Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-67gxp Total loading time: 0.427 Render date: 2021-03-08T13:40:25.641Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

COHORT MARRIAGE KINETICS IN THE CONTEXT OF MIGRATION, WITH A CASE STUDY OF JAPAN, 1920–1940

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 December 2015

Jianghua Liu
Affiliation:
Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany Institute for Population & Development Studies, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, China
Corresponding

Summary

The concept of marriage squeeze expects a positive association between marriage formation and the availability of preferred mates. Previous research to test the hypothesis has had mixed results owing to inconsistent marriage measures, inconsistent age focuses and insufficient attention to migration. This study derives kinetics equations of marriage formation to link cohort age-specific mate availability to migration-adjusted marriage rate/incidence, a measure in contrast to nominal marriage rate. On testing the equations with Japanese census data for 1920–1940, it is found that, in female cohorts, mate availability impacts first marriage rate at the life-course stage from 15–19 to 20–24 years, but not at later stages. Among young females, the decline in mate availability accounted for about 21% of the decline in first marriage rate over the period 1920–1940, when there was a trend towards later but not less marriage in Japan. The study suggests that the flexibility of mate/spouse choice in females varies along the marriageable life course and is more manifest at older ages. At young ages, however, the marriage squeeze hypothesis could hold, presumably because young women are evolutionarily shaped to be choosier, perhaps postponing their marriages when preferred mates are in short supply.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press, 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Akers, D. S. (1967) On measuring the marriage squeeze. Demography 4, 907924.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barber, N. (2001) On the relationship between marital opportunity and teen pregnancy – the sex ratio question. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 32, 259267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bergstrom, T. & Lam, D. (1991) The two-sex problem and the marriage squeeze in an equilibrium model of marriage markets. CREST Working Paper 91–7, Center for Research on Economic and Social Theory, Department of Economics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
Bradatan, C. (2009) Large, but adaptable? A successful population policy and its long term effects. Population Research and Policy Review 28, 389404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brandt, L., Siow, A. & Vogel, C. (2008) Large shocks and small changes in the marriage market for famine born cohorts in China. Working Paper 334, Department of Economics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
Buss, D. M. (1989) Sex-differences in human mate preferences – evolutionary hypothesis tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12, 114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, Y.-H. & Chen, H. (2014) Continuity and changes in the timing and formation of first marriage among postwar birth cohorts in Taiwan. Journal of Family Issues 35, 15841604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Choo, E. & Siow, A. (2006) Estimating a marriage matching model with spillover effects. Demography 43, 463490.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Croissant, Y. & Millo, G. (2008) Panel data econometrics in R: the plm package. Journal of Statistical Software 27, 143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dixon, R. B. (1971) Explaining cross-cultural variations in age at marriage and proportions never marrying. Population Studies 25, 215233.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fossett, M. A. & Kiecolt, K. J. (1991) A methodological review of the sex-ratio – alternatives for comparative research. Journal of Marriage and Family 53, 941957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gil-Burmann, C., Peláez, F. & Sánchez, S. (2002) Mate choice differences according to sex and age – an analysis of personal advertisements in Spanish newspapers. Human Nature 13, 493508.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glick, P. C., Heer, D. M. & Beresford, J. C. (1963) Family formation and family composition: trends and prospects. In Sussman, M. B. (ed.) Sourcebook of Marriage and the Family. Houghton Mifflin Co., New York, pp. 3040.Google Scholar
Goodkind, D. (1997) The Vietnamese double marriage squeeze. International Migration Review 31, 108127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guilmoto, C. Z. (2012) Skewed sex ratios at birth and future marriage squeeze in China and India, 2005–2100. Demography 49, 77100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guttentag, M. & Secord, P. F. (1983) Too Many Women? The Sex Ratio Question. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA.Google Scholar
Hajnal, J. (1953) Age at marriage and proportions marrying. Population Studies 7, 111136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hajnal, J. (1965) European marriage patterns in perspective. In Glass, D. V. & Everskey, D. E. C. (eds) Population in History: Essays in Historical Demgraphy. Edward Arnold, London, pp. 101143.Google Scholar
Hendry, J. (1981) Marriage in Changing Japan: Community and Society. Croom Helm Ltd, London.Google Scholar
Henry, L. (1966) Perturbations de la nuptialité résultant de la guerre 1914–1918. Population 21, 273332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, G. W. & Gubhaju, B. (2009) Factors influencing changes in mean age at first marriage and proportions never marrying in the low-fertility countries of East and Southeast Asia. Asian Population Studies 5, 237265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kenrick, D. T. & Keefe, R. C. (1992) Age preferences in mates reflect sex-differences in reproductive strategies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15, 7591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, D. S. (2004) The deficit of women in South Korea: evolution, levels and regional variations. Population 59, 983997.Google Scholar
Lampard, R. (1993) Availability of marriage partners in England and Wales: a comparison of three measures. Journal of Biosocial Science 25, 333350.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lichter, D. T., LeClere, F. B. & McLaughlin, D. K. (1991) Local marriage markets and the marital behavior of black and white women. American Journal of Sociology 96, 843867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mari Bhat, P. N. & Halli, S. S. (1999) Demography of brideprice and dowry: causes and consequences of the Indian marriage squeeze. Population Studies 53, 129148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matthews, A. P. & Garenne, M. L. (2013) A dynamic model of the marriage market – Part 1: matching algorithm based on age preference and availability. Theoretical Population Biology 88, 7885.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moore, P. J. & Moore, A. J. (2001) Reproductive aging and mating: the ticking of the biological clock in female cockroaches. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 98, 91719176.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nakagawa, S. (2010) Internal migration and potential out-migrants in the 1920s and 1930s. In Takahashi, S. & Nakagawa, S. (eds) Regional Population and the Demographic Transition in Japan. Kokon, Tokyo, pp. 193210.Google Scholar
National Institute of Population and Social Security Research (1982) Attitudes Toward Marriage and Family Among the Unmarried Japanese Youth. Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan, Tokyo.Google Scholar
Ní Bhrolcháin, M. (2001) Flexibility in the marriage market. Population-E 13, 947.Google Scholar
Ní Bhrolcháin, M. & Sigle-Rushton, W. (2005) Partner supply in Britain and the US: estimates and gender contrasts. Population 60, 3764.Google Scholar
Nojiri, S. (1949) Nomin rison no jisshoteki kenkyu, 3rd edn. Iwanami Shoten, Tokyo.Google Scholar
Pawlowski, B. & Dunbar, R. I. M. (1999) Impact of market value on human mate choice decisions. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B: Biological Sciences 266, 281285.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Preston, S. H., Heuveline, P. & Guillot, M. (2001) Demography: Measuring and Modeling Population Processes. Blackwell Publishers Inc., Malden, MA.Google Scholar
R Core Team (2014) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. URL: http://www.R-project.org/ Google Scholar
Raymo, J. M. (1998) Later marriages or fewer? Changes in the marital behavior of Japanese women. Journal of Marriage and Family 60, 10231034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raymo, J. M., Park, H., Xie, Y. & Yeung, W. J. (2015) Marriage and family in East Asia: continuity and change. Annual Review of Sociology 41, 471492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Retherford, R. D., Ogawa, N. & Matsukura, R. (2001) Late marriage and less marriage in Japan. Population and Development Review 27, 65102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saxena, P. C., Kulczycki, A. & Jurdi, R. (2004) Nuptiality transition and marriage squeeze in Lebanon: consequences of sixteen years of Civil War. Journal of Comparative Family Studies 35, 241258.Google Scholar
Schoen, R. & Baj, J. (1985) The impact of the marriage squeeze in five western countries. Sociology and Social Research 70, 819.Google Scholar
Smith, P. C. (1980) Asian marriage patterns in transition. Journal of Family History 5, 5896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
South, S. J. (1991) Sociodemographic differentials in mate selection preferences. Journal of Marriage and Family 53, 928940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
South, S. J. & Lloyd, K. M. (1992) Marriage opportunities and family formation: further implications of imbalanced sex-ratios. Journal of Marriage and Family 54, 440451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Statistics Bureau (2011) Marital Status of the Population by Age in 5-Year Groups and Sex. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications of Japan, Tokyo.Google Scholar
Taeuber, I. B. (1958) The Population of Japan. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
Tōkei-Kyoku (1920–1940) Nihon teikoku jinkō dōtai tōkei. Nihon Naikaku, Tokyo.Google Scholar
Torabi, F. & Baschieri, A. (2010) Ethnic differences in transition to first marriage in Iran: the role of marriage market, women’s socio-economic status, and process of development. Demographic Research 22, 2962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waynforth, D. & Dunbar, R. I. M. (1995) Conditional mate choice strategies in humans: evidence from ‘Lonely Hearts’ advertisements. Behaviour 132, 755779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wikipedia Contributors (2015) Prefectures of Japan. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prefectures_of_Japan (accessed 3rd August 2015).Google Scholar
Wooldridge, J. M. (2012) Introductory Econometrics: A Modern Approach, 5th edn. South-Western, Mason, OH.Google Scholar
Yap, L. Y. L. (1977) The attraction of cities: a review of the migration literature. Journal of Development Economics 4, 239264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zeileis, A. & Hothorn, T. (2002) Diagnostic checking in regression relationships. R News 2, 710.Google Scholar
Zhang, K. H. & Song, S. (2003) Rural–urban migration and urbanization in China: evidence from time-series and cross-section analyses. China Economic Review 14, 386400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 11
Total number of PDF views: 52 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 8th March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

COHORT MARRIAGE KINETICS IN THE CONTEXT OF MIGRATION, WITH A CASE STUDY OF JAPAN, 1920–1940
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

COHORT MARRIAGE KINETICS IN THE CONTEXT OF MIGRATION, WITH A CASE STUDY OF JAPAN, 1920–1940
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

COHORT MARRIAGE KINETICS IN THE CONTEXT OF MIGRATION, WITH A CASE STUDY OF JAPAN, 1920–1940
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *