Skip to main content Accessibility help

“Anything Can Be Used to Stimulate Child Development”: Early Childhood Education and Development in Indonesia as a Durable Assemblage

  • Jan Newberry (a1)


An explosion of early childhood programs in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, has followed on disaster, democratization, growth of the middle class, and global neoliberal reform at the beginning of the twenty-first century. New forms of professional expertise have emerged as a part of this global assemblage to deal with the expanded notions of development advocated by the World Bank and other intergovernmental organizations. Yet, what has remained relatively unremarked is the continued reliance on older New Order forms of social welfare linked to the community form and women's labor. Here, trauma healing programs aimed at the young after the 2006 earthquake, new preschools and playgroups in the era of democratization, and the proliferation of international curricula and pedagogy illustrate how the restless contingency associated with global assemblages is rooted in durable forms of community organization.



Hide All
Allen, Ann Taylor. 1986. “Gardens of Children, Gardens of God: Kindergartens and Day-Care Centers in Nineteenth-Century Germany.” Journal of Social History 19(3):433–50.
Antlöv, Hans. 2003. “Village Government and Rural Development in Indonesia: The New Democratic Framework.” Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 39(2):193214.
Boomgaard, Peter. 1991. “The Javanese Village as a Cheshire Cat: The Java Debate against a European and Latin American Background.” Journal of Peasant Studies 18(2):288304.
Breman, Jan. 1980. The Village on Java and the Early Colonial State. Rotterdam: CASP, Erasmus University.
Breman, Jan. 1988. The Shattered Image: Construction and Deconstruction of the Village in Colonial Asia. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.
Burchell, Graham, Gordon, Colin, and Miller, Peter, eds. 1991. The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Burman, Erica. 2008. Developments: Child, Image, Nation. New York: Routledge.
Collier, Stephen, and Ong, Aihwa. 2005. “Global Assemblages as Anthropological Problems.” In Global Assemblages: Technology, Politics, and Ethics as Anthropological Problems, eds. Ong, Aihwa and Collier, Stephen J., 321. London: Blackwell.
Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development. 2011. “About ECCD” (expanded definition). (accessed November 20, 2011; URL now defunct).
Creative Center for Childhood Research & Training. n.d. “About Us.”!about-us (accessed December 16, 2016).
Dahlberg, Gunilla, Moss, Peter, and Pence, Alan R.. 1999. Beyond Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care: Postmodern Perspectives. London: Falmer Press.
Dewantara, K. H. 2004. Karya Ki Hadjar Dewantara. Bagian pertama: Pendidkan [The work of Ki Hadjar Dewantara. First volume: Education]. 3rd ed. Yogyakarta: Majelis luhur persatuan taman siswa.
Edwards, Carolyn Pope. 2002. “Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia.” Early Childhood Research and Practice 4(1):124.
Eldridge, Philip. 1995. Non-Government Organizations and Democratic Participation in Indonesia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Farah, Martha J., and Wolpe, Paul Root. 2004. “Monitoring and Manipulating Brain Function: New Neuroscience Technologies and Their Ethical Implications.” Hastings Center Report 34(3):3545.
Foucault, Michel. 1991. “Governmentality, Ideology and Consciousness.” In The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, eds. Burchell, Graham, Gordon, Colin, and Miller, Peter, 87104. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ganie-Rochman, Meuthia, and Achwan, Rochman. 2005. “Inclusion and Exclusion: Indonesia's NGOs and Critical Social Knowledge.” In Social Science and Power in Indonesia, eds. Hadiz, Vedi and Dhakidae, Daniel, 197220. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies; Jakarta: Equinox.
Geertz, Hildred. 1961. The Javanese Family: A Study of Kinship and Socialization. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.
Gupta, Akhil. 1995. “Blurred Boundaries: The Discourse of Corruption, the Culture of Politics, and the Imagined State.” American Ethnologist 22(2):375402.
Hacking, Ian. 1995. “The Looping Effects of Human Kinds.” In Causal Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Debate, eds. Sperber, Dan, Premack, David, and Premack, Ann James, 351–83. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hadiwinata, Bob S. 2002. The Politics of NGOs in Indonesia: Developing Democracy and Managing a Movement. New York: Routledge.
Heryanto, Ariel. 2003. “Public Intellectuals, Media and Democratization: Cultural Politics of the Middle Classes in Indonesia.” In Challenging Authoritarianism in Southeast Asia: Comparing Indonesia and Malaysia, eds. Heryanto, Ariel and Mandal, Sumit, 2560. London: Routledge.
Hoesterey, James B. 2012. “Prophetic Cosmopolitanism: Islam, Pop Psychology, and Civic Virtue in Indonesia.” City & Society 24(1):3861.
Jones, Carla. 2010. “Better Women: The Cultural Politics of Gendered Expertise.” American Anthropologist 112(2):270–82.
Kemp, Jeremy. 1988. Seductive Mirage: The Search for the Village Community in Southeast Asia. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.
Köllmann, Nathalie, and Veggel, Corrie Van. 1996. “Posyandu: Theory and Practice.” In Health Care in Java: Past and Present, ed. Boomgaard, Peter, 95110. Leiden: KITLV Press.
Leimena, S. L. 1989. “Posyandu: A Community Based Vehicle to Improve Child Survival and Development.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health 3(4):264–67.
Lemke, Thomas. 2001. “‘The Birth of Bio-politics’: Michel Foucault's Lecture at the Collège de France on Neo-liberal Governmentality.” Economy and Society 30(2):190207.
Li, Tania. 2007a. “Practices of Assemblage and Community Forest Management.” Economy and Society 36(2):263–93.
Li, Tania. 2007b. The Will to Improve: Governmentality, Development, and the Practice of Politics. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
Long, Nicholas. 2013. Being Malay in Indonesia: Histories, Hopes and Citizenship in the Riau Archipelago. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
Mamdani, Mahmood. 1996. Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Marpinjun, Sri. 2012. “Self-Awareness Activism and Empowering Women.” Paper presented to Revisiting Empowerment: Assessing Theory and Practice, Human Development and Capability Association Meetings, Jakarta, Indonesia, September 57.
McVey, Ruth T. 1967. “Taman Siswa and the Indonesian National Awakening.” Indonesia 4:128–49.
Nagar, Richa, and Raju, Saraswati. 2003. “Women, NGOs and the Contradictions of Empowerment and Disempowerment: A Conversation.” Antipode 35(1):113.
Nanda, Ved P. 2006. “The ‘Good Governance’ Concept Revisited.” Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 603:269–83.
Nandy, Ashis. 1983. The Intimate Enemy: Loss and Recovery of Self under Colonialism. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
National Education Department (Departemen Pendidikan Nasional). 2002. Acuan menu pembelajaran pada pendidikan anak dini usia (menu pembelajarangenerik) [Learning reference menu for early childhood education (generic learning menu)]. Jakarta: Direktorat Pendidikan Anak Dini Usia, Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Luar Sekolah dan Pemuda.
National Education Department (Departemen Pendidikan Nasional). 2006. Pedoman penerapan pendekatan Beyond Centers and Circle Times (BCCT) dalam pendidikan anak usia dini [Manual for the application of the Beyond Centers and Circle Time (BCCT) approach]. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan Nasional.
Newberry, Jan. 2006. Back Door Java: State Formation and the Domestic in Working Class Java. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press.
Olds, Kris, and Thrift, Nigel. 2005. “Cultures on the Brink: Reengineering the Soul of Capitalism—on a Global Scale.” In Global Assemblages: Technology, Politics and Ethics as Anthropological Problems, eds. Ong, Aihwa and Collier, Stephen J., 270–90. London: Blackwell.
Ong, Aihwa. 2005. “Ecologies of Expertise: Assembling Flows, Managing Citizenship.” In Global Assemblages: Technology, Politics and Ethics as Anthropological Problems, eds. Ong, Aihwa and Collier, Stephen J., 337–53. London: Blackwell.
Peacock, James. 1986. Rites of Modernization: Symbolic and Aspects of Indonesian Proletarian Drama. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Peck, Jamie, Theodore, Nik, and Brenner, Neil. 2010. “Postneoliberalism and Its Malcontents.” Antipode 41(s1):94116.
Peck, Jamie, and Tickell, Adam. 2002. “Neoliberalizing Space.” Antipode 34(3):380404.
Pemberton, John. 1997. On the Subject of “Java.” Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The Great Transformation: Economic and Political Origins of Our Time. New York: Rinehart.
Razavi, Shahrashoub, and Miller, Carol. 1995. From WID to GAD: Conceptual Shifts in the Women and Development Discourse. Vol. 1. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
Rigg, Jonathan. 1994. “Redefining the Village and Rural Life: Lessons from South East Asia,Geographical Journal 160(2):123–35.
Robinson, Kathryn. 2000. “Indonesian Women: From Orde Baru to Reformasi .” In Women in Asia: Tradition, Modernity, and Globalization, eds. Edwards, Louise and Roces, Mina, 139–69. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Rose, Nikolas. 1996. “The Death of the Social? Re-figuring the Territory of Government.” Economy and Society 25(3):327–56.
Rudnyckyj, Daromir. 2010. Spiritual Economies: Islam, Globalization, and the Afterlife of Development. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Schulte Nordholt, Henk, and van Klinken, Gerry, eds. 2007. Renegotiating Boundaries: Local Politics in Post-Suharto Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press.
Setianto, B. D. 2007. “Governance by Accident in Indonesian Disaster Mitigation: A Theoretical Literary Review.” Renai: Kajian politik lokal dan sosial-humaniora 7:3743.
Shapiro, Michael. 1983. Child's Garden: The Kindergarten Movement from Froebel to Dewey. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Sharma, Aradhana. 2006. “Crossbreeding Institutions, Breeding Struggle: Women's Empowerment, Neoliberal Governmentality, and State (Re)formation in India.” Cultural Anthropology 21(1):6095.
Shiraishi, Saya S. 1995. “Children's Stories and the State in New Order Indonesia.” In Children and the Politics of Culture: Rights, Risks, and Reconstructions, ed. Stephens, Sharon, 169–83. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Shiraishi, Saya S. 1997. Young Heroes: The Indonesian Family in Politics. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program.
Shiraishi, Takaishi. 2004. “The Rise of New Urban Middle Classes in Southeast Asia: What Is Its National and Regional Significance?” Discussion paper from Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry. EconPapers, (accessed January 4, 2005).
Stoler, Ann Laura. 2002. “A Sentimental Education: Native Servants and the Cultivation of European Children in the Netherland Indies.” In Fantasizing the Feminine in Indonesia, ed. Sears, Laurie J., 7191. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
Strassler, Karen. 2006. “Children as Witnesses of History in Post-Suharto Indonesia.” Visual Anthropology 22(2):5370.
Sullivan, John. 1992. Local Government and Community in Java: An Urban Case Study. Singapore: Oxford University Press.
Sullivan, Norma. 1994. Masters and Managers: A Study in Gender Relations in Urban Java. St. Leonards, NSW, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
Sumsion, Jennifer. 2006. “The Corporatization of Australian Childcare: Towards an Ethical Audit and Research Agenda.” Journal of Early Childhood Research 4(2):99120.
Suryakusuma, Julia I. 1996. “The State and Sexuality in New Order Indonesia.” In Fantasizing the Feminine in Indonesia, ed. Sears, Laurie, 92119. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
Suyanto, Slamet. 2005. Dasar-dasar pendidikan anak usia dini [Basics of early childhood education]. Yogyakarta: Hikayat.
Swyngedouw, Erik. 2005. “Governance Innovation and the Citizen: The Janus Face of Governance-beyond-the-State.” Urban Studies 42(11):19912006.
Tickamyer, Ann, and Kusujiarti, Siti. 2012. Power, Change, and Gender Relations in Rural Java: A Tale of Two Villages. Ohio RIS Southeast Asia Series. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Tsuchiya, Kenji. 1987. Democracy and Leadership: The Rise of the Taman Siswa Movement in Indonesia. Monographs of the Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University, English Language Series, no. 18. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
UNESCO. 2000. “Dakar Framework for Action: Education for All Global Monitoring Report.” (accessed May 30, 2012; URL now defunct).
Van Leeuwen, Elisabeh Margaretha. 2005. Lost in Mall: An Ethnography of Middle-Class Java in the 1990s. Academisch Preofschrift, ter verkrijging van de grad van doctor aan de Universiteit van Amersterdam. Leiden: Brill.
Warouw, Nicolaas. 2006. “Community-Based Agencies as the Entrepreneur's Instruments of Control in Post-Soeharto's Indonesia.” Asia Pacific Business Review 12(2):193207.
Welker, Marina. 2012. “The Green Revolution's Ghost: Unruly Subjects of Participatory Development in Rural Indonesia,American Ethnologist 39(2):389406.
Wieringa, Saskia. 1993. “Two Indonesian Women's Organizations: Gerwani and PKK.” Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 25(2):1730.
Wieringa, Saskia. 2003. “The Birth of the New Order State in Indonesia: Sexual Politics and Nationalism.” Journal of Women's History 15(1):7091.
World Bank. 2006. “Early Childhood Education and Development in Indonesia: An Investment for a Better Life.” Working Paper Series No. 2006–2. (accessed December 14, 2016).

“Anything Can Be Used to Stimulate Child Development”: Early Childhood Education and Development in Indonesia as a Durable Assemblage

  • Jan Newberry (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed