Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Water relations of winter wheat: 1. Growth of the root system

  • P. J. Gregory (a1), M. McGowan (a1), P. V. Biscoe (a1) and B. Hunter (a1)

Summary

The production of root axes and the growth of the root system are reported for a commercially grown crop of Maris Huntsman winter wheat. Soil cores were extracted on 17 occasions during the growing season permitting a detailed study of root length and root dry weight with depth and time.

Production of seminal root axes was complete by the beginning of March when all plants possessed six (occasionally seven) axes which persisted throughout the life of the crop. Nodal axes were produced continuously from mid-February until late May and finally numbered approximately 20 stem nodal axes per main stem. Total root dry weight increased exponentially until the beginning of April and then almost linearly to reach a maximum of 105 g root/m2 field in mid-June (anthesis). After anthesis, total root dry weight decreased but root growth continued below 80 cm. From April onwards, approximately 65% of the total root dry weight was in the 0–30 cm layer.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Barley, K. P. (1970). The configuration of the root system in relation to nutrient uptake. Advances in Agronomy 22, 159201.
Bassett, D. M., Stockton, J. R. & Dickens, W. L. (1970). Root growth of cotton as measured by P32 uptake. Agronomy Journal 62, 200203.
Biscoe, P. V., Clark, J. A., Gregson, K., McGowan, M., Monteith, J. L. & Scott, R. K. (1975 a). Barley and its environment. I. Theory and practice. Journal of Applied Ecology 12, 227257.
Biscoe, P. V., Scott, R. K. & Monteith, J. L. (1975 b). Barley and its environment. III. Carbon budget of the stand. Journal of Applied Ecology 12, 269293.
Bloomberg, W. J. (1974). Two techniques for examining root distribution. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 54, 865868.
Carruthers, W. (1892). The life of the wheat plant from seed to seed. Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society, 3rd series 3, 8299.
Clarkson, D. T. & Sandersok, J. (1971). Relationship between the anatomy of cereal roots and the absorption of nutrients and water. A.R.C. Letcombe Laboratory Annual Report 1970, 1625.
Clement, C. R. (1966). A simple and reliable tension table. Journal of Soil Science 17, 133135.
Connor, D. J. (1975). Growth, water relations and yield of wheat. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 2, 353366.
Cowan, I. R. (1965). Transport of water in the soilplant-atmosphere system. Journal of Applied Ecology 2, 221239.
Denmead, O. T. & Millar, B. D. (1976). Water transport in wheat plants in the field. Agronomy Journal 68, 297303.
Ellis, F. B. & Barnes, B. T. (1973). Estimation of the distribution of living roots of plants under field conditions. Plant and Soil 39, 8191.
Fukai, S., Koh, S. & Kumura, A. (1976). Dry matter production and photosynthesis of Hordenum vulgare L. in the field. Journal of Applied Ecology 13, 877887.
Gardner, W. R. (1960). Dynamic aspects of water availability to plants. Soil Science 89, 6373.
Gooderham, P. J. (1969). A simple method for the extraction and preservation of an undisturbed root system from a soil. Plant and Soil 31, 201208.
Gregory, P. J. (1976). The growth and activity of wheat root systems. Ph.D. thesis, University of Nottingham.
Gregory, P. J., McGowan, M. & Biscoe, P. V. (1978). Water relations of winter wheat. 2. Soil water relations. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 91, 103116.
Hackett, C. (1968). A study of the root system of barley. I. Effects of nutrition on two varieties. New Phytologist 67, 287299.
Hall, C. S., Chandler, W. F., Van Bavel, C. H. M., Reid, P. H. & Anderson, J. H. (1953). A tracer technique to measure growth and activity of plant root systems. Technical Bulletin 101, North Carolina Agricultural Experimental Station.
Harrod, M. F. & Caldwell, T. H. (1967). The magnesium manuring of sugar beet on light sandy soils of East Anglia. In Soil Potassium and Magnesium. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Technical Bulletin 14.
Hector, J. M. (1936). Introduction to the Botany of Field Crops. Volume 1. Cereals pp. 9295. Johannesburg: Central News Agency Ltd.
Kirby, E. J. M. & Rackham, O. (1971). A note on the root growth of barley. Journal of Applied Ecology 8, 919924.
Krassovsky, I. (1926). Physiological activity of the seminal and nodal roots of crop plants. Soil Science 21, 307326.
Locke, L. F. & Allen, J. A. (1924). Development of wheat plants from seminal roots. Journal of the American Society of Agronomy 16, 261268.
Mengel, D. B. & Barber, S. A. (1974). Development and distribution of the corn root system under field conditions. Agronomy Journal 66, 341344.
Miller, E. C. (1939). A physiological study of the winter wheat plant at different stages of development. Technical Bulletin 47, Kansas Agricultural Experimental Station.
Milthorpe, F. L. & Moorby, J. (1974). An Introduction to Crop Physiology, pp. 134136. Cambridge University Press.
Nelson, A. (1946). Principles of Agricultural Botany. pp. 112113. London: Nelson and Sons Ltd.
Newman, E. I. (1969). Resistance to water flow in soil and plant. II. A review of experimental evidence on the rhizosphere resistance. Journal of Applied Ecology 6, 261272.
Pearson, R. W. (1974). Significance of rooting pattern to crop production and some problems of root research. In The Plant Root and its Environment (ed. Carson, E. W.), pp. 247–70. University Press of Virginia.
Percival, J. (1921). The Wheat Plant: A Monograph. pp. 3543. London: Duckwork and Co.
Peterson, R. F. (1965). Wheat, pp. 2021. New York: Interscience Publishers Inc.
Rowse, H. R. & Phillips, D. A. (1974). An instrument for estimating the total length of root in a sample. Journal of Applied Ecology 11, 309314.
Russell, R. S. (1971). Root systems and nutrition. In Potential Crop Production (ed. Wareing, P. F., and Cooper, J. P.), pp. 100116. London: Heineman Educational Books.
Sallans, B. J. (1942). The importance of various roots to the wheat plant. Scientific Agriculture 23, 1726.
Schuubman, J. J. & Goedewaagen, M. A. J. (1965). Methods for the Examination of Root Systems and Roots. Wageningen: Agricultural Publications and Documentation.
Singh, N. P. & Dastane, N. G. (1970). Root growth characters and water use patterns of different wheat varieties. Indian Journal of Agronomy 15, 346349.
Troughton, A. (1962). The Roots of Temperate Cereals (Wheat, Barley, Oats and Rye). Mimeographed Publication Number 2/1962. Commonwealth Bureau of Pasture and Field Crops.
Watson, P. J.Thorne, G. N. & French, S. A. W. (1963). Analysis of growth and yield of winter and spring wheats. Annals of Botany 27, 122.
Weaver, J. E. (1926). Root Development of Field Crops. New York and London: McGraw-Hill.
Welbank, P. J., Gibb, M. J., Taylor, P. J. & Willams, E. D. (1974). Root growth of cereal corps. Rothamsted Experimental Station Report 1973, part 2, 2666.
Welbank, P. J. & Williams, E. D. (1968). Root growth of a barley crop estimated by sampling with portable powered soil-coring equipment. Journal of Applied Ecology 5, 477481.

Water relations of winter wheat: 1. Growth of the root system

  • P. J. Gregory (a1), M. McGowan (a1), P. V. Biscoe (a1) and B. Hunter (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed