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Selected studies of the Menopause*

  • Sonja M. McKinlay (a1) and John B. McKinlay (a1)


Literature on the subject of the menopause, primarily from the past three decades, is selectively reviewed in the form of an annotated bibliography. In order to highlight particular methodological problems, the review is presented in three sections, each preceded by a brief discussion, as follows: (a) the general report of clinical observation or experience, (b) the survey, and (c) the clinical trial. Several recommendations are also made for further research in this field.



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Amundsen, D.W. & Diers, C.J. (1970) The age of menopause in classical Greece and Rome. Hum. Biol. 42, 79.
Backman, G. (1948) Die beschleunigte Entwicklung der Jugend. Acta anat. 4, 421.
Campbell, C.H. (1937) Mental aspects of the menopause. J. Okla. St. med. Ass. 30, 12.
Currier, A.F. (1897) The Menopause. Appleton, New York.
Detre, T. (1968) Severe emotional reactions precipitated by the climacterium. Psychosomatics, Sect. 2 (July–August).
Deutsch, H. (1944) The Psychology of Women, Volume II. Grune and Stratton, New York.
Donovan, J.C. (1951) Menopausal syndrome: a study of case histories. Am. J. Obstet. Gynec. 62, 1281.
Du Buis, M.P. (1964) Quelles sont les femmes destinées à une adaption ménopausique difficile? Bull. Féd. Socs Gynéc. Obstét. Lang. fr. 16, 447.
Engle, E.T. (1944) The menopause—an introduction. J. clin. Endocr. Metab. 4, 567.
Farrell, D.M. (1948) Dangers in the management of the climacteric. Med. Clins N. Am. 32, 1523.
Fessler, L. (1950) The psychopathology of climacteric depression. Psychoanal. Q. 19, 28.
Filskov, A. (1936) On the frequency of psychoses in the climacteric [Danish]. Ugeskr. Laeg. 98, 235.
Fluhmann, C.F. (1944) Hormonal relations of menopausal symptoms. J. clin. Endocr. Metab. 4, 586.
Goldberg, M.B. (1959) Medical management of the menopause. Modern Medical Monographs, 1, 7. Grune & Stratton, New York.
Goldfarb, A.F. (1969) The climacteric and some of its problems. Geriatrics, 24, 107.
Greenblatt, R.B. (1952) Newer concepts in the management of the menopause. Geriatrics, 7, 263.
Greenblatt, R.B. (1955) Metabolic and psychosomatic disorders in menopausal women. Geriatrics, 10, 165.
Hannan, J.H. (1927) The Flushings of the Menopause. Baillière, Tindall & Cox, London.
Hoskins, R.G. (1944) The psychological treatment of the menopause. J. clin. Endocr. Metab. 4, 605.
Jacobi, E. (1932) Die Psychoneurosen im Klimakterium und in der Involution, einschliesslich des Klimakterium virile. Zentbl. Psychother. 5, 32.
Jamieson, G.R. & Wall, J.H. (1932) Mental reactions at the climacterium. Am. J. Psychiat. 11, 895.
Kerr, M.D. (1968) Psychohormonal approach to the menopause. Mod. Treat. 5, 587.
Lambillion, J. (1971) Traitements hormonaux de la ménopause. Brux. méd., 51, 535.
Layenaire, M. (1963) Troubles neuro-psychiques de la ménopause. Annls méd Nancy, 2, 1609.
Lazarsfeld, S. & Kadis, A. (1954) L'Age critique est-il un age critique?. Psyché, Paris, 9, 152.
McEwen, D.C. (1965) Ovarian failure and the menopause. Can. med. Ass. J. 92, 963.
Malleson, J. (1956) Climacteric stress; its empirical management. Br. med. J. ii, 1422.
Mannes, M. (1968) Of time and the woman. Psychosomatics, Sect.2 (July–August).
De Medeiros, M. (1949) Neuroses and psychoses of the female climacteric. J. Brazil Psiquiat. 1, 69.
Moreau, P.M. (1972) Une nouvelle thérapeutique non hormonale des bouffées de chaleur. Thérapeutique, 48, 153.
Norbury, F.P. (1934) The climacteric from the viewpoint of mental disorders. Med. Rec., N.Y. 140, 605.
Novak, E. (1940) The management of the menopause. Am. J. Obstet. Gynec. 40, 589.
Osofsky, J.H. & Seidenberg, R. (1970) Is female menopausal depression inevitable?. Obstet.Gynec N.Y. 36, 611.
Post, J.B. (1971) Ages at menarche and menopause: some mediaeval authorities. Popul. Stud. 25, 83.
Prados, M. (1967) Emotional factors in the climacterium of women. Psychother. and Psychosom. 15, 231.
Rogers, J. (1956) The menopause. New Engl. J. Med. 254, 697.
Saunders, E.B. (1932) Mental reactions associated with the menopause. sth. med. J. Nashville, 25, 266.
Sevringhaus, E.L. (1935) The relief of menopausal symptoms by estrogenic preparations. J. Am. med. Ass. 104, 624.
Shorr, E. (1942) Problems of mental adjustment at the climacteric. Publ. Hlth Rep., Wash. Suppl. 168, 125.
Sicher, L. (1949) Change of life. Am. J. Psychother. 3, 399.
Simon, A. (1968) Emotional problems of women—the mature years and beyond. Psychosomatics, Sect. 2 (July–August).
Sonkin, L.S. & Cohen, E.J. (1968) Treatment of the menopause. Mod. Treat. 5, 545.
Stern, K. & Prados, M. (1946) Personality studies in menopausal women. Am. J. Psychiat. 103, 358.
Walsh, J.W. (1968) The menopause. Rhode Isl. med. J. 51, 548.
Williams, D. (1971) The menopause. Br. med. J. ii, 208.
Benjamin, F. (1960) The age of the menarche and the menopause in white South African women and certain factors influencing these times. S. Afr. med. J. 34, 316.
Burgh, P.R.J. & Gunz, F.W. (1967) The distribution of the menopausal age in New Zealand. An exploratory study. N.Z. med. J. 66, 6.
Erkrath, F.A. (1969) Der Einfluss des Klimakterium auf den betrieblichen Krankenstand. Zentbl. Gynak. 19, 607.
Frere, G. (1971) Mean age at menopause and menarche in South Africa. S. Afr. J. med. Sci. 36, 21.
Frommer, D.J. (1964) Changing age of the menopause. Br. med. J. ii, 349.
Greenhill, M.H. (1946) A psychosomatic evaluation of the psychiatric and endocrinological factors in the menopause. Sth. med. J. Nashville, 39, 786.
Hauser, G.A., Remen, U., Valaer, M., Erb, H., Muller, Th. & Oribi, J. (1963) Menarche and menopause in Israel. Gynaecologia, 155, 39.
Jaszmann, L., Van Lith, N.D. & Zatt, J.C.A. (1969) The age at menopause in the Netherlands. Int. J. Fert. 14, 106.
Jaszmann, L., Van Lith, N.D. & Zatt, J.C.A. (1969b) The perimenopausal symptoms. Med. Gynaec. and Sociol. 4, 268.
McDowell, J.G. & Paterson, A.S. (1940) The physical and psychological symptoms of the menopause. J. Obstet. Gynaec. Br. Emp. 47, 319.
McKinlay, S., Jefferys, M. & Thompson, B. (1972) An investigation of the age at menopause. J. biosoc. Sci. 4, 161.
MacMahon, B. & Worcester, J. (1966) Age at menopause: United States, 1960–1962. US Vital and Health Statistics, Series 11, Number 19.
Maoz, B., Dowty, N., Antonovsky, A. & Wijsenbeek, H. (1970) Female attitudes to the menopause. Soc. Psychiatry, 5, 35.
Medical Women's Federation (1933) An investigation of the menopause in one thousand women. Lancet, i, 106.
Neugarten, B.L. & Kraines, R.J. (1965) Menopausal symptoms in women of various ages. Psychosom. Med. 27, 266.
Neugarten, B.L., Wood, V., Kraines, R.J. & Loomis, B. (1963) Women's attitudes towards the menopause. Vita hum. 6, 140.
Newton, M. & Odom, P.L. (1964) The menopause and its symptoms. Sth. med. J. Nashville, 57, 1309.
Norris, C.C. (1919) The menopause. An analysis of two hundred cases. Am. J. Obstet. 79, 767.
Prill, H.J. von(1966) Die Beziehung von erkrankungen und sozialpsychologischen Faktoren zum Klimakterium. Medsche. Klin. 61, 1325.
Proppe, A. & Hauss, H. (1966) Beschwerden und Befunde in der dermatologischen Sprechstunde bei Frauen im Klimakterium. Internist, 7, 333.
Rybo, G. & Westerberg, H. (1971) Symptoms in the post-menopause—a population study. A preliminary report. Acta obstet. gynec. scand. 50, Suppl. 9.
Soberon, J., Calderon, J.J., & Goldzieher, J.W. (1966) Relation of parity to age at menopause. Am. J. Obstet. Gynec. 96, 96.
Thompson, B., Hart, S.A. & Durno, D. (1973) Menopausal age and symptomatology in a general practice. J. biosoc. Sci. 5, 71.
Utian, W.H. (1972a) The true clinical features of postmenopause and oophorectomy, and their response to oestrogen therapy. S. Afr. med. J. 46, 732.
Blahey, P.R. (1969) Double-blind and prolonged constant quinestrol therapy in the menopausal patient. Curr. ther. Res. 11, 755.
Blatt, M.H.G., Wiesbader, H. & Kupperman, H.S. (1953) Vitamin E and climacteric syndrome. Archs intern. Med. 91, 792.
Buxton, C.L. (1944) Medical therapy during the menopause. J. clin. Endocr. Metab. 4, 591.
Forman, J. (1968) Hormonal versus psychosomatic disturbance of the menopause. Psychosomatics, Sect. 2 (July–August).
Greenblatt, R.B., Barfield, W.E., Garner, J.F., Calk, G.L. & Harrod, J.P. (1950) Evaluations of an oestrogen, androgen, oestrogen-androgen combination and a placebo in the treatment of the menopause. J. clin. Endocr. Metab. 10, 1547.
Hawkinson, L.F. (1938) The menopausal syndrome. One thousand consecutive patients treated with estrogen. J. Am. med. Ass. 111, 390.
Hazan, S.J. & Connelly, R. (1964) The menopause—flush, fantasy and denial. West. J. Surg. Obstet. Gynec. 72, 167.
Jarvinex, P.A., Kokkoneu, J. & Ryhaneu, P. (1971) Oestriol succinate in the treatment of climacteric women (a double-blind trial). Acta obstet. gynec. scand. 50, Suppl. 9.
Kerr, M. McK. (1970) Amitriptyline in emotional states at the menopause. N.Z. med. J. 72, 243.
Lozman, H., Barlow, A.L. & Levitt, D.G. (1971) Piperazine estrone sulfate and conjugated estrogens equine in the treatment of the menopausal syndrome. Sth. med. J. Nashville, 64, 1143.
Martin, P.L., Burnier, A.M. & Greaney, M.O. (1972) Oral menopausal therapy using 17-β micronized estradiol—a preliminary study of effectiveness, tolerance and patient preference. Obstet. Gynec. N.Y. 39, 771.
Pratt, J.P. & Thomas, W.L. (1937) The endocrine treatment of menopausal phenomena. J. Am. med. Ass. 109, 1875.
Roland, M., Stubbs, S. & Ober, W.B. (1972) Perimenopausal patients: treatment with continual escalating-dose synthetic oestrogen with added progestogen. Geriatrics, 27, 138.
Utian, W.H. (1972b) The mental tonic effect of oestrogens administered to oophorectomized females. S. Afr. med. J. 46, 1079.
Wiesbader, H. & Kurzrok, R. (1938) The menopause: a consideration of the symptoms, etiology and treatment by means of estrogens. Endocrinology, 23, 32.
Gray, P.G. (1955) The memory factor in social surveys. J. Am. statist. Ass., 50, 344.
Lennane, K.J. & Lennane, R.J. (1973) Alleged psychogenic disorders in women–a possible manifestation of sexual prejudice. New Engl. J. Med., 288, 288.
McKinlay, J.B. (1973) On the professional regulation of change. In: The Professions and Social Change. (Edited by Halmos, P.), Sociological Review Monograph, Number 20.
Scheff, T.J. (1964) Preferred errors in diagnosis. Med. Care, 2, 166.
Scully, D. & Bart, P. (1973) A funny thing happened on the way to the orifice: women in gynaecology textbooks. Am. J. Sociol., 78, 1045.
Seaman, B. (1972) Dear injurious physician. New York Times, December 2nd.
Tilt, E.J. (1857) The Change of Life in Health and Disease. Churchill, London.
Wilson, R.A. & Wilson, T.A. (1963) The fate of non-treated post-menopausal women: a plea for the maintenance of adequate oestrogen therapy from puberty to the grave. J. Am. Geriat. Soc., 11, 347.
Zborowski, M. (1952) Cultural components in response to pain. J. social Issues, 8, 16.
Zola, I.K. (1966) Culture and symptoms—an analysis of patients presenting complaints. Am. social. Rev., 31, 615.

Selected studies of the Menopause*

  • Sonja M. McKinlay (a1) and John B. McKinlay (a1)


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