Skip to main content Accessibility help

Growth performance of finishing feedlot lambs fed maize silage inoculated with Bacillus subtilis and lactic acid bacteria

  • C. H. S. Rabelo (a1), E. C. Lara (a1), F. C. Basso (a1), C. J. Härter (a2) and R. A. Reis (a1)...


Whole-crop maize forage was ensiled without inoculant (control), inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri and L. plantarum at a rate of 1 × 105 cfu/g fresh forage per bacterium (LBLP), or inoculated with Bacillus subtilis and L. plantarum at a rate 1 × 105 cfu/g fresh forage per bacterium (BSLP) with the goal to investigate the growth performance of finishing feedlot lambs. Thirty Dorper × Santa Ines lambs (29 ± 3.5 kg initial body weight) were used in the feedlot programme and assigned (n = 10) to one of three diets containing control, LBLP or BSLP silages in a 60:40 forage:concentrate ratio. Inoculation of maize silage did not alter dry matter intake (overall mean = 1.16 kg/day) and average daily gain (overall mean = 0.217 kg/day) of lambs. Consequently, feed efficiency remained unchanged. Inoculation of maize silage did not alter carcass and meat traits of lambs, with the exception of meat colour, wherein yellowness (b*) decreased by feeding LBLP and BSLP diets compared with the untreated diet. Regarding ruminal fermentation, there was an interaction between diets and the interval at which ruminal fluid was sampled for determining total volatile fatty acid concentration, but inoculation yielded no obvious results. In conclusion, the use of diets based on maize silage inoculated with L. plantarum combined with either L. buchneri or B. subtilis did not display relevant effects on growth performance of lambs; this response might be related to the limited impact of these bacterial inoculants on silage composition.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: C. H. S. Rabelo, E-mail:


Hide All
Addah, W, Baah, J, Okine, EK, Owens, FN and McAllister, TA (2014) Effects of chop-length and a ferulic acid esterase-producing inoculant on fermentation and aerobic stability of barley silage, and growth performance of finishing feedlot steers. Animal Feed Science and Technology 197, 3446.
Addah, W, Baah, J, Okine, EK and McAllister, TA (2015) Effect of barley silage chop length and inoculation on growth performance, feeding behavior, and ruminal acidosis in finishing feedlot steers. Journal of Animal Science 93, 23092321.
AOAC (1996) Official Methods of Analysis, 16th Edn. Arlington, VA, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Arnold, RN, Scheller, KK, Arp, SC, Williams, SN, Buege, DR and Schaefer, DM (1992) Effect of long- or short-term feeding of α-tocopheryl acetate to Holstein and crossbred beef steers on performance, carcass characteristics, and beef color stability. Journal of Animal Science 70, 30553065.
Arriola, KG, Kim, SC, Staples, CR and Adesogan, AT (2011) Effect of applying bacterial inoculants containing different types of bacteria to corn silage on the performance of dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 94, 39733979.
Basso, FC, Lara, EC, Assis, FB, Morelli, M, Rabelo, CHS and Reis, RA (2012) Características da fermentação e estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de milho inoculadas com Bacillus subtilis. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal 13, 10091019.
Basso, FC, Adesogan, AT, Lara, EC, Rabelo, CHS, Berchielli, TT, Teixeira, IAMA, Siqueira, GR and Reis, RA (2014) Effects of feeding corn silage inoculated with microbial additives on the ruminal fermentation, microbial protein yield, and growth performance of lambs. Journal of Animal Science 92, 56405650.
Brasil (1997) Regulamento da Inspeção Industrial e Sanitária de Produtos de Origem Animal (Food of Animal Origin Sanitary and Industry Inspection). Brasília, Brazil: Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento.
Cañeque, V and Sañudo, C (2000) Metodologia para el Estúdio de la Calidad de la Canal y de la Carne en Rumiantes. Madrid, Spain: Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnologia y Alimenticia.
Cerdeño, A, Vieira, C, Serrano, E, Lavína, P and Mantecón, AR (2006) Effects of feeding strategy during a short finishing period on performance, carcass and meat quality in previously-grazed young bulls. Meat Science 72, 719726.
Charmley, E (2001) Towards improved silage quality – a review. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 81, 157168.
Cheng, Q and Sun, D-W (2008) Factors affecting the water holding capacity of red meat products: a review of recent research advances. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 48, 137159.
Chow, CK and Draper, HH (1974) Oxidative stability and activity of the tocopherols in corn and soybean oils. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 44, 396403.
Detmann, E and Valadares Filho, SC (2010) On the estimation of non-fibrous carbohydrates in feeds and diets. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia 62, 980984.
Driehuis, F, Oude Elferink, SJWH and Spoelstra, SF (1999) Anaerobic lactic acid degradation during ensilage of whole crop maize inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri inhibits yeast growth and improves aerobic stability. Journal of Applied Microbiology 87, 583594.
Fenner, H (1965) Method for determining total volatile bases in rumen fluid by stem distillation. Journal of Dairy Science 48, 249251.
Filya, I (2003 a) The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 35753581.
Filya, I (2003 b) The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, with or without homofermentative lactic acid bacteria, on the fermentation, aerobic stability and ruminal degradability of wheat, sorghum and maize silages. Journal of Applied Microbiology 95, 10801086.
Fugita, CA, Prado, IN, Jobim, CC, Zawadzki, F, Valero, MV, Pires, MCO, Prado, RM and Françozo, MC (2012) Corn silage with and without enzyme-bacteria inoculants on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in feedlot finished crossbred bulls. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 41, 154163.
Hosoi, T, Ametani, A, Kiuchi, K and Kaminogawa, S (2000) Improved growth and viability of lactobacilli in the presence of Bacillus subtilis (natto), catalase, or subtilisin. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 46, 892897.
Hu, W, Schmidt, RJ, McDonell, EE, Klingerman, CM and Kung, L Jr (2009) The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 or Lactobacillus plantarum MTD-1 on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silages ensiled at two dry matter contents. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 39073914.
Keady, TWJ and Steen, RWJ (1995) The effects of treating low dry matter, low digestibility grass with a bacterial inoculant on the intake and performance of beef cattle, and studies on its mode of action. Grass and Forage Science 50, 217226.
Kleinschmit, DH and Kung, L Jr (2006 a) A meta-analysis of the effects of Lactobacillus buchneri on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn and grass and small-grain silages. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 40054013.
Kleinschmit, DH and Kung, L Jr (2006 b) The effects of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and Pediococcus pentosaceus R1094 on the fermentation of corn silage. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 39994004.
Kung, L Jr, Stokes, MR and Lin, CJ (2003). Silage additives. In Buxton, DR, Muck, RE and Harrison, JH (eds), Silage Science and Technology. Agronomy no. 42. Madison, WI, USA: American Society of Agronomy, pp. 305360.
Kung, L Jr, Shaver, RD, Grant, RJ and Schmidt, RJ (2018) Silage review: interpretation of chemical, microbial, and organoleptic components of silages. Journal of Dairy Science 101, 40204033.
Lara, EC, Basso, FC, de Assis, FB, Souza, FA, Berchielli, TT and Reis, RA (2016) Changes in the nutritive value and aerobic stability of corn silages inoculated with Bacillus subtilis alone or combined with Lactobacillus plantarum. Animal Production Science 56, 18671874.
Mancini, RA and Hunt, MC (2005) Current research in meat color. Meat Science 71, 100121.
McAllister, TA, Selinger, LB, McMahon, LR, Bae, HD, Lysyk, TJ, Oosting, SJ and Cheng, K-J (1995) Intake, digestibility and aerobic stability of barley silage inoculated with mixtures of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 75, 425432.
McDonald, P, Henderson, AR and Heron, SJE (1991) The Biochemistry of Silage. Marlow, Bucks, UK: Chalcomb Publications.
Mertens, DR (2002) Gravimetric determination of amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber in feeds with refluxing in beakers or crucibles: collaborative study. Journal of AOAC International 85, 12171240.
Mohammadzadeh, H, Khorvash, M, Ghorbani, GR and Yang, WZ (2012) Frosted corn silage with or without bacterial inoculants in dairy cattle ration. Livestock Science 145, 153159.
Moran, JP, Weinberg, ZG, Ashbell, G, Hen, Y and Owen, TR (1996) A comparison of two methods for the evaluation of the aerobic stability of whole crop wheat silage. In Jones, DIH (ed.) Proceedings of the 11th International Silage Conference. Aberystwyth, UK: IGER, University of Wales, pp. 162163.
Muck, RE, Nadeau, EMG, McAllister, TA, Contreras-Govea, FE, Santos, MC and Kung, L Jr (2018) Silage review: recent advances and future uses of silage additives. Journal of Dairy Science 101, 39804000.
Nelson, N (1944) A photometric adaptation of the Somogyi method for the determination of glucose. Journal of Biological Chemistry 153, 375380.
Nielsen, RL (2018) Grain Fill Stages in Corn. West Lafayette, IN, USA: Purdue University, Corny News Network. Available at (Accessed 9 August 2018).
Nkosi, BD, Meeske, R, Palic, D, Lang, T, Leeuw, KJ and Groenewald, IB (2009) Effects of ensiling whole crop maize with bacterial inoculants on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and growth performance of lambs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 154, 193203.
NRC (2007) Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids and New World Camelids. Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press.
Oliveira, AS, Weinberg, ZG, Ogunade, IM, Cervantes, AAP, Arriola, KG, Jiang, Y, Kim, D, Li, X, Gonçalves, MCM, Vyas, D and Adesogan, AT (2017) Meta-analysis of effects of inoculation with homofermentative and facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria on silage fermentation, aerobic stability, and the performance of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 100, 45874603.
Oude Elferink, SJWH, Krooneman, J, Gottschal, JC, Spoelstra, SF, Faber, F and Driehuis, F (2001) Anaerobic conversion of lactic acid to acetic acid and 1,2 propanodiol by Lactobacillus buchneri. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67, 125132.
Pahlow, G, Muck, RE, Driehuis, F, Oude-Elferink, SJWH and Spoelstra, SF (2003) Microbiology of ensiling. In Buxton, DR, Muck, RE and Harrison, JH (eds), Silage Science and Technology. Madison, WI, USA: American Society of Agronomy, pp. 3193.
Pryce, JD (1969) A modification of the Barker-Summerson method for the determination of lactic acid. Analyst (London) 94, 11511152.
Rabelo, CHS, Viche, RFL, Lara, EC, Basso, FC, Jorge, LGO and Reis, RA (2014) Chemical composition and aerobic stability of corn silages inoculated with Bacillus subtilis. In Proceedings of the 51 Reunião Anual da Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia. Aracaju, SE: SBZ.
Rabelo, CHS, Mari, LJ and Reis, RA (2016) Survey about the use of bacterial inoculants in Brazil: effects on silage quality and animal performance. In Da Silva, T and Santos, EM (eds), Advances in Silage Production and Utilization. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech, pp. 337.
Rabelo, CHS, Basso, FC, Lara, EC, Jorge, LGO, Härter, CJ, Mesquita, LG, Silva, LFP and Reis, RA (2018 a) Effects of Lactobacillus buchneri as a silage inoculant and as a probiotic on feed intake, apparent digestibility and ruminal fermentation and microbiology in wethers fed low-dry-matter whole-crop maize silage. Grass and Forage Science 73, 6777.
Rabelo, CHS, Valente, ALS, Barbero, RP, Basso, FC and Reis, RA (2018 b) Performance of finishing beef cattle fed diets containing maize silages inoculated with lactic-acid bacteria and Bacillus subtilis. Animal Production Science. doi: 10.1071/AN16358.
Ramos, EM and Gomide, LAM (2007) Avaliação da Qualidade de Carnes: Fundamentos e Metodologias. Viçosa, Brazil: Editora UFV.
Silva Sobrinho, AG (1999) Body composition and characteristics of carcass from lambs of different genotypes and ages at slaughter. Report (Post Doctorate in Sheep Meat Production). Palmerston North, New Zealand: Massey University.
Silva Sobrinho, AG and Osório, JCS (2008) Aspectos quantitativos da produção de carne ovina. In Silva Sobrinho, AG, Sañudo, C, Osório, JCS, Arribas, MMC and Osório, MTM (eds), Produção de Carne Ovina. Jaboticabal, Brazil: Funep livraria, pp. 168.
Sniffen, CJ, O'Connor, JD, Van Soest, PJ, Fox, DG and Russell, JB (1992) A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: II. Carbohydrate and protein availability. Journal of Animal Science 70, 35623577.
Udén, P and Robinson, PH (2015) Design and statistical issues in silage experiments. In Daniel, JLP, Morais, G, Junges, D and Nussio, LG (eds), Proceedings of the XVII International Silage Conference. Piracicaba, SP: ESALQ, pp. 166179.
Van Soest, PJ, Robertson, JB and Lewis, BA (1991) Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 35833597.
Weinberg, ZG and Muck, RE (1996) New trends and opportunities in the development and use of inoculants for silage. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 19, 5368.
Weinberg, ZG, Muck, RE and Weimer, PJ (2003) The survival of silage inoculant lactic acid bacteria in rumen fluid. Journal of Applied Microbiology 94, 10661071.
Winters, AL, Fychan, R and Jones, R (2001) Effect of formic acid and a bacterial inoculant on the amino acid composition of grass silage and on animal performance. Grass and Forage Science 56, 181192.
Yildirim, M (2001) Purification of buchnericin LB produced by Lactobacillus buchneri LB. Turkish Journal of Biology 25, 5965.
Zuber, P, Nakano, MM and Marahiel, MA (1993) Peptide antibiotics. In Sonenshein, AL, Hoch, JA and Losick, R (eds), Bacillus subtilis and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Molecular Genetics. Washington, DC, USA: American Society for Microbiology, pp. 897916.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed