Adler, K.L., Peng, P.H., Peng, R.K. and Klasing, K.C. (2001). The kinetics of haemopexin and alpha1-acid glycoprotein levels induced by injection of inflammatory agents in chickens. Avian Disease
Amerah, A.M., Quiles, A., Medel, P., Sánchezc, J., Lehtinend, M. J. and Gracia, M. I. (2013). Effect of pelleting temperature and probiotic supplementation on growth performance and immune function of broilers fed maize/soy-based diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology
AOAC Official Method 990.03 (2006). Protein (Crude) in Animal Feed - Combustion.
AOAC Official Method 942.05. (2013). Ash of Animal Feed
AOAC Official Method 920.39-1920. (2003) Fat (crude) or ether extract in animal feed.
AOAC Official Method 934.01 (2005). Moisture in Animal Feed Loss on Drying at 95–100 C.
Applegate, T.J., Klose, V., Steiner, T., Ganner, A. and Schatzmayr, G. (2010). Probiotics and phytogenics for poultry: Myth or reality?
The Journal of Applied Poultry Research
Bansal, G.R., Singh, V.P. and Sachan, N. (2013). Effect of Enzyme, Dried Poultry Excreta, Probiotics and their Interaction on the Performance of Commercial Broiler Chicks. Asian Journal of Science and Technology
Dalloul, R.A., Lillehoj, H.S., Shellem, T.A. and Doerr, J.A. (2003). Enhanced mucosal immunity against eimeria acervulina in broilers fed a lactobacillus-based probiotic. Poultry Science
Dersjant-Li, Y., Romero, L.F., Wealleans, A. and Awati, A. (2014). Analysis of eight trial studies confirmed beneficial effect of a combination of enzymes and direct fed microbials on weight gain and feed utilisation efficiency in broilers. Proceedings of International Poultry Scientific Forum, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, pp. 69.
Edens, F.W. (2003). An alternative for antibiotic use in poultry: Probiotics. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola
Inagaki-Ohara, K., Dewi, F.N., Hisaeda, H., Smith, A.L., Jimi, F., Miyahira, M., Abdel-Aleem, A.S.F., Horii, Y. and Nawa, Y. (2006). Intestinal Intraepithelial Lymphocytes Sustain the Epithelial Barrier Function against Eimeria vermiformis Infection. Infection and Immunity
Iseri, V.J. and Klasing, K.C. (2014). Changes in the amount of lysine in protective proteins and immune cells after a systemic response to dead Escherichia coli: implications for the nutritional costs of immunity. Integrative and Comparative Biology
Kiarie, E., Romero, L.F. and Nyachoti, C.M. (2013). The role of added feed enzymes in promoting gut health in swine and poultry. Nutrition Research Reviews
Klasing, K.C and Johnstone, B.J. (1991). Monokines in growth and development. Poultry Science
Klasing, K.C. (1991). Avian inflammatory response: mediation by macrophages. Poultry Science
Klasing, K.C., Adler, K.l., Remus, J.C. and Calvert, C.C. (2002). Dietary betaine increases intraepithelial lymphocytes in the duodenum of coccidian-infected chicks and increases functional properties of phagocytes. Journal of Nutrition
Klasing, K.C. (2007). Nutrition and the immune system. British Poultry Science
Lee, K.W., Lillehoj, H.S. and Siragusa, G.R. (2010a). Review: Direct- fed microbials and their impact on the intestinal microflora and immune system of chickens. The Journal of Poultry Science
Lee, K.W., Lee, S.H., Lillehoj, H.S., Li, G.X., Jang, S.I., Babu, U.S., Park, M.S., Kim, D.K., Lillehoj, E.P., Neumann, A.P., Rehberger, T.G. and Siragusa, G.R. (2010b). Effects of direct-fed microbials on growth performance, gut morphometry, and immune characteristics in broiler chickens. Poultry Science
Lillehoj, H.S. and Trout, J.M. (1996). Avian gut-associated lymphoid tissues and intestinal immune responses to Eimeria parasites. Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Lucas, A.M. and Jamroz, C. (1961). Atlas of Avian Hematology (Agriculture Monograph, 25), United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
Mathis, G.F., Hofacre, C., Romero, L.F. and Lumokins, B.S. (2013). Reduction in necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens fed exogenous enzymes and or a direct-fed microbial. Poultry Science
92(E-Suppl. 1): 69.
Meriwether, L.S., Humphrey, B.D., Peterson, D.G., Klasing, K.C. and Koutsos, E.A. (2010). Lutein exposure, in ovo or in the diet, reduces parameters of inflammation in the liver and spleen laying-type chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
McDevitt, R.M., Brooker, J. D., Acamovic, T. and Sparks, N.H.C. (2006). Necrotic enteritis; a continuing challenge for the poultry industry. World's Poultry Science Journal
Momtazan, R., Moravej, H., Zaghari, M. and Taheri, H.R. (2011). A note on the effects of a combination of an enzyme complex and probiotic in the diet on performance of broiler chickens. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research
Murugesan, G.R. (2013). Characterisation of the effects of intestinal physiology modified by exogenous enzymes and direct-fed microbial on intestinal integrity, energy metabolism, body composition and performance of laying hens and broiler chickens. PhD dissertation. Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA. pp 165.
Müdüllü, M. and Tuncer, S. D. (2001). The Effects of Enzyme and Probiotic Supplementation to Diets on Broiler Performance. The Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Peek, H.W. and Landman, W.J.M. (2003). Resistance to anticoccidial drugs of Dutch avian Eimeria spp. Field isolates originating from 1996, 1999 and 2001. Avian Pathology
Romero, L.F., Indrakumar, S.E. and Ravindran, V. (2013). Influence of combinations of a direct-fed microbial and exogenous enzymes on nutrient digestibility in broilers at 11 and 21 days of age. Poultry Science
92 (E-Suppl. 1): 88.
Samanya, M. and Yamauchi, K. (2002). Histological alterations of intestinal villi in chickens fed dried bacillus subtilis var. Natto. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Vleck, C.M., Vertalino, N., Vleck, D. and Bucher, T.L. (2000). Stress, corticosterone, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratios in free-living Adélie penguins. The Condor
Waititu, S.M., Yitbarek, A., Matini, E., Echeverry, H., Kiarie, E., Rodriguez-Lecompte, J.C. and Nyachoti, C.M. (2014). Effect of supplementing direct-fed microbials on broiler performance, nutrient digestibilities, and immune responses. Poultry Science
Walsh, M.C., Romero, L.F., Indrakumar, S.E. and Ravindran, V. (2013). Influence of combinations of a direct-fed microbial and exogenous enzymes on the growth performance and feed efficiency of broilers. Poultry Science
92 (E-Suppl. 1): 87.
Williams, R.B. (2005). Intercurrent coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis of chickens: rational, integrated disease management by maintenance of gut integrity. Avian Pathology
Williams, R.B. (1999). A compartmentalised model for the estimation of the cost of coccidiosis to the world's chicken production industry. The International Journal for Parasitology
Willis, W. and Reid, L. (2008). Investigating the Effects of Dietary Probiotic Feeding Regimes on Broiler Chicken Production and Campylobacter jejuni Presence. Poultry Science