Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

A review of 733 published trials on Bio-Mos®, a mannan oligosaccharide, and Actigen®, a second generation mannose rich fraction, on farm and companion animals.

  • P. Spring (a1), C. Wenk (a2), A. Connolly (a3) and A. Kiers (a4)
Summary

Mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS), as zootechnical feed ingredients, are widely used in animal nutrition. MOS has been commercially available since the launch of Bio-Mos® in the early 1990's and has a substantial body of scientific papers and practical examples of its efficacy. Since 1999, the use of MOS in animal feed has become more prominent, mainly due to the European ban on prophylactic antibiotic growth promoters in animal feed. MOS, with its ability to bind and limit the colonisation of gut pathogens, has proven to be an effective solution for antibiotic-free diets, as well as providing support for immunity and digestion. MOS has been shown to improve gastrointestinal health, thus improving wellbeing, energy levels and performance. Most MOS products, particularly those that have been scientifically developed, derive from the cell wall of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In 2009, a mannose-rich fraction (MRF) product was commercially launched as a ‘second generation’ of these MOS-type products, with enhanced activities in immune modulation and intestinal health. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing data on the benefits of MOS for all species of animals, discuss its mechanisms of action in vivo and compare the benefits of using second generation MRF to original MOS.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author:aconnolly@alltech.com
References
Hide All
Baurhoo, B., Ferket, P.R. and Zhao, X. (2009) Effects of diets containing different concentrations of mannanoligosaccharide or antibiotics on growth performance, intestinal development, cecal and litter microbial populations, and carcass parameters of broilers. Poultry Science, 88 (11): 22622272.
Baurhoo, B., Phillip, L. and Ruiz-Feria, C.A. (2007) Effects of purified lignin and mannan oligosaccharides on intestinal integrity and microbial populations in the ceca and litter of broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 86: 10701078.
Biggs, P., Parsons, C. and Fahey, G. (2007) The effects of several oligosaccharides on growth performance, nutrient digestibilities, and cecal microbial populations in young chicks. Poultry Science, 86: 23272336.
Che, T.M., Johnson, R.W., Kelley, K.W., Dawson, K.A., Moran, C.A. and Pettigrew, J.E. (2011) Effects of mannan oligosaccharide on cytokine secretions by porcine alveolar macrophages and serum cytokine concentrations in nursery pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 90: 657668.
Che, T.M., Song, M., Liu, Y., Johnson, R.W., Kelley, K.W., Van Alstine, W.G., Dawson, K.A. and Pettigrew, J.E. (2012) Mannan oligosaccharide increases serum concentrations of antibodies and inflammatory mediators in weanling pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Journal of Animal Science, 90: 27842793
Cheled-Shoval, S.L., Amit-Romach, E., Barbakov, M. and Uni, Z. (2011) The effect of in ovo administration of mannan oligosaccharide on small intestine development during the pre- and posthatch periods in chickens. Poultry Science, 90: 23012310.
Corrigan, A. and Horgan, K.A (2010) The Effects of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on bacterial populations in broiler caecal contents analysed by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). World's Poultry Science Journal, 66 (Suppl): 417.
Daniels, C.L., Boothroyd, D., Davies, S., Pryor, R., Taylor, D. and Wells, C. (2006) Bio-Mos® improves the growth and survival of cultured European lobster. Fish Farmer, 2427.
Daniels, C.L., Merrifield, D.L., Boothroyd, D.P., Davies, S.J., Factor, J.R. and Arnold, K.E. (2010) Effect of dietary Bacillus spp. and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) on European lobster (Homarus gammarus L.) larvae growth performance, gut morphology and gut microbiota. Aquaculture, 304: 4957.
Dimitroglou, A., Merrifield, D.L., Carnevali, O., Picchietti, S., Avella, M., Daniels, C., Güroy, D. and Davies, S.J. (2011) Microbial manipulations to improve fish health and production – A Mediterranean perspective. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 30 (1): 116.
Dimitroglou, A., Merrifield, D.L., Moate, R., Davies, S.J., Spring, P., Sweetman, J. and Bradley, G. (2009) Dietary mannan oligosaccharide supplementation modulates intestinal microbial ecology and improves gut morphology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Journal of Animal Science, 87 (10): 32263234.
Dimitroglou, A., Merrifield, D.L., Spring, P., Sweetman, J., Moate, R. and Davies, S.J. (2010) Effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on growth performance, feed utilisation, intestinal histology and gut microbiota of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), Aquaculture, 300: 182188.
Dvorak, R.A., Newman, K.E., Jacques, K.A. and Waterman, D.F. (1997) Effects of Bio-Mos® on performance of calves fed whole milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 80 (Suppl. 1): 281.
Ferket, P.R. (2002) Use of oligosaccharides and gut modifiers as replacements for dietary antibiotics. Proceedings of the 63rd Minnesota Nutrition Conference, September 17- 18, Eagan, MN, pp. 169–182.
Firon, N., Ashkenazi, S., Mirelman, D., AOfek, I. and Sharon, N. (1987) Aromatic alpha glycosides of mannose are powerful inhibitors of the adherence of type 1 fimbriated Escherichia coli to yeast and intestinal epithelial cells. Infection and Immununity, 55(2): 472476.
Firon, N., Ofek, I. and Sharon, N. (1983) Carbohydrate specificity of the surface lectins of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhimurium. Carbohydrate Research, 120: 235249.
Franklin, S., Newman, M., Newman, K. and Meek, K. (2005). Immune parameters of dry cows fed mannan oligosaccharide and subsequent transfer of immunity to calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 88: 766775.
Gouveia, E.M.F., Silva, I.S., Van Onselem, V.J., Corrêa, R.A.C. and Silva, C.J. (2006) Use of mannanoligosacharides as an adjuvant treatment for gastrointestinal diseases and the effects on E.coli inactivated in dogs. Acta Cir Brasil, 21 (Suppl 4).
Grieshop, C.M., Flickinger, E.A., Bruce, K.J., Patil, A.R., Czarnecki-Maulden, G.L. and Fahey, G.C.J. (2004) Gastrointestinal and immunological responses of senior dogs to chicory and mannan-oligosaccharides. Archives of Animal Nutrition, 58: 483494.
Heinrichs, A.J., Jones, C.M. and Heinrichs, B.S. (2003) Effects of mannan oligosaccharide or antibiotics in neonatal diets on health and growth of dairy calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 86: 40544069.
Hooge, D.M. (2004a) Meta-analysis of broiler chicken pen trials evaluating dietary oligosaccharide, 1993–2003. International Journal of Poultry Science, 3: 163174.
Hooge, D.M. (2004b) Turkey pen trials with dietary mannan oligosaccharide: meta-analysis, 1993–2003. International Journal of Poultry Science, 3: 179188.
Hooge, D.M. (2006) MOS may boost calf gain. Feedstuffs, 79 (19).
Hooge, D.M. (2011) Meta-Analysis Summary of Broiler Chicken Trials with Dietary Actigen® (2009–2011). International Journal of Poultry Science, 10 (10): 819824.
Hooge, D.M., Kiers, A. and Connolly, A. (2013) Meta-Analysis Summary of Broiler Chicken Trials with Dietary Actigen® (2009–2012). International Journal of Poultry Science, 12 (1): 18.
Horgan, K.A. (2010) Monitoring the effects of yeast mannan oligosaccharides on enterobacteriaceae, using real-time PCR, in supplemented broilers. World's Poultry Science Journal, 66 (Suppl): 432.
Iji, P.A., Saki, A.A. and Tivey, D.R. (2001) Intestinal structure and function of broiler chickens on diets supplemented with a mannan oligosaccharide. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture, 81: 11861192.
Jacques, K.A. and Newman, K.E. (1994) Effect of oligosaccharide supplements on performance and health of Holstein calves pre- and post-weaning. Journal of Animal Science, 72 (Suppl. 1): 295.
Johnson, S. (2013) Use of Actigen® as a tool to reduce the impact of necrotic enteritis in poultry. Bachelor Thesis. University of Adelaide, Australia.
Kappel, L.C., Zhang, Y., Marcum, K., Taylor, W.H., Henk, W.G., Jowett, P., Hedlund, C., Newman, K.E., Healy, H-P. and Kocher, A. (2004) Beneficial effects of mannan oligosaccharide on diet component digestibility and fermentation characteristics in the dog. Journal of Animal Science, 82 (Suppl. 1): 246.
Kath, F. and Kulicke, W-M. (1999) Mild enzymatic isolation of mannan and glucan from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Die Angewandte Makromoleculare Chemie, 268: 5968.
Kocher, A., Spring, P. and Hooge, D.M. (2004). Summary analysis of post-weaned rabbit trials with dietary mannan oligosaccharide. Poster presented at: The International Society for Animal Hygiene, Saint-Malo, France.
Krizkova, L., Zitnanowa, I., Mislovicova, D., Sasinkova, V., Durackova, Z. and Krajcovic, J. (2006) Antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of mannan neoglycoconjugates: Mannan-human serum albumin and mannan-penicillin G acylase. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 606: 7279.
Lazarevic, M., Spring, P., Shabanovic, M., Tokic, V. and Tucker, L. A. (2010) Effect of gut active carbohydrates on plasma IgG concentrations in piglets and calves. Animal, 4(6): 938943.
Le Dividich, J., Martel-Kennes, Y. and Coupel, A. (2009) Bio-Mos® in diets for sows: effects on piglet performance. Journees Recherche Porcine 41: 249250.
Lesage, G. and Bussey, H. (2006) Cell Wall Assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 70: 317343.
Mansour, M.K. and Levitz, S.M. (2003) Fungal mannoproteins: the sweet path to immunodominance. ASM News, 69(12): 595600.
Miguel, J.C., Rodriguez-Zas, S. L. and Pettigrew, J. E. (2004) Efficacy of a mannan oligosaccharide (Bio-Mos®) for improving nursery pig performance. Journal of Swine Health and Production, 12 (6): 296307.
Milk Products, LLC. (2007) Mannan oligosaccharides. Natural alternatives for animal nutrition (part 3). Frontline T001.44e
Morrison, S.J., Dawson, S. and Carson, A.F. (2010) The effects of mannan oligosaccharide and Streptococcus faecium addition to milk replacer on calf health and performance. Livestock Science 131: 292296.
Munyaka, P.M., Echeverry, H., Yitbarek, A., Camelo-Jaimes, G., Sharif, S., Guenter, W., House, J. D. and Rodriguez-Lecompte, J. C. (2012) Local and systemic innate immunity in broiler chickens supplemented with yeast-derived carbohydrates. Poultry Science, 91: 21642172.
Newman, K.E, Jacques, K.A. and Buede, R. (1993) Effect of mannanoligosaccharide on performance of calves fed acidified and non-acidified milk replacers. Journal of Animal Science, 71(Suppl. 1): 271.
Newman, K.E. and Newman, M.C. (2001) Evaluation of Bio-Mos® (mannan oligosaccharide) on microflora and immunoglobulin status of sows: Part 1. Sow immunoglobulin status and piglet performance. Journal of Animal Science, 79 (Suppl. 1): 189.
Oyofo, A.O., DeLoach, J.R., Corrier, D.E., Norman, J.O., Ziprin, R.L. and Mollenhauer, H.H. (1989a) Effect of carbohydrates on Salmonella typhimurium colonisation in broiler chickens. Avian Diseases, 33: 531–34.
Oyofo, A.O., DeLoach, J.R., Corrier, D.E., Norman, J.O., Ziprin, R.L. and Mollenhauer, H.H. (1989b) Prevention of Salmonella typhimurium colonisation of broilers with D-mannose. Poultry Science, 68: 1357–60.
Oyofo, A.O., Droleskey, R.E., Norman, J.O., Mollenhauer, H. M., Ziprin, R.L., Corrier, D.E. and Deloach, J.R. (1989c) Inhibition by mannose of in vitro colonisation of chicken small intestine by Salmonella typhimurium. Poultry Science, 68: 1351–56.
Ott, E. (2005) Influence of Bio-Mos®, a mannan oligosaccharide supplement, on the immune system of the mare and neonatal foal. In: Nutritional Biotechnology in the Feed and Food Industries, Proceedings of Alltech's 21” Annual Symposium (Lyons, T.P and Jacques, K.A., eds). Nottingham University Press, UK, pp. 447–454.
Parks, C.W., Grimes, J.L. and Ferket, P.R. (2005) Effects of virginiamycin and mannan oligosaccharidevirginiamycin Shuttle Program on the growth and performance of large white female turkeys. Poultry Science, 84: 19671973.
Parks, C.W., Grimes, J.L., Ferket, P. and Fairchild, A.S. (2001) The effect of bannanoligosaccharides, bambermycins, and virginiamycin on performance of large white male market turkeys. Poultry Science, 80(6): 718723.
Quezada, V.C., Babatunde, B.B. and Frankel, T.L. (2007) Effect of mannan-oligosaccharides on the mucosal immune system of dairy calves. Journal Animal Science, 85 (Suppl.1): 211.
Quigley, J.D. (1996) Intake, growth and health of dairy calves in response to a mannan oligosaccharide and oral challenge with E. coli. Journal of Dairy Science, 79 (Suppl. 1): 230.
Quinn, P.R., Funderburke, D.W. and Tibbetts, G.W. (2001) Effects of dietary supplementation with Bio-Mos® mannan oligosaccharides on sow and litter performance in a commercial production system Journal of Animal Science, 79 (Suppl. 1): 212.
Rodriguez-Estrada, U., Satoh, S., Haka, Y., Fushimi, H. and Sweetman, J. (2009) Effects of single and combined supplementation of Enterococcus faecalis, mannan oligosaccharide and polyhydroxybutyrate acid on growth performance and immune response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture Science, 57 (4): 609617.
Rosen, G.D. (2006) Holo-analysis of the efficacy of Bio-Mos® in pig nutrition. Animal Science, 82: 683689.
Rosen, G.D. (2007a) Holo-analysis of the efficacy of Bio-Mos® in broiler nutrition. British Poultry Science, 48 (1): 2126.
Rosen, G.D. (2007b) Holo-analysis of the efficacy of Bio-Mos® in turkey nutrition. British Poultry Science, 48 (1): 2732.
Samuel, R.S. and Brennan, K.M. (2012) Effect of Actigen™ supplementation in gestation and lactation on sow and piglet performance, colostrum Ig level and milk composition. Journal of Animal Science, 90 (Suppl. 1): 391.
Sellars, K., Burrill, M., Trei, J., Newman, K.E. and Jacques, K.A. (1997) Effect of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on performance and health of Holstein calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 80 (Suppl. 1): 188.
Sims, M.D., Dawson, K.A., Newman, K.E., Spring, P. and Hooge, D.M. (2004) Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide, bacitracin methylene disalicylate, or both on the live performance and intestinal microbiology of turkeys. Poultry Science, 83: 11481154.
Spearman, K. and Ott, E. (2004) The effect of mos supplementation on the immune response of mares and their foals. Journal of Animal Science, 82 (Suppl. 1): 61.
Spring, P., Wenk, C., Dawson, K.A. and Newman, K.E. (2000) The effects of dietary mannanoligosaccharides on cecal parameters and the concentrations of enteric bacteria in cecal of salmonella-challenged broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 79: 205211.
Staykov, Y., Spring, P., Denev, S. and Sweetman, J. (2007) Effect of a mannan oligosaccharide on the growth performance and immune status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture International, 15: 153161.
Stewart, G.G. and Russell, I. (1998) ‘Brewer's Yeast’ Brewing Science & Technology Series III. The Institute of Brewing, London.
Strickling, J.A., Harmon, D.L., Dawson, K.A. and Gross, K.L. (2000) Evaluation of oligosaccharide addition to dog diets: influences on nutrient digestion and microbial populations. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 86: 205219.
Swanson, K.S., Grieshop, C.M., Flickinger, E.A., Bauer, L.L., Healy, H-P., Dawson, K.A., Merchen, N.R. and Fahe, G.C. (2002a) Supplemental fructooligosaccharides and mannan oligosaccharides influence immune function, ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilities microbial populations and concentrations of protein catabolites in the large bowel of dogs. Journal of Nutrition, 132: 980989.
Swanson, K.S., Grieshop, C.M., Flickinger, E.A. , Healy, H-P., Dawson, K.A., Merchen, N.R. and Fahey, G.C. (2002b) Effects of supplemental fructooligosaccharides plus mannan oligosaccharides on immune function and ileal and fecal microbial population in adult dogs. Archives of Animal Nutrition, 56: 309318.
Terre, M., Calvo, M.A., Adelantado, C., Kocher, A. and Bach, A. (2007) Effects of mannan oligosaccharides on performance and microorganism fecal counts of calves following an enhanced-growth feeding program. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 137: 115125.
Torrecillas, S., Makol, A., Caballero, M.J., Montero, D., Ginés, R., Sweetman, J. and Izquierdo, M.S. (2010) Improved feed utilisation, intestinal mucus production and immune parameters in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharides (MOS). Aqua Nutrition. Article first published online : 02 02 2010, DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2095.2009.00730.
Torrecillas, S., Makol, A., Caballero, M.J., Montero, D., Robaina, L., Real, F., Sweetman, J., Tort, L. and Izquierdo, M.S. (2007) Immune stimulation and improved infection resistance in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharides. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 23: 969981.
Uni, Z. (2007) Physiological dynamics at the intestinal brush border. In: Lyons, T.P., Jacques, K.A., Hower, J.M. (Eds): Nutritional biotechnology in the feed and food industries. Proceedings of Alltech's 23rd Annual Symposium, Nottingham University Press, UK., 2007, 131–138.
Vinogradov, E., Petersen, B. and Bock, K. (1998) Structural analysis of intact polysaccharide mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy at 750MHz. Carbohydrate Research, 307: 177183.
Wellens, A., Garofalo, A., Nguyen, H., Van Gerven, N., Slattegard, R., Hernalsteens, J-P., Wyns, L., Oscarson, S., De Greve, H., Hultgren, S. and Bouckaert, J. (2008) Intervening with urinary tract infections using anti-adhesives based on the crystal structure of the fim-oligomannose-3 complex. PLoS one, 3 (4): e2040, 113.
Wismar, R., Brix, S., Frokiaer, H. and Nygaard Laaerke, H. (2010) Dietary fibers as immunoregulatory compounds in health and disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1190: 7085.
Xiao, R., Power, R.F., Mallonee, D., Crowdus, C., Ao, T., Pierce, J.L. and Dawson, K.A. (2010) Transcriptional signatures associated with biological functions of Bio-Mos® and Actigen® in broilers. Proceedings of the IPSF Atlanta, GA, USA, p. 76.
Yang, Y., Iji, P.A., Kocher, A., Mikkelsen, L.L. and Choct, M. (2008a) The effects of mannanoligosaccharide and fructooligosaccharide on the response of broilers to pathogenic Escherichia coli challenge. British Poultry Science, 49: 550559.
Yang, Y., Iji, P.A., Kocher, A., Thomson, E., Mikkelsen, L.L. and Choct, M. (2008b) Effects of mannanoligosaccharide in broiler chicken diets on growth performance, energy utilisation, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal microflora. British Poultry Science, 49: 186194.
Zentek, J., Marquart, B. and Pietrzak, T. (2002). Intestinal effects of mannanoligosaccharides, transgalactooligosaccharides, lactose and lactulose in dogs. Journal of Nutrition, 132: 1682S1684S.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 2049-257X
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-applied-animal-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed