London, 1976); Conekin, Becky, “The Autobiography of a Nation”: The 1951 Festival of Britain (Manchester, 2003); Campbell, Louise, Coventry Cathedral: Art and Architecture in Post-war Britain (Oxford, 1996); McKean, John, Royal Festival Hall: London County Council, Leslie Martin and Peter Moro (London, 1992). See also Saint, Andrew, Towards a Social Architecture: The Role of School-Building in Post-war England (New Haven, CT, 1987); and Garlake, Margaret, New Art New World: British Art in Post-war Society (New Haven, CT, 1998).

15 Philip Dodd, “How Ben Nicholson Proved That You Can Be British and Modern,” Tate 1 (Winter 1993): 30–36; Corbett, David Peters, The Modernity of English Art (Manchester, 1997); Corbett, David Peters, Holt, Ysanne, and Russell, Fiona, eds., The Geographies of Englishness: Landscape and the National Past, 1880–1940 (New Haven, CT, 2000); Lewison, Jeremy, “Going Modern and Being British: The Challenge of the 1930s,” in Blast to Freeze: British Art in the Twentieth Century, ed. Hughes, Henry Meyric and van Tuyl, Gijs (Ostfildern-Ruit, 2002), 6672; Malvern, Sue, Modern Art, Britain, and the Great War (New Haven, CT, 2004); Hauser, Kitty, Shadow Sites: Archaeology, Photography, and the British Landscape, 1927–1955 (Oxford, 2007); Breward, Christopher, Conekin, Becky, and Cox, Caroline, eds., The Englishness of English Dress (Oxford, 2002); Buckley, Cheryl, Designing Modern Britain (London, 2007), chaps. 3 and 4. However, for an earlier period, see Crellin, David and Dungavell, Ian, eds., Architecture and Englishness, 1880–1914 (London, 2006); Meacham, Standish, Regaining Paradise: Englishness and the Early Garden City Movement (New Haven, CT, 1999). See also Crinson, Mark, “Architecture and ‘National Projection’ between the Wars,” in Cultural Identities and the Aesthetics of Britishness, ed. Arnold, Dana (Manchester, 2004), 182200.

16 Darling, Elizabeth, Re-forming Britain: Narratives of Modernity before Reconstruction (London, 2007), 410; Buckley, Designing Modern Britain, chap. 3. Nonetheless, Darling acknowledges the foreign origins of modernism (Re-forming Britain, 50, 143).

17 Crook, J. Mordaunt, The Dilemma of Style: Architectural Ideas from the Picturesque to the Post-modern (London, 1987), 238.

18 Stamp, Gavin, “Introduction,” Britain in the Thirties (AD Profile 24): Architectural Design 49, nos. 10–11 (1979): 225, quote at 21.

19 Curl, James Stevens, “Friendly Bombs,” Building Design 24 (March 2000): 24.

20 Mowl, Timothy, Stylistic Cold Wars: Betjeman versus Pevsner (London, 2000), 115.

21 See Conekin, The Autobiography of a Nation; Darling, Re-forming Britain; Powers, Alan, Britain: Modern Architectures in History (London, 2007).

22 Conekin notes that “Modernism was often combined with the most traditional imaginings of Englishness or Britishness” but does not seek to define what either term might mean (The Autobiography of a Nation, 80). Darling describes the way in which “a classic English compromise” and “a peculiarly British concern for democracy and citizenship” shaped architecture but without discussing contemporary debates about national identity (Re-forming Britain, 198, 154). Powers examines the impact of modernism on the constituent nations of the United Kingdom but does not explore the relationship between notions of Englishness and modernism (Britain, chap. 7).

23 Paul Nash, “‘Going Modern’ and ‘Being British,’” The Week-end Review 5 (12 March 1932): 322–23, quote at 322.

24 For a particularly good example of this in practice, see Wright, Gwendolyn, “The Ambiguous Modernisms of African Cities,” in The Short Century: Independence and Liberation Movements in Africa, 1945–1994, ed. Enwezor, Okwui (Munich, 2001), 225–33. See also Whyte, William, “Modernism, Modernization, and Europeanization in West Africa, 1944–1984,” in (De)Europeanization and History, ed. Conway, Martin and Patel, Kiran Klaus (Basingstoke, 2010), forthcoming.

25 Goldhagen, Sarah Williams, “Something to Talk About: Modernism, Discourse, Style,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 64, no. 2 (June 2005): 144–67, quote at 162.

26 Generally, see Langlands, Rebecca, “Britishness or Englishness? The Historical Problem of National Identity in Britain,” Nations and Nationalism 5, no. 1 (January 1999): 5369.

27 Buckley, Designing Modern Britain, 10. A rare moment of recognition that the two terms may be different can be found in I. De Wolfe [Hubert de Cronin Hastings], “Townscape,” Architectural Review 106 (December 1949): 355–62, at 361.

28 Powers, Britain, 274.

29 See, e.g., Gropius, Walter, The New Architecture and the Bauhaus, trans. P. Morton Shand (London, 1935); Corbusier, Le, Vers une Architecture (Paris, 1923).

30 Hitchcock, Henry Russell and Johnson, Philip, The International Style (1932; repr., London, 1995), 50.

31 Crook, Dilemma of Style, 255.

32 See, e.g., [Sven Backström], “The New Empiricism,” Architectural Review 101 (June 1947): 199–201.

33 Goldhagen, Sarah Williams, “Coda: Reconceptualizing the Modern,” in Anxious Modernisms: Experimentalism in Postwar Architectural Culture, ed. Goldhagen, and Legault, Réjean (Cambridge, MA, 2000), 301–23, quote at 306.

34 Richards, J. M., The Castles on the Ground (London, 1946), 82.

35 Banham, Reyner, “Revenge of the Picturesque: English Architectural Polemics, 1945–1965,” in Concerning Architecture, ed. Summerson, John (London, 1968), 265–74; Mumford, Eric, The CIAM Discourse on Urbanism, 1928–1960 (Cambridge, MA, 2000); Robbins, David, The Independent Group (London, 1990).

36 Reyner Banham, The New Brutalism: Ethic or Aesthetic? (London, 1966).

37 John Summerson, “My Writing Life,” in Summerson MS, 26.

38 Richards, J. M., An Introduction to Modern Architecture, rev. ed. (Harmondsworth, 1956), 95. See also Lubetkin, Berthold, “Modern Architecture in England” (1937), reprinted in Lubetkin and Tecton: An Architectural Study, ed. Reading, Malcolm and Coe, Peter (London, 1992), 135–81, esp. 136.

39 Hitchcock and Johnson, International Style.

40 Williams-Ellis, Clough and Summerson, John, Architecture Here and Now (London, 1934), 35.

41 Summerson, John, quoted in Martin Pawley, “The Sense of the Modern,” Architects’ Journal 186 (16 and 23 December 1987): 2830, quote at 28. See also Stamp, “Introduction,” 21.

42 Powers, Britain, 40.

43 Benton, Charlotte, A Different World: Émigré Architects in Britain, 1928–1958 (London, 1995).

44 Summerson MS, chap. 6, 19.

45 Griggs, H. J. Brock, “Alien Architects Invade Britain,” Architects’ Journal 79 (15 February 1934): 244.

46 Jenkins, Keith, “Letter,” Architects’ Journal 81 (24 January 1935): 159–60, quote at 160.

47 Nikolaus Pevsner, “Thoughts on Coventry Cathedral,” Listener 47 (17 January 1952): 94–96; Sidney Taylor, “Letter,” Listener 47 (31 January 1952): 186–87.

48 Darcy Braddett, “Letter,” The Times, 18 February 1959, 11.

49 Walter E. Cross, “Letter,” The Times, 18 February 1959, 11.

50 Mandler, English National Character, chaps. 5–6.

51 Pevsner, Nikolaus, Some Architectural Writers of the Nineteenth Century (Oxford, 1972), chap. 23; Watkin, David, The Rise of Architectural History (London, 1980), esp. chaps. 1 and 4. However, see also Buchanon, A. C., “Robert Willis and the Rise of Architectural History” (PhD diss., University of London, 1994), for a more functionalist tradition.

52 William Whyte, “How Do Buildings Mean? Some Issues of Interpretation in the History of Architecture,” History and Theory 45, no. 2 (May 2006): 153–77.

53 Giedion, Sigfried, Space, Time and Architecture: The Growth of a New Tradition, 5th ed. (Cambridge, MA, 1967), 19.

54 Richardson, A. E., “The Visual Arts,” in The Character of England, ed. Barker, Ernest (Oxford, 1947), 367–88, quotes at 372 and 379.

55 See Halbertsma, Marlite, “Nikolaus Pevsner and the End of a Tradition: The Legacy of Wilhelm Pinder,” Apollo 137 (February 1993): 107–9; Draper, Peter, ed., Reassessing Nikolaus Pevsner (Aldershot, 2004), 2955.

56 Pevsner, Englishness of English Art, 16.

57 Reilly, C. H., Some Architectural Problems of To-day (London, 1924), 48, gives useful context for this.

58 Jenkins, Gilbert H., “Modernism in Architecture,” Architectural Association Journal 43 (November 1927): 155–63, quote at 160. See also the debate on his speech on 166–71 and subsequent correspondence on 227–29, 256–57, 296–97, 297–98, and 298–99.

59 Dean, Thirties, 37.

60 Lindsay, Lionel, Addled Art (London, 1946), 15.

61 Fellows, Richard A., Sir Reginald Blomfield: An Edwardian Architect (London, 1985).

62 Reginald Blomfield, “The New Architecture,” Builder 139 (28 November 1930): 911, and “English Architecture in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 4th ser., 14 (1931): 121–40.

63 See, e.g., Blomfield, “English Architecture,” and “Is Modern Architecture on the Right Track?” Listener 10 (26 July 1933): 123–32.

64 Blomfield, Reginald, Modernismus (London, 1934), v, 12–13, 81–82, 169.

65 Watkin, David, “Architectural Writing in the Thirties,” Britain in the Thirties (AD Profile 24): Architectural Design 49, nos. 10–11 (1979): 8495.

66 See also Madge, Pauline, “An Enquiry into Pevsner's Enquiry,” Journal of Design History 1, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 113–26.

67 Editorial, “Modernismus,” Builder 146 (20 April 1934): 667; Reginald Blomfield and A. D. Connell, “For and Against Modern Architecture,” Listener 12 (1934): 885–88. See also Editorial, “Modernismus: A Wireless Discussion,” Builder 148 (1 March 1935): 403–4.

68 Although for another—more dismissive—approach, see Yorke, F. R. S. and Penn, Colin, A Key to Modern Architecture (London, 1939), 2.

69 Crompton, W. Vernon, “Who Will Deliver Us from the Greeks and Romans?RIBA Journal, 3rd ser., 41, no. 2 (19 May 1934): 704–5.

70 E. M. F. [Maxwell Fry], “Modernismus,” Architects’ Journal 79 (8 March 1934): 368.

71 McKeller, “Popularism versus Professionalism,” 41.

72 [Fry], “Modernismus,” 368.

73 P. Morton Shand, “Stockholm 1930,” Architectural Review 68 (August 1930): 67–72, quote at 71.

74 Viscount Burnham, “Civic Spirit,” Architectural Review 69 (March 1931): 77–78, quote at 77.

75 Gustav Näsström, quoted in Barbara Miller Lane, National Romanticism and Modern Architecture in Germany and the Scandinavian Countries (Cambridge, 2000), 286.

76 Shand, “Stockholm 1930,” 69.

77 Powers, Britain, 55–56.

78 Goldhagen, “Coda,” 303.

79 Hobsbawm, Eric and Ranger, Terence, eds., The Invention of Tradition (Cambridge, 1983).

80 Pollock, Griselda, Avant-Garde Gambits, 1888–1893: Gender and the Colour of Art History (London, 1992), 15.

81 ibid., 14.

82 Gloag, John, The English Tradition in Design (London, 1947), 15.

83 [Fry], “Modernismus,” 368.

84 Richards, Introduction to Modern Architecture, 23.

85 J. R. G[old?], “Interview with Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew,” Royal Institute of British Architects, F&D/1/5, 24 November 1986.

86 See, e.g., Lionel Cuffe, “William Morris,” Architectural Review 69 (1931): 151. Still more influentially, P. Morton Shand's series of articles, “Scenario for a Human Drama,” in the Architectural Review 76 (1934), established much the same pedigree; see (July 1934): 9; (May 1934): 39–42; (September 1934): 83–86; (October 1934): 131–34; (1935): 77; (January 1935): 23–26; and (February 1935): 61–64.

87 Pevsner, Nikolaus, Pioneers of the Modern Movement: From William Morris to Walter Gropius (London, 1936).

88 Pevsner, Nikolaus, An Enquiry into Industrial Art in England (Cambridge, 1937), 206.

89 Pawley, “Sense of the Modern,” 28.

90 Gloag, English Tradition, 22.

91 Pevsner, Pioneers of the Modern Movement.

92 See, e.g., Bertram, Anthony, Design in Everyday Life (London, 1937), 5258.

93 Shand, “Scenario for a Human Drama,” 9.

94 Mandler, Peter, “John Summerson (1904–1992): The Architectural Critic and the Search for the Modern,” in After the Victorians: Private Conscience and Public Duty in Modern Britain, ed. Pederson, Susan and Mandler, Peter (London, 1994), 229–46; Rosso, Michaela, “John N. Summerson and Tales of Modern Architecture,” Journal of Architecture 5 (March 2000): 6589; Salmon, Frank, ed., Summerson and Hitchcock: Centenary Essays on Architectural Historiography (New Haven, CT, 2006); and McKeller, “Popularism versus Professionalism,” all shed important light on the development of Summerson.

95 Summerson, John, John Nash: Architect to George IV (London, 1935), Georgian London (London, 1945), and Architecture in Britain, 1530–1830 (London, 1953).

96 Tyack, Geoffrey, Modern Architecture in an Oxford College: St. John's College, 1945–2005 (Oxford, 2005), chap. 2; Colvin, Howard, Essays in English Architectural History (New Haven, CT, 1999), chap. 18.

97 Colvin, Howard, A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 4th ed. (New Haven, CT, 2008), 99. See also Hall, Michael, “‘Our Own’: Thomas Hope, Beresford Hope, and the Creation of the High Victorian Style,” in The 1840s (Studies in Victorian Architecture and Design), vol. 1, ed. Hill, Rosemary and Hall, Michael (London, 2008), 6075, quote at 61.

98 Schmiechen, James A., “The Victorians, the Historians, and the Idea of Modernism,” American Historical Review 93, no. 2 (April 1988): 287316, explores the distorting effects of this more fully. See also Banham, Reyner, Theory and Design in the First Machine Age (1960; repr., London, 1992).

99 Pevsner, Nikolaus, Studies in Art, Architecture and Design, 2 vols. (London, 1968), 2:114.

100 Pevsner, Nikolaus, Outline of European Architecture (London, 1948), 197.

101 Whyte, William, Oxford Jackson: Architecture, Education, Status, and Style, 1835–1924 (Oxford, 2006), 35.

102 Mills, Edward D., The New Architecture in Great Britain, 1946–1953 (London, 1953), 11, simply states: “It is generally accepted that the beginnings of modern architecture in Europe can be traced to the writings of William Morris.” As late as 1987, Eric Hobsbawm, in his Age of Empire (London, 1987), was still arguing this thesis.

103 Stamp, Gavin, “The Origins of the Group,” Architects’ Journal 176 (31 March 1982): 3538; Nikolaus Pevsner, “Ten Years Victorian Society,” Victorian Society Annual, 1968–69, 4–5.

104 W. A. Eden, “The English Tradition in the Countryside: 3,” Architectural Review 77 (May 1935): 193–202, quote at 194.

105 Sharp, Thomas, English Panorama (1936; repr., London, 1950), 142.

106 Tubbs, Ralph, Living in Cities (Harmondsworth, 1942), 2730.

107 Sharp, Thomas, Oxford Replanned (London, 1948).

108 Bertram, Anthony, Design (Harmondsworth, 1938), 109.

109 Colls, Robert, Identity of England (Oxford, 2002), 296.

110 Pevsner, Englishness of English Art, 182.

111 Powers, Britain, 7, 63.

112 Darling, Re-forming Britain, 3.

113 Early examples include Hastings, H., “The English Tradition,” Architectural Review 77 (September 1935): 8586; and W. A. Eden, “English Tradition in the Countryside,” 85–86, 87–94, 142–52, 193–202.

114 Cornforth, John, The Search for a Style: Country Life and Architecture, 1897–1935 (London, 1988); Holder, Julian, “‘Design in Every Day Things’: Promoting Modernism in Britain, 1912–1944,” in Modernism in Design, ed. Greenhalgh, Paul (London, 1990), 123–24; Melvin, Jeremy, F. R. S. Yorke and the Evolution of English Modernism (Chichester, 2003), esp. 28–29.

115 Read, Herbert, The English Vision: An Anthology (London, 1933), vii.

116 Tubbs, Living in Cities, 49.

117 Taut, Bruno, Modern Architecture (London, 1929), 203.

118 Pevsner, Enquiry, 204.

119 Brookes, Rod, “‘Everything in the Garden Is Lovely’: The Representation of National Identity in Sidney Strube's Daily Express Cartoons in the 1930s,” Oxford Art Journal 13, no. 2 (1990): 3143.

120 McGrath, Raymond, Twentieth Century Houses (London, 1934), xi.

121 Games, Naomi, Moriarty, Catherine, and Rose, June, eds., Abram Games, Graphic Designer: Maximum Meaning, Minimum Means (Aldershot, 2003); RIBA, Towards a New Britain (London, 1943); BBC, Homes for All: The British Broadcasting Corporation Looks at the Problem (Worcester, 1945).

122 John Summerson, “New Groundwork of Architecture,” in This Changing World, ed. J. R. M. Brumwell (London, 1944), 182–93, quote at 182.

123 Maxwell Fry, “The New Britain Must Be Planned,” Picture Post, 4 January 1941, 16–20.

124 Fry, Maxwell, Fine Building (London, 1944), 24, 103.

125 Blomfield, Modernismus, 53, 82, 59.

126 Bryant, Arthur, The National Character (London, 1934), 22. See also Shears, W. S., This England: A Book of Shires and Counties (London, 1936), 8. Other good examples of this include the essays by Dawber, Guy, Gordon, Archie, and Bradshaw, H. C. in The Book of the House, ed. Abercrombie, Patrick (London, 1939).

127 Chase, Malcolm, “This Is No Claptrap: This Is Our Heritage,” in The Imagined Past: History and Nostalgia, ed. Shaw, Christopher and Chase, Malcolm (Manchester, 1989), 128–46; Howkins, Alun, “The Discovery of Rural England,” in Englishness: Politics and Culture, ed. Colls, Robert and Dodds, Philip (Beckenham, 1986), 6288.

128 Light, Alison, Forever England: Femininity, Literature and Conservatism between the Wars (London, 1991), 19; Rebecca Scutt and Alistair Bennett, In Search of Rural England: Popular Representations of Englishness and the English Countryside (Newcastle, 1996), 14. However, for an important attack on this, see Mandler, Peter, “Against ‘Englishness’: English Culture and the Limits to Rural Nostalgia, 1850–1940,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser., 7 (1997): 155–75.

129 Bill Schwartz, “Englishness and the Paradox of Modernity,” New Formations 1 (1987): 147–53.

130 Stephens, Christopher, “We Are the Masters Now: Modernism and Reconstruction in Post-war Britain,” in Hughes and van Tuyl, Blast to Freeze, 133–38. See also Richards, J. M., Memoirs of an Unjust Fella (London, 1980), 191.

131 J. M. Richards (1947), quoted in Mumford, CIAM Discourse, 169.

132 Gold, John R., The Experience of Modernism: Modern Architects and the Future City, 1928–1953 (London, 1997), chap. 4.

133 Carter, E. J., “Architectural Reconstruction and War-Time Forms,” in Britain at War, ed. Monroe Wheeler (New York, 1941), 74–79, quote at 74. See also Architectural Review 90 (July 1941), a special issue on Reconstruction.

134 Crook, Dilemma of Style, 257.

135 Editorial, “Programme,” Architectural Review 93 (April 1943): 86.

136 Richards, J. M., Pevsner, Nikolaus, Lancaster, Osbert, and Hastings, H., “The First Half Century,” Architectural Review 101 (January 1947): 26–36, quote at 36.

137 [Hastings], “Townscape,” 361.

138 Richards, J. M., The Functional Tradition in Early Industrial Buildings (London, 1958), 14–15.

139 Matless, David, Landscape and Englishness (London, 1998), 267–73.

140 J. M. Richards, “The Exhibition Buildings,” Architectural Review 109 (1951): 123–38, quote at 123.

141 John Summerson, “South Bank Postscript,” New Statesman and Nation 42 (6 October 1951): 363–64.

142 Dunnett, Harding McGregor, ed., 1951 Exhibition of Architecture: A Guide to the Exhibition of Architecture, Town-Planning and Building Research (London, 1951), 8.

143 Quoted in Bevis Hillier, “Introduction,” in Banham and Hillier, Tonic to the Nation, 10–19, quote at 11.

144 Misha Black, “Architecture, Art and Design in Unison,” in Banham and Hillier, Tonic to the Na tion, 82–85, quote at 82.

145 ibid., 82.

146 Charles Plouviez, “A Minor Mannerism in Art History,” in Banham and Hillier, Tonic to the Na tion, 165–66.

147 Conekin, Becky, “Here Is the Modern World Itself: The Festival of Britain's Representations of the Future,” in Moments of Modernity: Reconstructing Britain, 1945–1964, ed. Conekin, Becky, Mort, Frank, and Waters, Chris (London, 1999), 228–46, quote at 234.

148 Gold, Practice of Modernism, 1.

149 Lancaster, Osbert, Here of All Places (London, 1959), 176.

150 J. M. Richards, “Lansbury,” Architectural Review 110 (December 1951): 361–67, quote at 361. See also Alan Powers, “‘The Reconditioned Eye’: Architects and Artists in English Modernism,” AA Files 25 (Summer 1993): 54–62, quote at 58.

151 William Feaver, “Festival Star,” in Banham and Hillier, Tonic to the Nation, 40–81. See also Peter Mandler, “New Towns for Old: The Fate of the Town Centre,” in Conekin, Mort, and Waters, Moments of Modernity, 208–27.

152 See The Country Life Picture Book of the Coronation (London, 1953).

153 Campbell, Coventry Cathedral.

154 Spence, Basil, Phoenix at Coventry (London, 1962), 35.

155 Editorial, “The MARS Group Exhibition: A Pictorial Record,” Architectural Review 83 (March 1938): 109–116, quote at 116.

156 Bertram, Design, 24.

157 Quoted in Benton, Different World, 56.

158 Curtis, Barry, “One Continuous Interwoven Story: The Festival of Britain,” Block 11 (1985–86): 48–52.

159 Editorial, “Foreword,” Architectural Review 110 (August 1951): 73–79, quote at 74.

160 [Hastings], “Townscape,” 360–61.

161 See, e.g., [Anonymous], “Price on Picturesque Planning,” Architectural Review 95 (February 1944): 47–50; Nikolaus Pevsner, “The Genesis of the Picturesque,” Architectural Review 96 (November 1944): 139–46; S. Lang and Nikolaus Pevsner, “Sir William Temple and Sharawaggi,” Architectural Review 106 (December 1949): 391–93.

162 Pevsner, Englishness of English Art, 179.

163 Muthesius, Stefan, The Postwar University: Utopianist Campus and College (New Haven, CT, 2000).

164 Nikolaus Pevsner, “Picturesque,” Architectural Review 115 (April 1954): 229.

165 Banham, “Revenge of the Picturesque.” See also Gold, Practice of Modernism.

166 As Powers notes in Britain, 93–94.

167 This is usefully discussed in the essays in Corbett, Holt, and Russell, The Geographies of Englishness.

168 See esp. Reyner Banham, “The Style: ‘Flimsy … Effeminate’?” in Banham and Hillier, Tonic to the Nation, 90–98, and “FoB + 10,” Design 149 (May 1961): 40–51.

169 Hewison, Robert, Culture and Consensus: England, Art, and Politic since 1940 (London, 1997), 59.

170 ibid., 67, 74, 82–87; Hewison, Robert, In Anger: Culture in the Cold War, 1945–60 (London, 1988), chap. 1.

171 Richards, J. M., “Europe Rebuilt: 1946–56; What Has Happened to the Modern Movement?Architectural Review 121 (1957): 159–76.

172 See also Whyte, William, “The Modernist Moment at the University of Leeds, 1957–1977,” Historical Journal 51, no. 1 (March 2008): 169–93.

173 Pawley, “Sense of the Modern,” 28.

174 Richards, J. M., “Coventry Cathedral,” Architectural Review 111 (January 1952): 37; Editorial, “Foreword,” Architectural Review 113 (January 1953): 3–5, at 5.

175 Richards, “Lansbury,” 363–67.

176 See Ute Engel, “The Formation of Pevsner's Art History: Nikolaus Pevsner in Germany, 1902–1935,” in Draper, Reassessing Nikolaus Pevsner, 29–55, for a discussion of these two terms.

177 Blomfield, Reginald and Connell, A. D., “For and Against Modern Architecture,” Listener 12 (28 November 1934): 885–88, quote at 887.

178 Bertram, Design, 97.

179 Tubbs, Living in Cities, 49.

180 Elwall, Robert, Building a Better Tomorrow (Chichester, 2000), 1415.

181 Robin, Ron, Enclaves of America: The Rhetoric of American Political Architecture Abroad, 1900–1965 (Princeton, NJ, 1992). More generally, and polemically, see Saunders, Frances Stonor, Who Paid the Piper? The CIA and the Cultural Cold War (London, 1999).

182 Nitzan-Shiftan, Alona, “Contested Zionism-Alternative Modernism: Erich Mendelsohn and the Tel Aviv Chug in Mandate Palestine,” Architectural History 39 (1996): 147–80.

183 Pevsner, Nikolaus, “Roehampton: LCC Housing and the Picturesque Tradition,” Architectural Review 126 (July 1959): 2135, quote at 35. Even as late as 1974, Banham, Reyner was making the same arguments. See his “Park Hill Revisited: English Public Housing That Broke the Rules (but Works Anyway),” Architecture PLUS, May–June 1974, 108–23.

184 Banham, Reyner, “Park Hill Housing, Sheffield,” Architectural Review 130 (December 1961): 403–10, quote at 410.

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