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Exchange and the Protection of Java's Antiquities: A Transnational Approach to the Problem of Heritage in Colonial Java

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 November 2013

Abstract

Sites, here the eighth-century Buddhist shrine Borobudur and other remains of the Hindu-Buddhist past located in colonial (predominantly Islamic) Java, are in this article our analytical tool to provide insight into the local and transnational dimensions of heritage politics and processes of in- and exclusion in Asia and Europe around 1900. Because we recognize these “sites” as centers of multiple historical, political, and moral spaces that transgress state boundaries, we take this concept beyond the nation-state-centered lieu de mémoire. By exploring how site-related objects traveled from temple ruins in Java to places elsewhere in the world (here: Siam, the Netherlands, France, and Great Britain) and back to Java, we show the transformation of heritage engagements around 1900 at multiple locations, and we make clear why, despite professionalizing state-centered heritage politics, state control was limited. We argue that the mechanisms of exchange and reciprocal interdependence, as theorized by Marcel Mauss, are crucial to understand the moral and economic engagements that define the problem of heritage, at local and transnational levels.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Association for Asian Studies, Inc. 2013 

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References

List of References

Archives of the Mangkunegara, Solo. 1937, March 1. Secretary of the Colonial Institute, M. C. Lamster, to Mangkunegara VII, with pencil annotations of Mangkunegara VII, correspondence Mangkunegara VII, inv. nr. K70.Google Scholar
Arsip Nasional Indonesia. 1896, October 16. Algemeene Secretarie, Besluit, 21, Governor-general to resident of Yogyakarta, July 17, 1896.Google Scholar
Arsip Nasional Indonesia. 1910. Archives of the Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences, Batavian Society's reaction to Van Erp's first report, inv. nr. DIR 1006.Google Scholar
Arsip Nasional Indonesia. 1926, June 21. 4, Bosch to the director of Education, Religion and Industry, May 22, 1926.Google Scholar
Kroniek. 1900, October 13.Google Scholar
De Locomotief. 1896a, June 30.Google Scholar
De Locomotief. 1896b, July 6.Google Scholar
De Locomotief. 1896c, July 10.Google Scholar
National Archives, Bangkok. 1926, November 10. Prince Damrong to Jao Praya Mahitor, in M-R7B/22.11/15.Google Scholar
National Archives, The Hague, Ministerie van Koloniën [Ministry of Colonies]. 1896, December 17. Report A. J. Quarles de Quarles, V 3-11-1896, X 18.Google Scholar
National Archives, The Hague, Ministerie van Koloniën [Ministry of Colonies]. 1899a, August 16. Loudon to Minister of Colonies, V 28-11-1899, 6.Google Scholar
National Archives, The Hague, Ministerie van Koloniën [Ministry of Colonies]. 1899b, August 22. IJzerman to A. Loudon (colonial subdepartment of Justice, Education and Religion), V 28-11-1899, 6.Google Scholar
National Archives, The Hague, Ministerie van Koloniën [Ministry of Colonies]. 1899c, August 23. Loudon to Minister of Colonies, V 28-11-1899, 6.Google Scholar
National Archives, The Hague, Ministerie van Koloniën [Ministry of Colonies]. 1899d, November 23. Cremer's hesitations in his short reply, V 28-11-1899, 6.Google Scholar
National Archives, The Hague, Ministerie van Koloniën [Ministry of Colonies]. 1899e, November 25. Loudon to Minister of Colonies, V 28-11-1899, 6.Google Scholar
Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant. 1899, August 15.Google Scholar
Nieuws van den Dag voor Nederlandsch-Indië. 1900, September 26.Google Scholar
Royal Tropical Institute in Amsterdam, Archive of the Colonial Institute. 1938, February 7. Mangkunegara VII to Colonial Institute; Colonial Institute to Mangkunegara VII, inv. nr. 4401.Google Scholar
Soerabajasche Courant. 1899, June 17.Google Scholar
Soerabajasch Handelsblad. 1900, December 1.Google Scholar
Victoria and Albert Museum, Registry and Archives. 1914a, March 7. MA/1/A520, V&A minute paper.Google Scholar
Victoria and Albert Museum, Registry and Archives. 1914b, May 29, MA/1/250. Minute papers, Director V & A to Stanley Clarke.Google Scholar
Victoria and Albert Museum, Registry and Archives. 1914c. MA/1/250, Colonial Institute to Direction V & A, 19-5-1914.Google Scholar
Victoria and Albert Museum, Registry and Archives. 1926. MA/1/250, Undated letter, Van Eerde to Stanley Clarke, after July 1926.Google Scholar
Anderson, Benedict. 1993. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Revised and extended edition. London: Verso.Google Scholar
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Barnard, Timothy, ed. 2004. Contesting Malayness: Malay Identity across Borders. Singapore: Singapore University Press.Google Scholar
Barringer, Tim. 1998. “The South Kensington Museum and the Colonial Project.” In Colonialism and the Object: Empire, Material Culture and the Museum, eds. Barringer, Tim and Flynn, Tom, 1128. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Bayly, Susan. 2004. “Imagining ‘Greater India’: French and Indian Visions of Colonialism in the Indic Mode.” Modern Asian Studies 38(3):703–44.10.1017/S0026749X04001246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kempers, Bernet, Johan, August. 1978. Herstel in eigen Waarde: Monumentenzorg in Indonesië [Restoration respecting local values: Monumental care in Indonesia]. Zutphen: Walburg Pers.Google Scholar
Bloembergen, Marieke. 2006. Colonial Spectacles: The Netherlands and the Netherlands East Indies at the World Exhibitions, 1880–1931. Singapore: Singapore University Press.Google Scholar
Bloembergen, Marieke, and Eickhoff, Martijn. 2011. “Conserving the Past, Mobilizing the Indonesian Future: Archaeological Sites, Regime Change and Heritage Politics in Indonesia in the 1950s.” Bijdragen voor de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde/BKI 167(4):405–36.10.1163/22134379-90003578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Bloembergen, Marieke, and Eickhoff, Martijn. Forthcoming. “Save Borobudur! The Moral Dynamics of Heritage Formation in Indonesia across Orders and Borders, 1930s-ca. 1990.” In Rebirthing Angkor; Heritage between Decay, Decadence, Revival and the Mission to Civilize, ed. Falser, Michael. Heidelberg: Springer Publishers.Google Scholar
Boeroeboedoer. 1900. “De Boeroeboedoer.” Tijdschrift van Nederlandsch-Indië. Tweede nieuwe serie 4:719–20.Google Scholar
Brandes, Jan Laurens Andries. 1908. Beschrijving van Tjandi Singasari: en de Wolkentooneelen van Panataran [Description of Candi Singasari: And the sceneries of clouds at Panataran]. ’s-Gravenhage: Nijhoff; Batavia: Albrecht.Google Scholar
Chakrabarty, Dipesh. 2000. Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Chulalongkorn. [1896] 1993. Itinéraire d'un voyage à Java en 1896 [Journey to Java in 1896]. Compiled and edited by Kesavadhana, Chanatip. Paris: Association Archipel.Google Scholar
Diskul, M. C. Subhadradis. n.d. History of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha. Bangkok: Bureau of the Royal Household.Google Scholar
Duara, Prasenjit, 2010. “Asia Redux: Conceptualizing a Region for Our Times.” Journal of Asian Studies 69(4):963–83.10.1017/S0021911810002858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Falser, Michael. 2013. “From Gaillon to Sanchi, from Vézelay to Angkor Wat. The Musée Indochinois in Paris: A Transcultural Perspective on Architectural Museums.” RIHA Journal 71:168.Google Scholar
Ferdinandus, Utama. 1990. “Arca-arca dan Relief pada Masa Hindu Jawa di Museum Bangkok” [Statues and reliefs from the Hindu-Javanese period in the museum in Bangkok]. In Monumen: Karya persembahan untuk Prof. Dr. R. Soekmono [Monuments: Essays presented to Prof. Dr. R. Soekmono], eds. Sedyawati, Edi, Pojoh, Ingrid H. E., Rahardjo, Supratikno, and Soekmono, R., 78101. Depok: Fakultas Sastra Universitas Indonesia.Google Scholar
François, Etienne, and Schultze, Hagen. 2001–2. Deutsche Erinnerungsorte [German sites of memory]. 3 Vols. Munich: C.H. Beck Verlag.Google Scholar
Groneman, Isaac. 1893. Tjandi Parambanan op Midden-Java, na de Ontgraving: Met lichtdrukken van Cephas [Candi Prambanan in Central Java, after the excavation: With photographs]. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Groneman, Isaac. 1897. “Een Boeddhistischen-Koning op den Borobodoer” [A Buddhist king at Borobudur]. Tijdschrift voor de Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 39:367–78.Google Scholar
Groneman, Isaac. 1907. Boeddhistische Tempelbouwvallen in de Praga-vallei: de Tjandi's Barabadoer, Mendoet en Pawon [Buddhist temple ruins in the Praga Valley: The Candi's Borobudur, Mendut and Pawon]. Semarang: Van Dorp.Google Scholar
Guha-Thakurta, Tapati. 2004. Monuments, Objects, Histories: Institutions of Art in Colonial and Postcolonial India. Delhi: Permanent Black.10.7312/guha12998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haskell, Francis, and Penny, Nicholas. 1981. Taste and the Antique: The Lure of Classical Sculpture. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Ho, Engseng. 2006. The Graves of Tarim: Genealogy and Mobility across the Indian Ocean. Berkeley: University of California Press.10.1525/california/9780520244535.001.0001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoytink, Mirjam. 2009. “Casper J.C. Reuvens en de Musea van Oudheden in Europe, 1800–1840” [Casper J.C. Reuvens and the museums of antiquities in Europe, 1800–1840]. PhD diss., University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
IJzerman, J. W. 1899. “Over Boro-boedoer” [On Borobudur]. Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Aardrijkskundig Genootschap. Tweede Serie 16:307–48.Google Scholar
Jory, Patrick. 2002. “Thai and Western Scholarship in the Age of Colonialism: King Chulalongkorn Redefines the Jatakas.” Journal of Asian Studies 61(3):891918.10.2307/3096350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kesavadhana, Chanatip. 1993. “Introduction.” In Chulalongkorn, Itinéraire d'un voyage à Java en 1896 [Journey to Java in 1896], 18. Paris: Association Archipel.Google Scholar
Krom, Nicolaas Johannes. 1920. Beschrijving van Barabudur. Deel 1: Archaeologische Beschrijving [Description of Borobudur. Part 1: Archaeological description]. ‘s-Gravenhage: Nijhoff.Google Scholar
Mauss, Marcel. 1954. The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies. London: Cohen & West.Google Scholar
McDaniel, Justin. 2008. Gathering Leaves and Lifting Words: Histories of Buddhist Monastic Education in Laos and Thailand. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
Miksic, John. 1990. Borobudur: Golden Tales of the Buddha. Singapore: Periplus Editions.Google Scholar
Nora, Pierre, ed. 1984–92. Les lieux de mémoire [The sites of memory]. 7 Vols. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
Patijn, J. A. N. 1901. “Over den Boroboedoer” [About the Borobudur]. Tijdschrift van Nederlandsch-Indië. Tweede nieuwe Serie, 5:386–89.Google Scholar
Peleggi, Maurizio. 2002. Lords of Things: The Fashioning of the Siamese Monarchy's Modern Image. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.10.1515/9780824863388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peleggi, Maurizio. 2004. “Royal Antiquarianism: European Orientalism and the Production of Archaeological Knowledge in Siam.” In Asia in Europe, Europe in Asia, eds. Ravi, Srilata, Rutten, Mario, and Goh, Beng-Lan, 133–61. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies; Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.Google Scholar
Pemberton, John. 1994. On the Subject of “Java.” Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.10.7591/9781501729362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perry, Jos. 2004. Ons Fatsoen als Natie: Victor de Stuers 1843–1916 [Our decency as a nation: Victor de Stuers 1843-1916]. Amsterdam: SUN.Google Scholar
Scheltema, Johan Friedrich. 1912. Monumental Java. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Sengupta, Indra. 2009. “Locating Lieux de Memoire: A (Post)Colonial Perspective.” In Memory, History and Colonialism: Engaging with Pierre Nora in Colonial and Postcolonial Contexts. German Historical Institute London – Bulletin, Supplement 1, ed. Sengupta, Indra, 18. London: German Historical Institute.Google Scholar
Skilling, Peter. 2009. “Theravada in History.” Pacific World 11:6194.Google Scholar
Stengs, Irene. 2009. Worshipping the Great Moderniser: King Chulalongkorn, Patron Saint of the Thai Middle Class. Singapore: NUS.Google Scholar
Tagliacozzo, Eric. 2010. “Trans-Regional Indonesia over One Thousand Years: The Art of the Long View.” Indonesia 90(2):115.Google Scholar
Tsuchiya, Kenyi. 1990. “Javanology and the Age of Ranggawarsita: An Introduction to Nineteenth Century Javanese Culture.” In Reading Southeast Asia: Translation of Contemporary Japanese Scholarship on Southeast Asia, 4473. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Van Erp, Theodoor. 1917. “Eenige Mededelingen betreffende de Beelden en Fragmenten van Boroboedoer in 1896 geschonken aan de Koning van Siam” [Some communications concerning the statues and fragments of Borobudur presented to the King of Siam]. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde/BKI 73(1):285310.10.1163/22134379-90001678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Erp, Theodoor. 1923. “Hindu-Javaansche Beelden, thans te Bangkok” [Hindu-Javanese statues, presently in Bangkok]. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde/BKI 79(1):429518.Google Scholar
Van Erp, Theodoor. 1927. “Nog eens de Hindoe-Javaansche Beelden in Bangkok” [Once again, the Hindu-Javanese statues in Bangkok]. Bijdragen tot de Taal, Land- en Volkenkunde/BKI, 83(1):503–13.10.1163/22134379-90001515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Erp, Theodoor. 1931. Beschrijving van Barabudur. Deel 2: Bouwkundige Beschrijving [Description of Borobudur. Part 2: Architectural description]. 's-Gravenhage: Nijhoff.Google Scholar
Wesseling, Henk, et al. , eds. 2005–6. Plaatsen van Herinnering [Sites of memory]. 4 Vols. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker.Google Scholar
Archives of the Mangkunegara, Solo. 1937, March 1. Secretary of the Colonial Institute, M. C. Lamster, to Mangkunegara VII, with pencil annotations of Mangkunegara VII, correspondence Mangkunegara VII, inv. nr. K70.Google Scholar
Arsip Nasional Indonesia. 1896, October 16. Algemeene Secretarie, Besluit, 21, Governor-general to resident of Yogyakarta, July 17, 1896.Google Scholar
Arsip Nasional Indonesia. 1910. Archives of the Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences, Batavian Society's reaction to Van Erp's first report, inv. nr. DIR 1006.Google Scholar
Arsip Nasional Indonesia. 1926, June 21. 4, Bosch to the director of Education, Religion and Industry, May 22, 1926.Google Scholar
Kroniek. 1900, October 13.Google Scholar
De Locomotief. 1896a, June 30.Google Scholar
De Locomotief. 1896b, July 6.Google Scholar
De Locomotief. 1896c, July 10.Google Scholar
National Archives, Bangkok. 1926, November 10. Prince Damrong to Jao Praya Mahitor, in M-R7B/22.11/15.Google Scholar
National Archives, The Hague, Ministerie van Koloniën [Ministry of Colonies]. 1896, December 17. Report A. J. Quarles de Quarles, V 3-11-1896, X 18.Google Scholar
National Archives, The Hague, Ministerie van Koloniën [Ministry of Colonies]. 1899a, August 16. Loudon to Minister of Colonies, V 28-11-1899, 6.Google Scholar
National Archives, The Hague, Ministerie van Koloniën [Ministry of Colonies]. 1899b, August 22. IJzerman to A. Loudon (colonial subdepartment of Justice, Education and Religion), V 28-11-1899, 6.Google Scholar
National Archives, The Hague, Ministerie van Koloniën [Ministry of Colonies]. 1899c, August 23. Loudon to Minister of Colonies, V 28-11-1899, 6.Google Scholar
National Archives, The Hague, Ministerie van Koloniën [Ministry of Colonies]. 1899d, November 23. Cremer's hesitations in his short reply, V 28-11-1899, 6.Google Scholar
National Archives, The Hague, Ministerie van Koloniën [Ministry of Colonies]. 1899e, November 25. Loudon to Minister of Colonies, V 28-11-1899, 6.Google Scholar
Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant. 1899, August 15.Google Scholar
Nieuws van den Dag voor Nederlandsch-Indië. 1900, September 26.Google Scholar
Royal Tropical Institute in Amsterdam, Archive of the Colonial Institute. 1938, February 7. Mangkunegara VII to Colonial Institute; Colonial Institute to Mangkunegara VII, inv. nr. 4401.Google Scholar
Soerabajasche Courant. 1899, June 17.Google Scholar
Soerabajasch Handelsblad. 1900, December 1.Google Scholar
Victoria and Albert Museum, Registry and Archives. 1914a, March 7. MA/1/A520, V&A minute paper.Google Scholar
Victoria and Albert Museum, Registry and Archives. 1914b, May 29, MA/1/250. Minute papers, Director V & A to Stanley Clarke.Google Scholar
Victoria and Albert Museum, Registry and Archives. 1914c. MA/1/250, Colonial Institute to Direction V & A, 19-5-1914.Google Scholar
Victoria and Albert Museum, Registry and Archives. 1926. MA/1/250, Undated letter, Van Eerde to Stanley Clarke, after July 1926.Google Scholar
Anderson, Benedict. 1993. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Revised and extended edition. London: Verso.Google Scholar
Aydin, Cemil. 2007. The Politics of Anti-Westernism in Asia: Visions of World Order in Pan-Islamic and Pan-Asian Thought. New York: Columbia University Press.10.7312/aydi13778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnard, Timothy, ed. 2004. Contesting Malayness: Malay Identity across Borders. Singapore: Singapore University Press.Google Scholar
Barringer, Tim. 1998. “The South Kensington Museum and the Colonial Project.” In Colonialism and the Object: Empire, Material Culture and the Museum, eds. Barringer, Tim and Flynn, Tom, 1128. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Bayly, Susan. 2004. “Imagining ‘Greater India’: French and Indian Visions of Colonialism in the Indic Mode.” Modern Asian Studies 38(3):703–44.10.1017/S0026749X04001246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kempers, Bernet, Johan, August. 1978. Herstel in eigen Waarde: Monumentenzorg in Indonesië [Restoration respecting local values: Monumental care in Indonesia]. Zutphen: Walburg Pers.Google Scholar
Bloembergen, Marieke. 2006. Colonial Spectacles: The Netherlands and the Netherlands East Indies at the World Exhibitions, 1880–1931. Singapore: Singapore University Press.Google Scholar
Bloembergen, Marieke, and Eickhoff, Martijn. 2011. “Conserving the Past, Mobilizing the Indonesian Future: Archaeological Sites, Regime Change and Heritage Politics in Indonesia in the 1950s.” Bijdragen voor de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde/BKI 167(4):405–36.10.1163/22134379-90003578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bloembergen, Marieke, and Eickhoff, Martijn. 2013. “A Wind of Change on Java's Ruined Temples: Archaeological Activities, Imperial Circuits and Heritage Awareness in Java and the Netherlands (1800–1850).” In “A New Dutch Imperial History? Connecting Dutch and Overseas Pasts.” Special issue, BMGN/The Low Countries Historical Review 128(1):81104.10.18352/bmgn-lchr.8356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bloembergen, Marieke, and Eickhoff, Martijn. Forthcoming. “Save Borobudur! The Moral Dynamics of Heritage Formation in Indonesia across Orders and Borders, 1930s-ca. 1990.” In Rebirthing Angkor; Heritage between Decay, Decadence, Revival and the Mission to Civilize, ed. Falser, Michael. Heidelberg: Springer Publishers.Google Scholar
Boeroeboedoer. 1900. “De Boeroeboedoer.” Tijdschrift van Nederlandsch-Indië. Tweede nieuwe serie 4:719–20.Google Scholar
Brandes, Jan Laurens Andries. 1908. Beschrijving van Tjandi Singasari: en de Wolkentooneelen van Panataran [Description of Candi Singasari: And the sceneries of clouds at Panataran]. ’s-Gravenhage: Nijhoff; Batavia: Albrecht.Google Scholar
Chakrabarty, Dipesh. 2000. Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Chulalongkorn. [1896] 1993. Itinéraire d'un voyage à Java en 1896 [Journey to Java in 1896]. Compiled and edited by Kesavadhana, Chanatip. Paris: Association Archipel.Google Scholar
Diskul, M. C. Subhadradis. n.d. History of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha. Bangkok: Bureau of the Royal Household.Google Scholar
Duara, Prasenjit, 2010. “Asia Redux: Conceptualizing a Region for Our Times.” Journal of Asian Studies 69(4):963–83.10.1017/S0021911810002858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Falser, Michael. 2013. “From Gaillon to Sanchi, from Vézelay to Angkor Wat. The Musée Indochinois in Paris: A Transcultural Perspective on Architectural Museums.” RIHA Journal 71:168.Google Scholar
Ferdinandus, Utama. 1990. “Arca-arca dan Relief pada Masa Hindu Jawa di Museum Bangkok” [Statues and reliefs from the Hindu-Javanese period in the museum in Bangkok]. In Monumen: Karya persembahan untuk Prof. Dr. R. Soekmono [Monuments: Essays presented to Prof. Dr. R. Soekmono], eds. Sedyawati, Edi, Pojoh, Ingrid H. E., Rahardjo, Supratikno, and Soekmono, R., 78101. Depok: Fakultas Sastra Universitas Indonesia.Google Scholar
François, Etienne, and Schultze, Hagen. 2001–2. Deutsche Erinnerungsorte [German sites of memory]. 3 Vols. Munich: C.H. Beck Verlag.Google Scholar
Groneman, Isaac. 1893. Tjandi Parambanan op Midden-Java, na de Ontgraving: Met lichtdrukken van Cephas [Candi Prambanan in Central Java, after the excavation: With photographs]. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Groneman, Isaac. 1897. “Een Boeddhistischen-Koning op den Borobodoer” [A Buddhist king at Borobudur]. Tijdschrift voor de Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 39:367–78.Google Scholar
Groneman, Isaac. 1907. Boeddhistische Tempelbouwvallen in de Praga-vallei: de Tjandi's Barabadoer, Mendoet en Pawon [Buddhist temple ruins in the Praga Valley: The Candi's Borobudur, Mendut and Pawon]. Semarang: Van Dorp.Google Scholar
Guha-Thakurta, Tapati. 2004. Monuments, Objects, Histories: Institutions of Art in Colonial and Postcolonial India. Delhi: Permanent Black.10.7312/guha12998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haskell, Francis, and Penny, Nicholas. 1981. Taste and the Antique: The Lure of Classical Sculpture. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Ho, Engseng. 2006. The Graves of Tarim: Genealogy and Mobility across the Indian Ocean. Berkeley: University of California Press.10.1525/california/9780520244535.001.0001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoytink, Mirjam. 2009. “Casper J.C. Reuvens en de Musea van Oudheden in Europe, 1800–1840” [Casper J.C. Reuvens and the museums of antiquities in Europe, 1800–1840]. PhD diss., University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
IJzerman, J. W. 1899. “Over Boro-boedoer” [On Borobudur]. Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Aardrijkskundig Genootschap. Tweede Serie 16:307–48.Google Scholar
Jory, Patrick. 2002. “Thai and Western Scholarship in the Age of Colonialism: King Chulalongkorn Redefines the Jatakas.” Journal of Asian Studies 61(3):891918.10.2307/3096350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kesavadhana, Chanatip. 1993. “Introduction.” In Chulalongkorn, Itinéraire d'un voyage à Java en 1896 [Journey to Java in 1896], 18. Paris: Association Archipel.Google Scholar
Krom, Nicolaas Johannes. 1920. Beschrijving van Barabudur. Deel 1: Archaeologische Beschrijving [Description of Borobudur. Part 1: Archaeological description]. ‘s-Gravenhage: Nijhoff.Google Scholar
Mauss, Marcel. 1954. The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies. London: Cohen & West.Google Scholar
McDaniel, Justin. 2008. Gathering Leaves and Lifting Words: Histories of Buddhist Monastic Education in Laos and Thailand. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
Miksic, John. 1990. Borobudur: Golden Tales of the Buddha. Singapore: Periplus Editions.Google Scholar
Nora, Pierre, ed. 1984–92. Les lieux de mémoire [The sites of memory]. 7 Vols. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
Patijn, J. A. N. 1901. “Over den Boroboedoer” [About the Borobudur]. Tijdschrift van Nederlandsch-Indië. Tweede nieuwe Serie, 5:386–89.Google Scholar
Peleggi, Maurizio. 2002. Lords of Things: The Fashioning of the Siamese Monarchy's Modern Image. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.10.1515/9780824863388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peleggi, Maurizio. 2004. “Royal Antiquarianism: European Orientalism and the Production of Archaeological Knowledge in Siam.” In Asia in Europe, Europe in Asia, eds. Ravi, Srilata, Rutten, Mario, and Goh, Beng-Lan, 133–61. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies; Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.Google Scholar
Pemberton, John. 1994. On the Subject of “Java.” Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.10.7591/9781501729362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perry, Jos. 2004. Ons Fatsoen als Natie: Victor de Stuers 1843–1916 [Our decency as a nation: Victor de Stuers 1843-1916]. Amsterdam: SUN.Google Scholar
Scheltema, Johan Friedrich. 1912. Monumental Java. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Sengupta, Indra. 2009. “Locating Lieux de Memoire: A (Post)Colonial Perspective.” In Memory, History and Colonialism: Engaging with Pierre Nora in Colonial and Postcolonial Contexts. German Historical Institute London – Bulletin, Supplement 1, ed. Sengupta, Indra, 18. London: German Historical Institute.Google Scholar
Skilling, Peter. 2009. “Theravada in History.” Pacific World 11:6194.Google Scholar
Stengs, Irene. 2009. Worshipping the Great Moderniser: King Chulalongkorn, Patron Saint of the Thai Middle Class. Singapore: NUS.Google Scholar
Tagliacozzo, Eric. 2010. “Trans-Regional Indonesia over One Thousand Years: The Art of the Long View.” Indonesia 90(2):115.Google Scholar
Tsuchiya, Kenyi. 1990. “Javanology and the Age of Ranggawarsita: An Introduction to Nineteenth Century Javanese Culture.” In Reading Southeast Asia: Translation of Contemporary Japanese Scholarship on Southeast Asia, 4473. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Van Erp, Theodoor. 1917. “Eenige Mededelingen betreffende de Beelden en Fragmenten van Boroboedoer in 1896 geschonken aan de Koning van Siam” [Some communications concerning the statues and fragments of Borobudur presented to the King of Siam]. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde/BKI 73(1):285310.10.1163/22134379-90001678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Erp, Theodoor. 1923. “Hindu-Javaansche Beelden, thans te Bangkok” [Hindu-Javanese statues, presently in Bangkok]. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde/BKI 79(1):429518.Google Scholar
Van Erp, Theodoor. 1927. “Nog eens de Hindoe-Javaansche Beelden in Bangkok” [Once again, the Hindu-Javanese statues in Bangkok]. Bijdragen tot de Taal, Land- en Volkenkunde/BKI, 83(1):503–13.10.1163/22134379-90001515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Erp, Theodoor. 1931. Beschrijving van Barabudur. Deel 2: Bouwkundige Beschrijving [Description of Borobudur. Part 2: Architectural description]. 's-Gravenhage: Nijhoff.Google Scholar
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