Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Phosphorus efficiency in a long-term wheat–rice cropping system in China

  • X. TANG (a1) (a2), X. SHI (a3), Y. MA (a2) and X. HAO (a4)

Summary

Long-term (over 14 years) experiments on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop rotations were conducted in Southwest China to investigate phosphorus (P) fertilizer utilization efficiency, including the partial factor productivity (PFP), agronomic efficiency (AE), internal efficiency (IE), partial P balance (PPB), recovery efficiency (RE) and the mass (input–output) balance. The seven treatments were Control, N, NP, NK, NPK, NPKM and NPKSt, representing various combinations of inorganic fertilizers (N, P and K), manure (M) and the application of rice straw (St). Without P application, the soil could supply c. 14·7–22·5 kg P/ha annually and produce, on average, c. 1·8 t/ha wheat and 6·0 t/ha rice. Phosphorus fertilization increased crop yields by 65·5 and 11·4% for wheat and rice, respectively, over the 14 years. The PFP values ranged from 80·2 to 177 kg grain/kg P fertilizer for wheat and from 222 to 255 kg/kg for rice in the NPK treatments. However, the mean AE over the 14-year period was 31·9 and 21·3 kg grain/kg inorganic P fertilizer for wheat and rice, respectively. The mean IE was 214 and 318 kg grain/kg P uptake for wheat and rice, respectively, during the cultivation period. The PPB for the whole rotation system over the 14 years ranged from 0·58 to 0·64. However, the mean RE of P fertilizer was 0·26 (varying from 0·22 to 0·29) in the wheat–rice cropping system over the 14-year period. For every 100 kg surplus P/ha per year, the concentration of soil P extracted by 0·5 m NaHCO3 at pH 8·5 (Olsen-P) would increase by, on average, 4·12 mg/kg in soil. For the wheat–rice cropping system, the current P application rate of 55–65 kg P/ha per year is able to sustain annual yields of about 3 t/ha for wheat and 7 t/ha for rice. This study suggests that, in order to achieve higher crop yields, the P fertilizer utilization efficiency should be considered when making P fertilizer recommendations in wheat–rice cropping systems.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*To whom all correspondence should be addressed. Email: shixj@swu.edu.cn

References

Hide All
Aulakh, M. S., Garg, A. K. & Kabba, B. S. (2007). Phosphorus accumulation, leaching and residual effects on crop yields from long-term applications in the subtropics. Soil Use and Management 23, 417427.
Barberis, E., Ajmone, M. F., Scalenghe, R., Lammers, A. & Schwertmann, U. (1995). European soils over fertilized with phosphorus. Part I. Basic properties. Fertilizer Research 45, 199207.
Cassman, K. G., Gines, G. C., Dizon, M. A., Samson, M. I. & Alcantara, J. M. (1996). Nitrogen-use efficiency in tropical lowland rice systems: Contributions from indigenous and applied nitrogen. Field Crops Research 47, 112.
China Agriculture Press (2008). China Agriculture Yearbook. Beijing, China: Agriculture Press.
Cochran, W. G. & Cox, G. M. (1957). Experimental Designs. New York: Wiley.
De Smet, J., Hofman, G., Vanderdeelen, J., Van Meirvenne, M. & Baert, L. (1996). Phosphate enrichment in the sandy loam soils of West-Flanders, Belgium. Fertilizer Research 43, 209215.
Djodjic, F., Bergstrom, L. & Grant, C. (2005). Phosphorus management in balanced agricultural systems. Soil Use and Management 21, 94101.
Dobermann, A. (2007). Nutrient use efficiency: measurement and management. In Proceedings of the International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA) Workshop on Fertilizer Best Management Practices, Brussels, Belgium, 7–9 March 2007. pp. 128. Brussels, Belgium: International Fertilizer Association.
Dobermann, A., Cassman, K. G., Sta. Cruz, P. C., Adviento, M. A. A. & Pampolino, M. P. (1996). Fertilizer inputs, nutrient balance, and soil nutrient-supplying power in intensive, irrigated rice systems. III. Phosphorus. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 46, 111125.
Gardner, B. R. & Jones, J. P. (1973). Effects of temperature on phosphate sorption isotherms and phosphate desorption. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 4, 8393.
Gong, Z., Chen, Z., Shi, X., Zhang, G., Zhang, J., Zhao, W., Luo, G., Gao, Y., Chao, S., Chao, Z. & Lei, W. (1999). China Soil Taxonomy. Beijing: China Science Press.
Goswami, N. N. & Banerjee, N. K. (1978). Phosphorus, potassium and other macroelements. In Soils and Rice (Ed. Brady, N. C.), pp. 561580. Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.
Jackson, M. L. (1958). Soil Chemical Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Ladha, J. K., Dawe, D., Pathak, H., Padre, A. T., Yadav, R. L., Singh, B., Singh, Y., Singh, P., Kundu, A. L., Sakal, R., Ram, N., Regmi, A. P., Gami, S. K., Bhandari, A. L., Amin, R., Yadav, C. R., Bhattarai, E. M., Das, S., Aggarwal, H. P., Gupta, R. K. & Hobbs, P. R. (2003). How extensive are yield declines in long-term rice–wheat experiments in Asia? Field Crops Research 81, 159180.
Liu, M., Yu, Z., Liu, Y. & Konijn, N. T. (2006). Fertilizer requirements for wheat and maize in China: the QUEFTS approach. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 74, 245258.
Ma, Y., Li, J., Li, X., Tang, X., Liang, Y., Huang, S., Wang, B., Liu, H. & Yang, X. (2009) Phosphorus accumulation and depletion in soils in wheat-maize cropping systems: modeling and validation. Field Crops Research 110, 207212.
Page, A. L., Millar, R. H. & Keeney, D. R. (1982). Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy/Soil Science Society of America.
Sánchez, M. & Boll, J. (2005). The effect of flow path and mixing layer on phosphorus release: physical mechanisms and temperature effects. Journal of Environment Quality 34, 16001609.
SAS Institute (2004). User's Guide Version 9.1. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
Sharpley, A., Foy, B. & Withers, P. (2000). Practical and innovative measures for the control of agricultural phosphorus losses to water: an overview. Journal of Environment Quality 29, 19.
Shepherd, M. A. & Withers, P. J. (1999). Applications of poultry litter and triple superphosphate fertilizer to a sandy soil: effects on soil phosphorus status and profile distribution. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 54, 233242.
Tang, X., Li, J. M., Ma, Y. B., Hao, X. & Li, X. Y. (2008). Phosphorus efficiency in long-term (15 years) wheat–maize cropping systems with various soil and climate conditions. Field Crops Research 108, 231237.
Willett, I. R. (1991). Phosphorus dynamics in acidic soils that undergo alternate flooding and drying. In Rice Production on Acid Soils of the Tropics (Eds Deturck, P. & Ponnamperuma, F. N.), pp. 4349. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Institute of Fundamental Studies.
Witt, C., Dobermann, A., Abdulrachman, S., Gines, H. C., Wang, G., Nagarajan, R., Satawatananont, S., Son, T. T., Tan, P. S., Tiem, L. V., Simbahan, G. C. & Olk, D. C. (1999). Internal nutrient efficiencies of irrigated lowland rice in tropical and subtropical Asia. Field Crops Research 63, 113138.
Zhou, J. (2001). Nutrients cycling and management in different agro-eco regions of China. In Plant Nutrition, Food Security and Sustainability of Agro-ecosystem through Basic and Applied Research (Ed. Horst, W. J.), pp. 866867. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Phosphorus efficiency in a long-term wheat–rice cropping system in China

  • X. TANG (a1) (a2), X. SHI (a3), Y. MA (a2) and X. HAO (a4)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed