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Crime Scene Photography in England, 1895–1960

  • Amy Bell

Abstract

This article discusses the development of techniques and practices of murder crime scene photography through four pairs of photographs taken in England between 1904 and 1958 and examines their “forensic aesthetic”: the visual combination of objective clues and of subjective aesthetic resonances. Crime scene photographs had legal status as evidence that had to be substantiated by a witness, and their purpose, as expressed in forensic textbooks and policing articles, was to provide a direct transfer of facts to the courtroom; yet their inferential visual nature made them allusive and evocative as well. Each of four pairs of photographs discussed reflects a significant period in the historical evolution of crime scene photography as well as an observable aesthetic influence: the earliest days of police photography and pictorialism; professionalization in the 1930s, documentary photography, and film noir; postwar photographic expansion to the suburban and middle class, advertising images of the family and home; and postwar elegiac landscape photography in the 1950s and compassion shown to infanticidal mothers. Crime scene photographs also demonstrate a remarkable shift in twentieth-century forensic technologies, and they reveal a collection of ordinary domestic and pastoral scenes at the moment when an act of violence made them extraordinary.

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References

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1 Carter, Rodney S., “‘Ocular Proof”: Photographs as Legal Evidence,” Archivaria 69 (Spring 2010): 2347 , at 24; Svensson, Arne and Wendel, Otto, Crime Detection: Modern Methods of Criminal Investigation (London, 1955), 7.

2 Mnookin, Jennifer, “The Image of Truth: Photographic Evidence and the Power of Analogy,” Yale Journal of Law and the Humanities 10, no. 1 (Winter 1998): 174 , at 5.

3 Thomas, Julia Adeney, “The Evidence of Sight,” History and Theory 48, no. 4 (December 2009): 151–68.

4 Hanna, Erika, “Photographs and ‘Truth’ during the Northern Ireland Troubles, 1969–72,” Journal of British Studies 54, no. 2 (April 2015): 457–80.

5 Rugoff, Ralph, Scene of the Crime (London, 1997), 19, 62. See also Panzer, Mary, “Does Crime Pay?,” Archives of American Art Journal 37, no. 3/4 (1997): 1724 ; Phillips, Sandra S., Haworth-Booth, Mark, and Squiers, Carol, Police Pictures: The Photograph as Evidence (San Francisco, 1997); Bray, Rebecca Scott, “Rotten Prettiness? The Forensic Aesthetic and Crime as Art,” Australian Feminist Law Journal 40, no. 1 (October 2014): 6995 ; “Forensic Aesthetics: A Roundtable Forum on and with Objects,” seminar hosted by Cabinet Magazine, Vera List Center for Art and Politics, New York, 4–5 November 2011, http://www.forensic-architecture.org/seminar/forensic-aesthetics/

6 Pemberton, Neil and Burney, Ian, Murder and the Making of English CSI (Baltimore, 2016).

7 From the late 1860s, prisons also began to photograph inmates. See The National Archives (hereafter TNA), PCOM 2/290: Home Office and Prison Commission: Prisons Records, Series 1. See also Cole, Simon A., Suspect Identities: A History of Fingerprinting and Criminal Identification (Cambridge, MA, 2001).

8 Ellenbogen, Josh, Reasoned and Unreasoned Images: The Photography of Bertillon, Galton, and Marey (University Park, 2012).

9 Carter, 37. See also Wigmore, John Henry, Treatise on the System of Evidence in Trials at Common Law: Including the Statutes and Judicial Decisions of All Jurisdictions of the United States (Boston, 1905), 790.

10 Edwards, Elizabeth, “Salvaging Our Past: Photography and Survival,” in Photography, Anthropology and History: Expanding the Frame, ed. Edwards, Elizabeth and Morton, Christopher (London, 2012), 6787 , 69.

11 Battye, Greg, Photography, Narrative, Time: Imaging Our Forensic Imagination (Chicago, 2014), 100.

12 Edwards, “Salvaging our Past,” 70.

13 Olshausen, Bruno A., “Principles of Image Representation in the Visual Cortex,” in The Visual Neurosciences, vol. 2, ed. Chalupa, Leo M. and Werner, John S. (Cambridge, MA, 2004), 1603–15, at 1612; Milosavljevic, Milaca and Cerf, Moran, “First Attention, Then Intention,” International Journal of Advertising 27, no. 3 (January 2008): 381–98. See also Farah, Martha J., The Cognitive Neuroscience of Vision (Oxford, 2000); Christof Koch and Francis Crick, “The Neuronal Basis of Visual Consciousness,” in Chalupa and Werner, eds., The Visual Neurosciences, 1682–94.

14 Sigel, Lisa Z., Governing Pleasures: Pornography and Social Change in England, 1815–1914 (New Brunswick, 2002). See also Collins, Marcus, “The Pornography of Permissiveness: Men's Sexuality and Women's Emancipation in Mid Twentieth-Century Britain,” History Workshop Journal, no. 47 (Spring 1999): 99120 .

15 Hughes, Justin, “The Photographer's Copyright: Photograph as Art, Photograph as Database,” Harvard Journal of Law and Technology 25, no. 2 (Spring 2012): 328418 , at 352; Gruesome Photographs Excluded: Gruesome Nature Renders Photographic Evidence Inadmissible in Criminal Trial,” Stanford Law Review 4, no. 4 (July 1952): 589–91; Douglas, Kevin S., Lyon, David R., and Ogloff, James R. P., “The Impact of Graphic Photographic Evidence on Mock Jurors’ Decisions in a Murder Trial: Probative or Prejudicial?,” Law and Human Behavior 21, no. 5 (October 1997): 485501 .

16 Casswell, J. D., Only Five Were Hanged (London, 1964), 238.

17 Edwards, Elizabeth, “Photographic Uncertainties: Between Evidence and Reassurance,” History and Anthropology 25, no. 2 (2014): 171–88.

18 Kiralfy, A. K. R., The English Legal System (London, 1967), 152158 .

19 See Judicial Photography,” Photographic Journal 15 (1872): 107; Jäger, Jens, “Photography: a Means of Surveillance? Judicial Photography 1850 to 1900,” Crime, Histoire et Sociétés/ Crime, History and Societies 5, no. 1 (2001): 2751 .

20 Deposition of Detective Constable and Divisional Photographer Ron Edwards of the Cheshire Constabulary, in the Case against Mary Bracken, 1958. TNA, ASSI 84/242.

21 Nead, Lynda, “Visual Cultures of the Courtroom: Reflections on History, Law and the Image,” Visual Culture in Britain 3, no. 2 (2002): 119–41.

22 TNA, MEP0 20/3 and MEPO 20/4. See also D'Cruze, Shani, Everyday Violence in Britain, 1850–1950: Gender and Class (Oxford, 2002); Jackson, Louise and D'Cruze, Shani, Women, Crime and Justice in England since 1660 (London, 2009); Weiner, Martin, Men of Blood: Violence, Manliness and Criminal Justice in Victorian England (Cambridge, 2005).

23 They may have been kept to illustrate points of detection for presentations to police conferences, bodies such as the Fingerprint Association, or personal memoirs. Conversation with curator Duncan Broady, Greater Manchester Police Museum and Archives, 29 July 2015.

24 See Burney, Ian and Pemberton, Neil, “Making Space for Criminalistics: Hans Gross and Fin-de-Siècle CSI,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Biology and Biomedical Sciences 44, no. 1 (March 2013): 1625 ; Burney, Ian and Pemberton, Neil, “Bruised Witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the Performance of Early Twentieth-Century Forensic Pathology,” Medical History 55, no. 1 (January 2011): 4160 ; Browne, Douglas, The Rise of Scotland Yard: A History of the Metropolitan Police (London, 1956).

25 TNA, ASSI 6/39/6.

26 Ibid.

27 Surviving records in ASSI 5/236 are mold damaged and currently unavailable.

28 Gibson, Ross, “On the Senses and Semantic Excess in Photographic Evidence,” Journal of Material Culture 18, no. 3 (September 2013): 243–57.

29 Edwards, Elizabeth, “Photography and History: Emotions and Materiality,” in Museum Materialities: Objects, Engagements, Interpretations, ed. Dudley, Sandra (London, 2010), 2138 , 34.

30 Frederick Tainton may have later abandoned his photographic career; he was listed in the 1911 census as “painter: artist.” 1911 Census of England and Wales, Ledbury Urban, Ledbury, Herefordshire, England, https://www.findmypast.co.uk, accessed 12 August 2015.

31 Nordstrom, Alison and Padon, Thomas, TruthBeauty: Pictorialism and the Photograph as Art, 1845–1945 (Vancouver, 2008), 33.

32 Petrow, Stefan, Policing Morals: The Metropolitan Police and the Home Office, 1870–1914 (Oxford, 1994), 40. See also Burney, Ian, Pemberton, Neil, and Kirby, David, “Introducing Forensic Cultures,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44, no. 1 (March 2013): 13 ; Shpayer-Makov, Haia, The Ascent of the Detective: Police Sleuths in Victorian and Edwardian England (Oxford, 2011); Crawley, F. J., “The Technique of Investigation of the English Detective,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, no. 154 (November 1929): 219–22.

33 TNA, MEPO 2/575.

34 Captain Hutchinson, W. J., “Photography,” in Crime and Its Detection, vol. 1, ed. Shore, W. Teignmouth (London, 1931), 44.

35 O'Brien, J., “Simple Photography for Policemen: Part I,” Police Journal 9, no. 1 (January 1936): 66.

36 See also Weegee [Arthur Fellig], Naked City (New York, 1945); Millett, Larry, Strange Days Dangerous Nights: Photos from the Speed Graphic Era (St. Paul, 2004); Hannigan, William J., New York Noir: Crime Photos from the Daily News Archive (New York, 1999); Miller, Barbara, “The New Flesh,” Afterimage 26, no. 5 (1999): 67 ; Williams, Kevin, Get Me a Murder a Day! A History of Mass Communication in Britain (London, 1998).

37 Roberts, Russell, “Taxonomy: Some Notes towards the Histories of Photographs and Classification,” in In Visible Light, ed. Iles, Chrissie and Roberts, Russell (Oxford, 1997), 953 , at 38.

38 “Man Shot Dead at House of Knight's Daughter,” Daily Mirror, 1 June 1932, 2. Reporters often noted when police photographers were at the scene of the crime, as in the Soho murder of “Fifi” Martin in November 1935, and at the discovery of a woman found dead in Aldgate in July 1938 in a flat still decorated for Christmas. “Riddle of Woman's Death in Flat,” Daily Mirror, 5 November 1935, 5; “Mystery Death of Young Woman,” Daily Mirror, 1 July 1938, 1.

39 TNA, MEPO 2/5523.

40 Royal Commission on the Press, Memoranda of Evidence Submitted to the Royal Commission on the Press (London, 1947), 64.

41 For published accounts of police crime scene photographs, see Doyle, Peter and Williams, Caleb, City of Shadows: Sydney Police Photographs, 1912–1948 (Sydney, 2007); Lerner, Jesse and Patán, Julio, The Shock of Modernity: Crime Photography in Mexico City (New York, 2007); Wride, Tim B., Scene of the Crime: Photographs from the LAPD Archive (New York, 2004); Tejaratchi, Sean and Dunn, Katherine, Death Scenes: A Homicide Detective's Scrapbook (Port Townsend, 2000); Burns, Stanley B. and Cleary-Burns, Sara, Deadly Intent: Crime and Punishment: Photographs from the Burns Archive (Brooklyn, 2008); Parry, Eugenia, Crime Album Stories: Paris, 1886–1902 (London, 2000).

42 Bell, Amy Helen, “Abortion Crime Scene Photography in London, 1950–1968,” Social History of Medicine 30, no. 3 (August 2017): 661–84.

43 See Williams, Chris A., “‘Home and Away;’ The Cross-Fertilisation between ‘Colonial’ and ‘British’ Policing, 1921–85,” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 35, no. 2 (June 2007): 221–38; Sinclair, Georgina, ed. Globalising British Policing (Farnham, 2011); Sinclair, Georgina, At the End of the Line: Colonial Policing and the Imperial Endgame, 1945–80 (Manchester, 2006).

44 Sante, Luc, Evidence (New York, 1992), 92.

45 Forensic medicine holdings from the University of Glasgow Archives are archived online at http://www.fmap.archives.gla.ac.uk/. See also Crowther, M. Anne and White, Brenda, On Soul and Conscience: The Medical Expert and Crime, 150 Years of Forensic Medicine in Glasgow (Aberdeen, 1988); Glaister, John Jr. and Brash, James Cooper, Medico-Legal Aspects of the Ruxton Case (Edinburgh, 1937).

46 Summerly, Paula, “‘In Camera’: Photographing Forensic Medicine and Science c. 1920–1940,” Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine 30, no. 1 (March 2007): 1723 .

47 Nick Duvall, “Forensic Medicine in Scotland, 1914–39” (PhD diss., University of Manchester, 2013), 167; Summerly, “In Camera,” 22. See also Ambage, Norman and Clarke, Michael, “Unbuilt Bloomsbury: Medico-Legal Institutes and Forensic Science Laboratories in England between the Wars,” in Legal Medicine in History, ed. Clark, Michael (Cambridge, 1994), 293313 .

48 Wilkinson, “The New Heraldry,” 27.

49 See Edwards, Elizabeth, “Photographic Uncertainties: Between Evidence and Reassurance,” History and Anthropology 25, no. 2 (March 2014): 171–88; Thomas, Ann, Beauty of Another Order: Photography in Science (Oxford, 1997); Keller, Corey, ed., Brought to Light: Photography and the Invisible, 1840–1900 (New Haven, 2008); Tucker, Jennifer, Nature Exposed: Photography as Eyewitness in Victorian Science (Baltimore, 2013); Prodger, Phillip, Darwin's Camera: Art and Photography in the Theory of Evolution (Oxford, 2009); Gurney, Peter, “‘Intersex’ and ‘Dirty Girls’: Mass-Observation and Working-Class Sexuality in England in the 1930s,” Journal of the History of Sexuality 8, no. 2 (October 1997): 256–90.

50 Naremore, James, More than Night: Film Noir in Its Contexts (Berkeley, 2008), 170.

51 Surrealist photography is a notable exception. See Walker, Ian, City Gorged with Dreams: Surrealism and Documentary Photography in Interwar Paris (Manchester, 2002); Krauss, Rosalind E., ed., L'amour fou: Photography and Surrealism (Washington, DC, 1985).

52 Solomon-Godeau, Abigail, “Who Is Speaking Thus?,” in Photography at the Dock (Minneapolis, 1986), 169–83, at 170.

53 Edwards, Elizabeth, “Photography and the Material Performance of the Past,” History and Theory 48, no. 4 (December 2009): 130–50.

54 Solomon-Godeau, “Who Is Speaking Thus?,” 170. In 1926, Scottish filmmaker John Grierson coined the term “documentary” to describe a photographic approach that inflects reality with feeling for a political purpose. “Flaherty's Poetic Moana,” New York Sun, 8 February 1926, reprinted in Jacobs, Lewis, ed., The Documentary Tradition, 2nd ed. (New York, 1979), 2526 .

55 See the London Street Photography exhibit at the Museum of London, 2011 (selected images), http://uk.phaidon.com/agenda/photography/picture-galleries/2011/february/18/from-the-streets-of-london/, accessed 18 August 2014; the exhibit Mass Observation: This Is Your Photo, at the Photographer's Gallery, London, 2 August–9 September 2013; Humphrey Spender's photographs for the Daily Mirror in “Lensman”: Photographs, 1932–52 (London, 1987); Brandt, Bill, The English at Home (London, 1936).

56 Brooke, Stephen, “Revisiting Southam Street: Class, Generation, Gender, and Race in the Photography of Roger Mayne,” Journal of British Studies 53, no. 2 (April 2014): 453–96.

57 Sedgwick, John and Pokorny, Michael, “The Film Business in the United States and Britain during the 1930s,” Economic History Review, New Series 58, no. 1 (February 2005): 79112 . See also James, Robert, “Popular Film-Going in Britain in the Early 1930s,” Journal of Contemporary History 46, no. 2 (April 2011): 271–87; Grandy, Christine, Heroes and Happy Endings: Class, Gender, and Nation in Popular Film and Fiction in Interwar Britain (Manchester, 2014).

58 Karpf, Stephen Louis, The Gangster Film: Emergence, Variation and Decay of a Genre, 1930–1940 (New York, 1973).

59 See Jacobs, Steven, The Wrong House: The Architecture of Alfred Hitchcock (Rotterdam, 2014); Fay, Jennifer and Nieland, Justus, Film Noir: Hard-Boiled Modernity and the Cultures of Globalization (London, 2009); Ryall, Tom, Alfred Hitchcock and the British Cinema, 2nd ed. (London, 1996). Other English detective and noir films include Accused (1936), a Paris nightclub whodunit; The Arsenal Stadium Mystery (1939); Night Train to Munich (1940); and Green for Danger (1946).

60 See Jacobs, The Wrong House; Ryall, Alfred Hitchcock and the British Cinema.

61 Dimendberg, Edward, Film Noir and the Spaces of Modernity (Cambridge, MA, 2004). See also Dixon, Wheeler Winston, Film Noir and the Cinema of Paranoia (Edinburgh, 2009); Thompson, Kirsten Moana, Crime Films: Investigating the Scene (London, 2007); Rafter, Nicole, Shots in the Mirror: Crime Films and Society (New York, 2006). Bill Brandt's wartime photographs of deserted London streets also borrow from the noir cinematic genre. See A Night in London (1938), the second plate of The English at Home (1936), and the 1948 essay for Picture Post, “The Night Watch on Crime,” 1 May 1948, 19–20, which features Police Constable H301 alone in a desert of wet concrete.

62 Wilkinson, Helen, “‘The New Heraldry’: Stock Photography, Visual Literacy, and Advertising in 1930s Britain,” Journal of Design History 10, no. 1 (January 1997): 2338 .

63 Yevonde, Madame [Yevonde Cumbers Middelton], In Camera (London, 1940), 186.

64 Emsley, Clive, The English Police (London, 1991); Report of the Departmental Committee on Detective Work and Procedure (London, 1938), vol. 5, chaps. 7 and 8. The report also gave blueprints for a standardized layout of photography studio for photographing prisoners under standard conditions, including information on lighting, building a chair, and constructing a turntable with a plain box camera with fixed focus to “make the process so easy that unskilled persons can readily operate it.” Report, 180.

65 Laybourn, Keith and Taylor, David, Policing in England and Wales, 1918–1939: The Feds, Flying Squad and Forensics (Basingstoke, 2011).

66 Smith, Gordon, Bradford's Police (Bradford, 1974), 126 and 128. For more on the Sheffield Police Photographic Department, see Forbes, Gilbert and White, James, “Chronic Mercury Poisoning in Latent Finger-Print Development,” British Medical Journal 1, no. 4764 (26 April 1952): 899902 .

67 “Manchester Police Photographer Retires,” Manchester Evening News, 5 August 1980, 8; Laybourn and Taylor, Policing in England and Wales, 93. See also Broady, Duncan and Tetlow, Dave, Law and Order in Manchester (Stroud, 2005), 70.

68 TNA, MEPO 2/5938.

69 Ibid. The large increase was due in part to the creation of Divisional Albums identifying individuals and their positions.

70 Ibid.

71 Walkowitz, Judith, Nights Out: Life in Cosmopolitan London (New Haven, 2012). See also Houlbrook, Matt, Queer London: Perils and Pleasures of the Sexual Metropolis, 1918–1957 (Chicago, 2005).

72 TNA, MEPO 2/4955.

73 TNA, MEPO 3/758.

74 Walkowitz, Nights Out, 92.

75 TNA, MEPO 3/1682; TNA, CRIM 1/653.

76 TNA, CN 27/10.

77 TNA, CRIM 1/653. See Shpayer-Makov, Haia, “Journalists and Police Detectives in Victorian and Edwardian England: An Uneasy Reciprocal Relationship,” Journal of Social History 42, no. 4 (Summer 2009): 963–87; Rodrick, Anne Baltz, “‘Only a Newspaper Metaphor’: Crime Reports, Class Conflict, and Social Criticism in Two Victorian Newspapers,” Victorian Periodicals Review 29, no. 1 (Spring 1996): 118 .

78 Valentin, Albert, “Eugene Atget, 1856–1927,” Variétés 1, no. 8 (December 1928): 403–7; reprinted in Phillips, Christopher, ed., Photography in the Modern Era: European Documents and Critical Writings, 1913–1940 (New York, 1989), 20.

79 “Murder in Soho Restaurant,” London Times, 1 July 1933, 9.

80 “News in Brief,” London Times, 11 August 1933, 7.

81 Harold Scott, Scotland Yard (London, 1954), 22–3.

82 Philip Paul, Murder under the Microscope: The Story of Scotland Yard's Forensic Science Laboratory (New York, 1990), 97.

83 Radley, J. A., Photography in Crime Detection (London, 1948).

84 Ibid., 15.

85 Ibid., 46. For example, the Germain School of Photography, 225 Broadway, New York, offered a two-term course in legal and police photography with both laboratory and crime scene applications. See Nicol, Joseph D., “Police Science Technical Abstracts and Notes,” Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science 43, no. 4 (December 1952): 556–57.

86 Svensson, Arne and Wendel, Otto, Crime Detection: Modern Methods of Criminal Investigation (London, 1955), 7.

87 Seabourne, Mike, Photographer's London, 1839–1994 (London, 1995), 165–87.

88 Elliott, Blanche B., A History of English Advertising (London, 1962), 201; Fletcher, Winston, Powers of Persuasion: The Inside Story of British Advertising (Oxford, 2008), 30.

89 Sobieszek, Robert A., The Art of Persuasion: A History of Advertising Photography (New York, 1988), 65.

90 Frosh, Paul, The Image Factory: Consumer Culture, Photography and the Visual Content Imagery (Oxford, 2003).

91 Nevett, T. R., Advertising in Britain: A History (London, 1982), 184.

92 Pollen, Annebella, Mass Photography: Collective Histories of Everyday Life (London, 2016). For more on found photographs, see Batchen, Geoffrey, “Ere the Substance Fade: Photography and Hair Jewellery,” in Photographs, Objects, Histories, ed. Edwards, Elizabeth and Hart, Janice (London, 2004); Samuel, Raphael, “The Discovery of Old Photographs,” in Theatres of Memory, vol. 1 (London, 1994).

93 Alexa Hannah Leah Neale, “‘The Place Was Equipped with the Impediments of Fetishism and Perversion…’: The Deviant Home in Mid-Century Murder Cases,” paper presented at the Crime and Deviance in 20th Century Britain Conference, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK, 26–27 June 2014.

94 TNA, CRIM 1/2248.

95 Ibid.

96 “Seven Year Sentence for Manslaughter,” London Times, 17 September 1953, 3.

97 TNA, CRIM 1/2248.

98 Levine, Philippa, “States of Undress: Nakedness and the Colonial Imagination,” Victorian Studies 50, no. 2 (Winter 2008): 189219 , at 190. See also Sigel, Lisa Z., “Filth in the Wrong People's Hands: Postcards and the Expansion of Pornography in Britain and the Atlantic World, 1880–1914,” Journal of Social History 33, no. 4 (Summer 2000): 859–85.

99 See “New Search in Death Garden,” Daily Mirror, 25 April, 1953, 1; Mort, Frank, Capital Affairs: London and the Making of the Permissive Society (New Haven, 2010).

100 Pemberton, Neil and Burney, Ian, “The House of Murder: The Christie Investigation and the Making of the Modern Crime Scene,” Manchester Memoirs, no. 150 (2013): 108–23.

101 TNA, MEPO 2/8308.

102 Ibid.

103 Svensson, Arne and Wendel, Otto, Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation, 2nd ed. (New York, 1965), 30–1. This title, now edited by Barry A. J. Fisher and David R. Fisher, is in its seventh edition (Boca Raton, 2003).

104 See TNA, CRIM 1/5093; TNA, CRIM 1/4678; TNA, CRIM 1/4604.

105 See Cossins, Annie, Female Criminality: Infanticide, Moral Panics and the Female Body (Basingstoke, 2015); Jackson, Mark, ed., Infanticide: Historical Perspectives on Child Murder and Concealment, 1550–2000 (Aldershot, 2002).

106 TNA, ASSI 84/242.

107 Ibid.

108 Ibid.

109 Booth, Mark Haworth, Bill Brandt: Behind the Camera (New York, 1985), 52. See also Booth, Mark Haworth and Brandt, Bill, The Land: Twentieth-Century Landscape Photographs (New York, 1976); Wells, Liz, Land Matters: Landscape Photography, Culture and Identity (London, 2011).

110 See Brooke, Stephen, “War and the Nude: The Photography of Bill Brandt in the 1940s,” Journal of British Studies 45, no. 1 (January 2006): 118–38; Mitchell, W. J. T., Landscape and Power (Chicago, 2002); Daniels, Stephen, Fields of Vision: Landscape Imagery and National Identity in England and the United States (London, 1994); Taylor, John, A Dream of England: Landscape, Photography, and the Tourist's Imagination (Manchester, 1994); Barrell, John, The Dark Side of the Landscape: The Rural Poor in English Painting, 1730–1840 (Cambridge, 1983); Stephen Brooke, “Power Stations and the Modern Pastoral,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-Atlantic Conference on British Studies, Baltimore, 28 March 2015; Taylor, Bryan C., “Nuclear Pictures and Metapictures,” American Literary History 9, no. 3 (Autumn 1997): 567–97; Kinsman, Phil, “Landscape, Race and National Identity: The Photography of Ingrid Pollard,” Area 27, no. 4 (December 1995): 300–10.

111 Rugoff, Scene of the Crime, 19.

112 Edwards, “Photography and History,” 34. See also Edwards, Elizabeth and Lien, Sigrid, eds., Uncertain Images: Museums and the Work of Photographs (Farnham, 2014).

113 Thomas, Julia Adeney, “Photographic Calculations: Intimate Trauma and Cool Distance in Postwar Japan,” in Rethinking Historical Distance, ed. Caine, Julia Adeney B. and Phillips, Mark Salber (Basingstoke, 2013), 158–79, at 164.

114 TNA, MEPO 2/10369.

115 Ibid.

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