Data collected on fertility and family planning between November 1979 and March 1980 in eight provinces of Papua New Guinea (PNG) are presented in this report. Interviews with 2923 rural and 3360 urban male and female respondents found attitudes favouring large families. There was a relatively high level of contraceptive awareness, but the overall practice of modern contraception in both rural and urban areas is low. Despite the rural–urban differences in socioeconomic levels, awareness of family planning is only slightly higher among the urban respondents. The level of usage for the urban respondents is slightly higher than for the rural respondents.