Skip to main content Accessibility help

Opportunities for improving irrigation efficiency with quantitative models, soil water sensors and wireless technology

  • D. J. GREENWOOD (a1), K. ZHANG (a1), H. W. HILTON (a1) and A. J. THOMPSON (a1)


Increasingly serious shortages of water make it imperative to improve the efficiency of irrigation in agriculture, horticulture and in the maintenance of urban landscapes. The main aim of the current review is to identify ways of meeting this objective. After reviewing current irrigation practices, discussion is centred on the sensitivity of crops to water deficit, the finding that growth of many crops is unaffected by considerable lowering of soil water content and, on this basis, the creation of improved means of irrigation scheduling. Subsequently, attention is focused on irrigation problems associated with spatial variability in soil water and the often slow infiltration of water into soil, especially the subsoil. As monitoring of soil water is important for estimating irrigation requirements, the attributes of the two main types of soil water sensors and their most appropriate uses are described. Attention is also drawn to the contribution of wireless technology to the transmission of sensor outputs. Rapid progress is being made in transmitting sensor data, obtained from different depths down the soil profile across irrigated areas, to a PC that processes the data and on this basis automatically commands irrigation equipment to deliver amounts of water, according to need, across the field. To help interpret sensor outputs, and for many other reasons, principles of water processes in the soil–plant system are incorporated into simulation models that are calibrated and tested in field experiments. Finally, it is emphasized that the relative importance of the factors discussed in this review to any particular situation varies enormously.


Corresponding author

*To whom all correspondence should be addressed. Email:


Hide All
Abrisqueta, J. M., Plana, V., Mounzer, O. H., Mendez, J. & Ruiz-Sanchez, M. C. (2007). Effects of soil tillage on runoff generation in a Mediterranean apricot orchard. Agricultural Water Management 93, 1118.
Abu-Awwad, A. M. (1998). Influence of vertical sand column and supplemental irrigation on barley yield in arid soils affected by surface crust. Irrigation Science 18, 101107.
Ahuja, L. R. & Nielsen, D. R. (1990). Field soil–water relations. In Irrigation of Agricultural Crops (Eds Stewart, B. A. & Nielsen, D. R.), pp. 143190. Madison, WI: ASA CSSA SSSA.
Al-Kaisi, M. M. & Broner, I. (2005). Crop Water Use and Growth Stages. No 4·715. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University Cooperative Extension.
Allen, R. G., Periera, L. S., Raes, D. & Smith, M. (1998). Crop Evapotranspiration. Guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56. Rome: FAO.
Avery, B. W. (1990). Soils of the British Isles. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Bacci, L., Battista, P., Rapi, B., Sabatini, F. & Checcacci, E. (2003). Irrigation control of container crops by means of tensiometers. Acta Horticulturae 609, 467474.
Bailey, R. (1990). Irrigated Crops and Their Management. Ipswich, UK: Farming Press Books.
Banedjschafie, S., Bastani, S., Widmoser, P. & Mengel, K. (2008). Improvement of water use efficiency and N-fertilizer efficiency by subsoil irrigation of winter wheat. European Journal of Agronomy 28, 17.
Bastiaanssen, W. G. M., Allen, R. G., Droogers, P., D'urso, G. & Steduto, P. (2007). Twenty-five years modeling irrigated and drained soils: state of the art. Agricultural Water Management 92, 111125.
Belmans, C., Wesseling, J. G. & Feddes, R. A. (1983). Simulation model of the water balance of cropped soil: SWATRE. Journal of Hydrology 63, 271286.
Ben-Hur, M., Faris, J., Malik, M. & Letey, J. (1989). Polymers as soil conditioners under consecutive irrigations and rainfall. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53, 11731177.
Blonquist, J. M. Jr., Jones, S. B. & Robinson, D. A. (2006). Precise irrigation scheduling for turfgrass using a subsurface electromagnetic soil moisture sensor. Agricultural Water Management 84, 153165.
Boote, K. J. & Ketring, D. L. (1990). Peanut. In Irrigation of Agricultural Crops (Eds Stewart, B. A. & Nielsen, D. R.), pp. 675717. Madison, WI: ASA CSSA SSSA.
Bratton, W. L., Shinn, J. D., Farrington, S. P. & Bianchi, J. C. (2000). Water management using soil moisture sensor networks to determine irrigation requirements. In National Irrigation Symposium: Proceedings of the 4th Decennial Symposium 14–16 November 2000, pp. 485490. ASAE Publication 701P0004. Phoenix, AZ: American Society of Agricultural Engineers.
Bryant, R., Doerr, S. H., Hunt, G. & Conan, S. (2007). Effects of compaction on soil surface water repellency. Soil Use and Management 23, 238244.
Çakir, R. (2004). Effect of water stress at different development stages on vegetative and reproductive growth of corn. Field Crops Research 89, 116.
Campbell, G. S. & Anderson, R. Y. (1998). Evaluation of simple transmission line oscillators for soil moisture measurement. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 20, 3144.
Cannavo, P., Recous, S., Parnaudeau, V. & Reau, R. (2008). Modelling N dynamics to assess environmental impacts of cropped soils. Advances in Agronomy 97, 131174.
Cayanan, D. F., Dixon, M. & Zheng, Y. (2008). Development of an automated irrigation system using wireless technology and root zone environmental sensors. Acta Horticulturae 797, 167171.
Cao, C. M., Xia, P. & Zhu, Z. Q. (2005). Application of wireless data transmission to the automatic control of water saving irrigation. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 21, 127130.
Chard, J. (2005). Watermark Soil Moisture Sensors: Characteristics and Operating Instructions. Logan, UT: Utah State University.
Clark, L. J., Gowing, D. J. G., Lark, R. M., Leeds-Harrison, P. B., Miller, A. J., Wells, D. M., Whalley, W. R. & Whitmore, A. P. (2005). Sensing the physical and nutritional status of the root environment in the field: a review of progress and opportunities. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 143, 347358.
Clarke, D. (1998). Cropwat for Windows: User Guide. Rome: FAO.
Clay, J. (2004). World Agriculture and the Environment: A Commodity-by-Commodity Guide to Impacts and Practices. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Coates, R. W., Delwiche, M. J. & Brown, P. H. (2006). Design of a system for individual microsprinkler control. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 49, 19631970.
Costa, J. M., Ortuño, M. F. & Chaves, M. M. (2007). Deficit irrigation as a strategy to save water: physiology and potential application to horticulture. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 49, 14211434.
Cresswell, H. P., Coquet, Y., Bruand, A. & McKenzie, N. J. (2006). The transferability of Australian pedotransfer functions for predicting water retention characteristics of French soils. Soil Use and Management 22, 6270.
Damas, M., Prados, A. M., Gómez, F. & Olivares, G. (2001). HidroBus system: fieldbus for integrated management of extensive areas of irrigated land. Microprocessors and Microsystems 25, 177184.
Debaeke, P. & Aboudrare, A. (2004). Adaptation of crop management to water-limited environments. European Journal of Agronomy 21, 433446.
Debano, L. F. (1971). The effect of hydrophobic substances on water movement in soil during infiltration. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 35, 340343.
Decagon Devices. (2009). Soil Moisture Systems. Available online at: (verified 21 September 2009).
Dekker, L. W., Oostindie, K. & Ritswia, C. J. (2005). Exponential increase of publications related to soil water repellency. Australian Journal of Soil Research 43, 403441.
Denmeade, O. T. & Shaw, R. H. (1962). Availability of soil water to plants as affected by soil moisture content and meteorological conditions. Agronomy Journal 54, 385390.
Eck, H. V., Mathers, A. C. & Musick, J. T. (1987). Plant water stress at various growth stages and growth and yield of soybeans. Field Crops Research 17, 116.
European Commission. (2000). The Environmental Impacts of Irrigation in the European Union: A Report to the Environment Directorate of the European Commission. Available online at: (verified 21 September 2009).
Evett, S. R. & Parkin, G. W. (2005). Advances in soil water content sensing: the continuing maturation of technology and theory. Vadose Zone Journal 4, 986991.
FAO. (2008). Hot Issues: Water Scarcity. Available online at: (verified 21 September 2009).
Farahani, H. J., Izzi, G. & Oweis, T. Y. (2009). Parameterization and evaluation of the AquaCrop model for full and deficit irrigated cotton. Agronomy Journal 101, 469476.
Farooq, M., Kobayashi, N., Wahid, A., Ito, O. & Basra, S. M. A. (2009). Strategies for producing more rice with less water. Advances in Agronomy 101, 351388.
Fereres, E. & Soriano, M. A. (2007). Deficit irrigation for reducing agricultural water use. Journal of Experimental Botany 58, 147159.
Gandolfi, C., Facchi, A. & Maggi, D. (2006). Comparison of 1D models of water flow in unsaturated soils. Environmental Modelling and Software 21, 17591764.
Geesing, D., Bachmaier, M. & Schmidhalter, U. (2004). Field calibration of a capacitance soil water probe in heterogeneous fields. Australian Journal of Soil Research 42, 289299.
Greenwood, D. J., Cleaver, T. J., Loquens, S. M. H. & Niendorf, K. B. (1977). Relationship between plant weight and growing period for vegetable crops in the United Kingdom. Annals of Botany 41, 987997.
Greenwood, D. J., Gerwitz, A., Stone, D. A. & Barnes, A. (1982). Root development of vegetable crops. Plant and Soil 68, 7596.
Groves, S. J. & Rose, S. C. (2004). Calibration equations for Diviner 2000 capacitance measurements of volumetric soil water content of six soils. Soil Use and Management 20, 9697.
Guitjens, J. C. (1990). Alfalfa. In Irrigation of Agricultural Crops (Eds Stewart, B. A. & Nielsen, D. R.), pp. 537568. Agronomy Series 30. Madison, WI: ASA CSSA SSSA.
Guo, J., Zheng, W., Zhao, C., Li, K. & Wang, J. (2005). Design and implementation of supervision and control system based on SMS for irrigation system in middle of isolated grassland of highway. Water Saving Irrigation 3, 2123.
Hanks, R. J. & Cardon, G. E. (2003). Soil water dynamics. In Handbook of Processes and Modelling in the Soil Plant System (Eds Benbi, D. K. & Neider, R.), pp. 261278. New York: The Haworth Reference Press.
Hart, J. K. & Martinez, K. (2006). Environmental sensor networks: a revolution in the earth system science? Earth-Science Reviews 78, 177191.
Hatfield, J. L. (1990). Methods of estimating evapotranspiration. In Irrigation of Agricultural Crops (Eds Stewart, B. A. & Nielsen, D. R.), pp. 435474. Madison, WI: ASA CSSA SSSA.
Hills, F. J., Winter, S. R. & Henderson, D. W. (1990). Sugarbeet. In Irrigation of Agricultural Crops (Eds Stewart, B. A. & Nielsen, D. R.), pp. 796810. ASA Monograph no. 30. Madison, WI: ASA CSSA SSSA.
Holler, M. (2008). High Density Multiple Depth Soil Moisture Tension Measurements for Irrigation Management. Available online at:,%20Multiple%20Depth,%20Wireless%20Soil%20Moisture.pdf (verified 21 September 2009).
Hoogendoorn Growth Management. (2008). Sensiplant: the Easy Wireless Solution for Pot Plant Cultivation. Available online at: (verified 21 September 2009).
Hsiao, T. C., Heng, L., Steduto, P., Rojas-Lara, B., Raes, D. & Fereres, E. (2009). AquaCrop – the FAO crop model to simulate yield response to water: III. Parameterization and testing for maize. Agronomy Journal 101, 448459.
Jadoon, K. Z., Slob, E., Vanclooster, M., Vereecken, H. & Lambot, S. (2008). Uniqueness and stability analysis of hydrogeophysical inversion for time-lapse ground-penetrating radar estimates of shallow soil hydraulic properties. Water Resources Research 44, W09421·1W09421·13.
Jensen, M. E., Rangeley, W. R. & Dieleman, P. J. (1990). Irrigation trends in world agriculture. In Irrigation of Agricultural Crops (Eds Stewart, B. A. & Nielsen, D. R.), pp. 3167. Madison, WI: ASA CSSA SSSA.
Jones, H. G. (2004). Irrigation scheduling: advantages and pitfalls of plant-based methods. Journal of Experimental Botany 55, 24272436.
Kang, Y. H. & Wan, S. Q. (2005). Effect of soil water potential on radish (Raphanus sativus L.) growth and water use under drip irrigation. Scientia Horticulturae 106, 275292.
Kim, Y., Evans, R. G. & Iversen, W. M. (2008). Remote sensing and control of an irrigation system using a distributed wireless sensor network. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 57, 13791387.
Klein, I. (2004). Scheduling automatic irrigation by threshold-set soil matric potential increases irrigation efficiency while minimizing plant stress. Acta Horticulturae 664, 361368.
Krieg, D. R. & Lascano, R. J. (1990). Sorghum. In Irrigation of Agricultural Crops (Eds Stewart, B. A. & Nielsen, D. R.), pp. 719739. Madison, WI: ASA CSSA SSSA.
Kroes, J. G., Van Dam, J. C., Groenendijk, P., Hendriks, R. F. A. & Jacobs, C. M. J. (2008). SWAP Version 3.2: Theory Description and User Manual. Alterra Report 1649. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Alterra.
Kruse, E. G., Bucks, D. A. & Von Bernuth, R. D. (1990). Comparison of irrigation systems. In Irrigation of Agricultural Crops (Eds Stewart, B. A. & Nielsen, D. R.), pp. 475508. Madison, WI: ASA CSSA SSSA.
Lambot, S., Binley, A., Slob, E. & Hubbard, S. (2008). Ground penetrating radar in hydrogeophysics. Vadose Zone Journal 7, 137139.
Lee, D. H. & Abriola, L. M. (1999). Use of the Richards equation in land surface parameterizations. Journal of Geophysical Research 104, 2751927526.
Lilly, A., Wösten, J. H. M., Nemes, A. & Le Bas, C. (1998). The development and use of the HYPRES Database in Europe. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Characterisation and Measurement of the Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Porous Media (Eds van Genuchten, M. Th., Leij, F. J. & Wu, L.), pp. 12831294. Riverside, CA: University of California.
Losada, A., Juana, L. & Roldán, J. (1990). Operation diagrams for irrigation management. Agricultural Water Management 18, 289300.
McNaughton, K. G. & Jarvis, P. G. (1984). Using the Penman-Monteith equation predictively. Agricultural Water Management 8, 263278.
Meyer, W. S. & Green, G. C. (1980). Water use in wheat and plant indicators of available soil water. Agronomy Journal 72, 253257.
Monteith, J. L. (1973). Principles of Environmental Physics. London: Edward Arnold.
Mualem, Y. (1976). A new model for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated porous media. Water Resource Research 12, 513522.
Muchow, R. C. & Sinclair, T. R. (1991). Water deficit effects on maize yields modelled under current and greenhouse climates. Agronomy Journal 83, 10521059.
Munoz-Carpena, R., Dukes, M. D., Li, Y. C. & Klassen, W. (2005). Field comparison of tensiometer and granular matrix sensor automatic drip irrigation on tomato. Horttechnology 15, 584590.
Musick, J. T. & Porter, K. B. (1990). Wheat. In Irrigation of Agricultural Crops (Eds Stewart, B. A. & Nielsen, D. R.), pp. 597638. Madison, WI: ASA CSSA SSSA.
Mwale, S. S., Azam-Ali, S. N. & Sparkes, D. L. (2005). Can the PR1 capacitance probe replace the neutron probe for routine soil-water measurement? Soil Use and Management 21, 340347.
Nannipieri, P. & Badalucco, L. (2003). Biological processes. In Handbook of Processes and Modeling in the Soil-Plant System (Eds Benbi, D. K. & Nieder, R.), pp. 5782. Binghampton, New York: The Haworth Reference Press.
Nemali, K. S. & Iersel, M. W. (2006). An automated system for controlling drought stress and irrigation in potted plants. Scientia Horticulturae 110, 292297.
Nogueira, L. C., Dukes, M. D., Haman, D. Z., Scholberg, J. M. & Cornejo, C. (2003). Data acquisition system and irrigation controller based on CR10X Datalogger and TDR sensor. Soil Crop Science Society of Florida Proceedings 62, 3846.
Or, D., Phutane, S. & Dechesne, A. (2007). Extracellular polymeric substances affecting pore-scale hydrologic conditions for bacterial activity in unsaturated soils. Vadose Zone Journal 6, 298305.
Panda, R. K., Behera, S. K. & Kashyap, P. S. (2003). Effective management of irrigation water for wheat under stressed conditions. Agricultural Water Management 63, 3756.
Payne, D. (1988). The behaviour of water in soil. In Russell's Soil Conditions and Plant Growth (Ed. Wild, A.), pp. 315337. London: Longman Scientific and Technical.
Pedersen, A., Zhang, K., Thorup-Kristensen, K. & Jensen, L. S. (2009). Modelling diverse root density dynamics and deep nitrogen uptake – a simple approach. Plant and Soil. doi:10.1007/s11104-009-0028-8.
Penman, H. L. (1948). Natural evaporation from open water, bare soil and grass. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 193, 120145.
Pocknee, S., Garrick, V. & Kvien, C. (2004). Wireless local area network technology for on-farm monitoring and control. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Precision Agriculture and Other Precision Resource Management (Ed. Mulla, D. J.), pp. 231241. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.
Qualls, R. J., Scott, J. M. & Deoreo, W. B. (2001). Soil moisture sensors for urban landscape irrigation: effectiveness and reliability. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37, 547559.
Raes, D., Lemmens, H., Van Aelst, P., Vanden Bulcke, M. & Smith, M. (1988). IRSIS – Irrigation Scheduling Information System. Volume 1. Reference Manual 3. Leuven, Belgium: K. U. Leuven University.
Raes, D., Steduto, P., Hsiao, T. C. & Fereres, E. (2009 a). AquaCrop Reference Manual. Rome: FAO.
Raes, D., Steduto, P., Hsiao, T. C. & Fereres, E. (2009 b). AquaCrop – the FAO crop model to simulate yield response to water: II. Main algorithms and software description. Agronom Journal 101, 438447.
Ragab, R. (1995). Towards a continuous operational system to estimate the root zones soil moisture from intermittent remotely sensed surface moisture. Journal of Hydrology 173, 125.
Rawlins, B. G., Marchant, B. P., Smyth, D., Scheib, C., Lark, R. M. & Jordan, C. (2009). Airborne radiometric survey data and a DTM as covariates for regional scale mapping of soil organic carbon across Northern Ireland. European Journal of Soil Science 60, 4454.
Ritchie, J. T. (1973). Influence of soil water status and meteorological conditions on evaporation from a corn canopy. Agronomy Journal 65, 893897.
Rosenthal, W. D., Arkin, G. F., Shouse, P. J. & Jordan, W. P. (1987). Water deficit effects on transpiration and leaf growth. Agronomy Journal 79, 10191026.
Russell, E. W. (1973). Soil Conditions and Plant Growth. 10th edn.London: Longman.
Sadras, V. O. & Milroy, S. P. (1996). Soil-water thresholds for the responses of leaf expansion and gas exchange: a review. Field Crops Research 47, 253266.
Sadras, V. O., Villalobos, F. J. & Fereres, E. (1993). Leaf expansion in field grown sunflower in response to soil and leaf water status. Agronomy Journal 85, 564570.
Saeed, H., Grove, I. G., Kettlewell, P. S. & Hall, N. W. (2008). Potential of partial rootzone drying as an alternative irrigation technique for potatoes. Annals of Applied Biology 152, 7180.
Salter, P. J. & Goode, J. E. (1967). Crop Responses to Water at Different Stages of Growth. Farnham Royal, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.
Savva, A. P. & Frenken, K. (2002). Crop Water Requirements and Irrigation Scheduling. Irrigation Manual Module 4. Harare: FAO.
Shukla, S., Yu, C. Y., Hardin, J. D. & Jaber, F. H. (2006). Wireless data acquisition and control systems for agricultural water management projects. HortTechnology 16, 595604.
Silva, L. L. (2007). Fitting infiltration equations to centre-pivot irrigation data in a Mediterranean soil. Agricultural Water Management 94, 8392.
Stalham, M. A., Allen, E. J., Rosenfeld, A. B. & Herry, F. X. (2007). Effects of soil compaction in potato (Solanum tuberosum) crops. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 145, 295312.
Stanley, C. D. & Maynard, D. N. (1990). Vegetables. In Irrigation of Agricultural Crops (Eds Stewart, B. A. & Nielsen, D. R.), pp. 921950. Madison, WI: ASA CSSA SSSA.
Steduto, P., Hsiao, T. C. & Fereres, E. (2007). On the conservative behaviour of biomass water productivity. Irrigation Science 25, 189207.
Steduto, P., Hsiao, T. C., Raes, D. & Fereres, E. (2009). AquaCrop – the FAO crop model to simulate yield response to water: I. Concepts and underlying principles. Agronomy Journal 101, 426437.
Stewart, B. A. & Nielsen, D. R. (1990). Irrigation of Agricultural Crops. Agronomy No. 30. Madison, WI: ASA CSSA SSSA.
Stieber, T. D. & Shock, C. C. (1995). Placement of soil moisture sensors in sprinkler irrigated potatoes. American Potato Journal 72, 533543.
Stirzaker, R. J. & Hutchinson, R. A. (2005). Irrigation controlled by a wetting front detector: field evaluation under sprinkler irrigation. Australian Journal of Soil Research 43, 935943.
Taylor, H. M. & Gardner, H. R. (1963). Penetration of cotton seedling taproots as influenced by bulk density, moisture content, and strengths of soil. Soil Science 96, 153156.
Thomson, S. J. & Ross, B. B. (1996). Using Soil Moisture Sensors for Making Irrigation Management Decisions in Virginia. Biological Systems Engineering Publication 442–024. Virginia, VA: Virginia Co-operative Extension, University of Virginia.
Thompson, R. B., Gallardo, M., Valdez, L. C. & Fernandez, M. D. (2007). Determination of lower limits for irrigation management using in situ assessments of apparent crop water uptake made with volumetric soil water content sensors. Agricultural Water Management 92, 1328.
Ulrich, T. (2008). Wireless network monitors H2O: system saves resources, increases yield in Cabernet vineyard. Wines and Vines Magazine, July Issue. Available online at: (verified 24 September 2009).
Van Genuchten, M. Th. (1980). A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 44, 892898.
Van Loon, C. D. (1981). The effect of water stress on potato growth development and yield. American Journal of Potato Research 58, 5169.
Vellidis, G., Tucker, M., Perry, C., Kvien, C. & Bednarz, C. (2008). A real-time wireless smart sensor array for scheduling irrigation. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 61, 4450.
Wang, F. X., Kang, Y., Liu, S. P. & Hou, X. Y. (2007). Effects of soil matric potential on potato growth under drip irrigation in the North China Plain. Agricultural Water Management 88, 3442.
Wang, N., Zhang, N. & Wang, M. (2006). Wireless sensors in agriculture and food industry – recent development and future perspective. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 50, 114.
Warrick, A. W. (1990). Nature and dynamics of soil water. In Irrigation of Agricultural Crops (Eds Stewart, B. A. & Nielsen, D. R.), pp. 6992. Madison, WI: ASA CSSA SSSA.
Werner, H. (2002). Measuring Soil Moisture for Irrigation Water Management. Publication FS 876. Dakota, SD: College of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, South Dakota State University.
Whalley, W. R., Watts, C. W., Hilhorst, M. A., Bird, N. R. A., Balendonck, J. & Longstaff, D. J. (2001). The design of porous material sensors to measure matric potential of water in soil. European Journal of Soil Science 52, 511519.
Whalley, W. R., Clark, L. J., Take, W. A., Bird, N. R. A., Leech, P. K., Cope, R. E. & Watts, C. W. (2007). A porous-matrix sensor to measure the matric potential of soil water in the field. European Journal of Soil Science 58, 1825.
Whalley, W. R., Lock, G., Jenkins, M., Peloe, T., Burek, K., Balendonck, J., Takei, W. A., Tuzel, H. & Tuzel, Y. (2009). Measurement of low matric potentials with porous matrix sensors and water filled tensiometers. Soil Science Society of America Journal 73, 17961803.
Wösten, J. H. M., Lilly, A., Nemes, A. & Le Bas, C. (1999). Development and use of a database of hydraulic properties of European soils. Geoderma 90, 169185.
Wright, J. L. & Stark, J. C. (1990). Potato. In Irrigation of Agricultural Crops (Eds Stewart, B. A. & Nielsen, D. R.), pp. 859888. Madison, WI: ASA CSSA SSSA.
Yang, D., Zhang, T., Zhang, K., Greenwood, D. J., Hammond, J. P. & White, P. J. (2009). An easily implemented agro-hydrological procedure with dynamic root simulation for water transfer in the crop–soil system: Validation and application. Journal of Hydrology 370, 177190.
Zhang, K., Greenwood, D. J., White, P. J. & Burns, I. G. (2007). A dynamic model for the combined effects of N, P and K fertilizers on yield and mineral composition: description and experimental test. Plant and Soil 298, 8198.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed