Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Grain quality in the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment and the winter North Atlantic Oscillation

  • M. D. ATKINSON (a1), P. S. KETTLEWELL (a1), P. R. POULTON (a2) and P. D. HOLLINS (a1)

Summary

Previous work has shown that the national average quality of the UK wheat crop from 1974 to 1999 was associated with the preceding winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The association of the winter NAO with the grain quality measure, specific weight, was shown to be mediated by sunshine duration during grain filling and unconditional wet day probability during grain ripening (the probability of a wet day following either a dry or a wet day). The present study tests the hypothesis that the association between specific weight and the winter NAO can be detected in data from 158 years of the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment at Rothamsted in south-east England. Specific weight from the Broadbalk Experiment responded to sunshine duration during grain filling and unconditional wet day probability during grain ripening in a similar way to the national average data. An association with the winter NAO was found in the Broadbalk data from 1956 to 2001, but not in the previous 112 years (1844–1955). This finding is consistent with other work showing significant correlations between the winter NAO and summer climate only in recent decades. It is concluded that the association between wheat quality and the NAO is a recent phenomenon.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. Email: pskettlewell@harper-adams.ac.uk

References

Hide All
Atkinson, M. D., Kettlewell, P. S., Hollins, P. D., Stephenson, D. B. & Hardwick, N. V. (2005). Summer climate mediates UK wheat quality response to winter North Atlantic Oscillation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 130, 2737.
Bayles, R. A. (1977). Poorly filled grain in the cereal crop I. The assessment of poor grain filling. Journal of the National Institute of Agricultural Botany 14, 232240.
Blenckner, T. & Hillebrand, H. (2002). North Atlantic oscillation signatures in aquatic and terrestrial ecosytems – a meta-analysis. Global Change Biology 8, 203212.
Bringhurst, T. A., Fotheringham, A. L. & Brosnan, J. (2003). Grain whisky: raw materials and processing. In Whisky: Technology, Production and Marketing (Eds Russell, I., Bamforth, C. & Stewart, G.), pp. 75112. London: Academic Press.
British Atmospheric Data Centre (2002). http://badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/surface/ (verified 22 May 2008).
Brooker, D. B., Bakker-Arkema, F. W. & Hall, C. W. (1992). Drying and Storage of Grains and Oilseeds. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Czarnecki, E. & Evans, L. E. (1986). Effect of weathering during delayed harvest on test weight, seed size, and grain hardness of wheat. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 66, 473482.
Dyke, G. V., George, B. J., Johnston, A. E., Poulton, P. R. & Todd, A. D. (1983). The Broadbalk Wheat Experiment 1968–78: yields and plant nutrients in crops grown continuously and in rotation. In Rothamsted Experimental Station Report for 1982, Part 2, pp. 544. Harpenden, Herts, UK: Lawes Agricultural Trust.
Electronic Rothamsted Archive (2002). http://www.era.iacr.ac.uk/ (verified 22 May 2008).
Gooding, M. J. & Davies, W. P. (1997). Wheat Production and Utilization: Systems, Quality and the Environment. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Hollins, P. D., Kettlewell, P. S., Atkinson, M. D., Stephenson, D. B., Corden, J. M., Millington, W. M. & Mullins, J. (2004). Relationships between airborne fungal spore concentration of Cladosporium and the summer climate at two sites in Britain. International Journal of Biometeorology 48, 137141.
Hook, S. C. W. (1967). Specific weight and wheat quality. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 35, 11361141.
Hurrell, J. W. & Van Loon, H. (1997). Decadal variations in climate associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Climatic Change 36, 301326.
Hurrell, J. W., Kushnir, Y., Ottersen, G. & Visbeck, M. (2003). The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact. Geophysical Monograph 134. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union.
Johnston, A. E. & Garner, H. V. (1969). The Broadbalk Wheat Experiment: historical introduction. In Rothamsted Experimental Station Report for 1968, Part 2, pp. 1225. Harpenden, Herts, UK: Lawes Agricultural Trust.
Jones, P. D., Jonsson, T. & Wheeler, D. (1997). Extension to the North Atlantic Oscillation using early instrumental pressure observations from Gibraltar and South-West Iceland. International Journal of Climatology 17, 14331450.
Kettlewell, P. S., Easey, J., Stephenson, D. B. & Poulton, P. R. (2006). Soil moisture mediates association between the winter North Atlantic Oscillation and summer growth in the Park Grass Experiment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 273, 11491154.
Kettlewell, P. S., Sothern, R. B. & Koukkari, W. L. (1999). U.K. wheat quality and economic value are dependent on the North Atlantic Oscillation. Journal of Cereal Science 29, 205209.
Kettlewell, P. S., Stephenson, D. B., Atkinson, M. D. & Hollins, P. D. (2003). Summer rainfall and wheat grain quality: relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Weather 58, 155163.
Laurila, H. A. (1995). Modelling the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on Swedish and German spring wheat varieties with CERES-wheat and AFRC-wheat crop models. Journal of Biogeography 22, 591595.
Livezey, R. E. & Chen, W. Y. (1983). Statistical field significance and its determination by Monte Carlo techniques. Monthly Weather Review 111, 4659.
McCracken, K. J., Miller, H. M., Rose, S. P. & McNab, J. M. (2001). Further evidence of lack of relationship between nutritive value of wheat for broilers and specific weight. British Poultry Science 42, S98S99.
Miller, H. M. & Wilkinson, J. M. (1998). The Nutritional Value to Farm Livestock of Low Bushel Weight Wheat. HGCA Research Review No. 39. London: Home-Grown Cereals Authority.
Morris, C. F. & Rose, S. P. (1996). Wheat. In Cereal Grain Quality (Eds Henry, R. J. & Kettlewell, P. S.), pp. 354. London: Chapman & Hall.
Ogi, M., Tachibana, Y. & Yamazaki, K. (2003). Impact of the wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the summertime atmospheric circulation. Geophysical Research Letters 30, 1704.
Ottersen, G., Planque, B., Belgrano, A., Post, E., Reid, P. C. & Stenseth, N. C. (2001). Ecological effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Oecologia 128, 114.
Qian, B. D. & Saunders, M. A. (2003). Summer U.K. temperature and its links to preceding Eurasian snow cover, North Atlantic SSTs, and the NAO. Journal of Climate 16, 41084120.
Smith, G. P. & Gooding, M. J. (1999). Models of wheat grain quality considering climate, cultivar and nitrogen effects. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 94, 159170.
Sokal, R. R. & Rohlf, F. J. (1995). Biometry. 3rd edn. New York: W. H. Freeman & Co.
Taylor, B. R., Cranstoun, D. A. S. & Roscrow, J. C. (1993). The quality of winter wheat varieties for distilling from Scottish sites. Aspects of Applied Biology 36, 481484.
Wanner, H., Bronnimann, S., Casty, C., Gyalistras, D., Luterbacher, J., Schmutz, C., Stephenson, D. B. & Xoplaki, E. (2001). North Atlantic Oscillation – Concepts and studies. Surveys in Geophysics 22, 321382.
Wedgbrow, C. S., Wilby, R. L., Fox, H. R. & O'Hare, G. (2002). Prospects for seasonal forecasting of summer drought and low river flow anomalies in England and Wales. International Journal of Climatology 22, 219236.
Weir, A. H., Bragg, P. L., Porter, J. R. & Rayner, J. H. (1984). A winter wheat crop simulation model without water or nutrient limitations. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 102, 371382.
Westgarth-Smith, A. R., Leroy, S. A. G., Collins, P. E. F. & Roy, D. B. (2005). Mechanisms for the control of UK butterfly abundance by the North Atlantic Oscillation. Antenna 29, 257266.
Wilby, R. L., O'Hare, G. & Barnsley, N. (1997). The North Atlantic Oscillation and British Isles climate variability. Weather 52, 266276.
Wilks, D. S. (2006). Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences. 2nd edn. Burlington, MA: Elsevier.

Grain quality in the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment and the winter North Atlantic Oscillation

  • M. D. ATKINSON (a1), P. S. KETTLEWELL (a1), P. R. POULTON (a2) and P. D. HOLLINS (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed