Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Effects of pre-incubation in sheep and goat saliva on in vitro rumen digestion of tanniferous browse foliage

  • H. AMMAR (a1) (a2), R. BODAS (a1) (a3), J. S. GONZÁLEZ (a1), A. Z. M. SALEM (a4) (a5), F. J. GIRÁLDEZ (a1), S. ANDRÉS (a1) and S. LÓPEZ (a1)...

Summary

A two-stage in vitro procedure was used for assessing the activity of parotid saliva to enhance rumen digestion of tanniniferous browse foliage. The procedure consisted of pre-incubation in saliva for 4 h at 39 °C followed by incubation in diluted buffered rumen fluid. Using this procedure, a study was conducted to examine the effects of pre-incubation in sheep (SS), quebracho-supplemented sheep (qSS) and goat (GS) parotid saliva or in McDougall's artificial saliva (AS, used as control) on in vitro rumen fermentation kinetics (estimated using the gas production technique) of browse foliage from six shrub species (Cytisus scoparius, Genista florida, Rosa canina, Quercus pyrenaica, Cistus laurifolius and Erica australis) collected over two seasons (spring and autumn), thus varying the in vitro digestibility (from 0·597 to 0·903) and tannin contents (from 3 to 130 g tannic acid equivalent/kg dry matter (DM)). Saliva was collected from four sheep and four goats fed alfalfa hay, and from four sheep fed the same alfalfa hay but supplemented with quebracho (rich in condensed tannins) for 60 d, through a cannula inserted in the parotid duct, and rumen fluid was always from sheep fed alfalfa hay. The extent of degradation when browse foliage was pre-incubated in qSS was similar to that observed with control AS (0·449 v. 0·452, respectively), and 8% less than the value with pre-incubation in SS (0·490). In vitro fermentation kinetics (gas production parameters) of browse foliage were not significantly enhanced with pre-incubation in qSS compared with SS, whereas in vitro digestibility and extent of degradation in the rumen were significantly reduced with qSS compared with SS. After pre-incubation in sheep and goat saliva, the extent of browse foliage degradation was significantly increased by 4–8% compared with pre-incubation in the control AS. Fermentation efficiency of browse foliage was increased (P<0·05) with pre-incubation in GS compared with SS. Sheep or goat saliva may have some activity to affect in vitro rumen fermentation of the foliage samples incubated, enhancing extent of degradation of tannin-rich browse. However, a relationship between the magnitude of this effect and the tannin content of the browse foliage could not be established, suggesting that sheep and goat saliva may not be particularly important in neutralizing tannins.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*To whom all correspondence should be addressed. Email: s.lopez@unileon.es

References

Hide All
Alonso-Díaz, M. A., Torres-Acosta, J. F. J., Sandoval-Castro, C. A. & Capetillo-Leal, C. M. (2012). Amino acid profile of the protein from whole saliva of goats and sheep and its interaction with tannic acid and tannins extracted from the fodder of tropical plants. Small Ruminant Research 103, 6974.
Ammar, H., López, S., Bochi, O., García, R. & Ranilla, M. J. (1999). Composition and in vitro digestibility of leaves and stems of grasses and legumes harvested from permanent mountain meadows at different maturity stages. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 8, 599610.
Ammar, H., López, S., González, J. S. & Ranilla, M. J. (2004 a). Chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of some Spanish browse plant species. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84, 197204.
Ammar, H., López, S., González, J. S. & Ranilla, M. J. (2004 b). Seasonal variations in the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of some Spanish leguminous shrub species. Animal Feed Science and Technology 115, 327340.
Ammar, H., López, S., González, J. S. & Ranilla, M. J. (2004 c). Comparison between analytical methods and biological assays for the assessment of tannin-related antinutritive effects in some Spanish browse species. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84, 13491356.
Ammar, H., López, S., Andrés, S., Ranilla, M. J., Bodas, R. & González, J. S. (2008). In vitro digestibility and fermentation kinetics of some browse plants using sheep or goat ruminal fluid as the source of inoculum. Animal Feed Science and Technology 147, 90104.
Ammar, H., López, S., Kammoun, M., Bodas, R., Giráldez, F. J. & González, J. S. (2009). Feeding quebracho tannins to sheep enhances rumen fermentative activity to degrade browse shrubs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 149, 115.
Ammar, H., López, S., Salem, A. Z. M., Bodas, R. & González, J. S. (2011). Effect of saliva from sheep that have ingested quebracho tannins on the in vitro rumen fermentation activity to digest tannin-containing shrubs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 163, 7783.
Austin, P. J., Suchar, L. A., Robbins, C. T. & Hagerman, A. E. (1989). Tannins-binding proteins in saliva of deer and their absence in saliva of sheep and cattle. Journal of Chemical Ecology 15, 13351347.
Bajec, M. R. & Pickering, G. J. (2008). Astringency: mechanisms and perception. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 48, 858875.
Bennick, A. (2002). Interaction of plant polyphenols with salivary proteins. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine 13, 184196.
Crawley, M. J. (2005). Statistics: An Introduction Using R. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
da Costa, G., Lamy, E., Silva, F. C., Andersen, J., Baptista, E. S. & Coelho, A. V. (2008). Salivary amylase induction by tannin-enriched diets as a possible countermeasure against tannins. Journal of Chemical Ecology 34, 376387.
Dearing, M. D., Foley, W. J. & McLean, S. (2005). The influence of plant secondary metabolites on the nutritional ecology of herbivorous terrestrial vertebrates. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 36, 169189.
Fickel, J., Goritz, F., Joest, B. A., Hildebrandt, T., Hofmann, R. R. & Breves, G. (1998). Analysis of parotid and mixed saliva in Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.). Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology 168, 257264.
France, J., Dijkstra, J., Dhanoa, M. S., López, S. & Bannink, A. (2000). Estimating the extent of degradation of ruminant feeds from a description of their gas production profiles observed in vitro: derivation of models and other mathematical considerations. British Journal of Nutrition 83, 143150.
Freeland, W. J. (1991). Plant secondary metabolites: biochemical coevolution with herbivores. In Plant Defenses against Mammalian Herbivory (Eds Palo, R. T. & Robbins, C. T.), pp. 6181. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Goering, H. K. & Van Soest, P. J. (1970). Forage fiber analyses (apparatus, reagents, procedures, and some applications). Agriculture Handbook 379. Washington, DC: ARS-USDA.
Gordon, I. J. (2003). Browsing and grazing ruminants: are they different beasts? Forest Ecology and Management 181, 1321.
Gordon, I. J., Perez-Barberia, F. J. & Cuartas, P. (2002). The influence of adaptation of rumen microflora on in vitro digestion of different forages by sheep and red deer. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80, 19301937.
Hagerman, A. E. & Robbins, C. T. (1993). Specificity of tannin binding salivary proteins relative to diet selection by mammals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71, 628633.
Haghighat, M., Moetamed, A., Vaseghi, T. & Aminlari, M. (1996). Isoprenaline induces biosynthesis of proline-rich proteins in the salivary glands of rat but not in sheep. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology 115, 165168.
Hofmann, R. R., Streich, W. J., Fickel, J., Hummel, J. & Clauss, M. (2008). Convergent evolution in feeding types: salivary gland mass differences in wild ruminant species. Journal of Morphology 269, 240257.
Kay, R. N. B. (1966). The influence of saliva on digestion in ruminants. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 6, 292325.
Lamy, E., da Costa, G., Silva, F. C., Potes, J., Coelho, A. V. & Baptista, E. S. (2008). Comparison of electrophoretic protein profiles from sheep and goat parotid saliva. Journal of Chemical Ecology 34, 388397.
Lamy, E., da Costa, G., Santos, R., Silva, F. C., Potes, J., Pereira, A., Coelho, A. V. & Baptista, E. S. (2009). Sheep and goat saliva proteome analysis: a useful tool for ingestive behavior research? Physiology and Behavior 98, 393401.
Makkar, H. P. S. (2003). Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich feeds. Small Ruminant Research 49, 241256.
McArthur, C., Sanson, G. D. & Beal, A. M. (1995). Salivary proline-rich proteins in mammals-roles in oral homeostasis and counteracting dietary tannin. Journal of Chemical Ecology 21, 663691.
McDougall, E. I. (1948). Studies on ruminant saliva. I. The composition and output of sheep's saliva. Biochemical Journal 43, 99109.
Narjisse, H., Elhonsali, M. A. & Olsen, J. D. (1995). Effects of oak (Quercus ilex) tannins on digestion and nitrogen balance in sheep and goats. Small Ruminant Research 18, 201206.
Papachristou, T. G. (1997). Foraging behaviour of goats and sheep on Mediterranean kermes oak shrublands. Small Ruminant Research 24, 8593.
Pasta, D. J. (2011). Those confounded interactions: building and interpreting a model with many potential confounders and interactions. In Proceedings of the SAS Global Forum 2011, paper 347–2011. Cary, NC: SAS. Available online at http://support.sas.com/resources/papers/proceedings11/347-2011.pdf (verified 28 February 2013).
Perez-Maldonado, R. A., Norton, B. W. & Kerven, G. L. (1995). Factors affecting in vitro formation of tannin protein complexes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 69, 291298.
Provenza, F. D., Burrit, E. A., Clausen, T. P., Bryant, J. P., Reichardt, P. B. & Diestel, R. A. (1990). Conditional flavor aversion: a mechanism for goat to avoid condensed tannins in blackbrush. American Naturalist 136, 810828.
Robbins, C. T., Spalinger, D. E. & Van Hoven, W. (1995). Adaptation of ruminants to browse and grass diets: are anatomical based browser-grazer interpretations valid? Oecologia 103, 208213.
Rogosic, J., Estell, R. E., Ivankovic, S., Kezic, J. & Razov, J. (2008). Potential mechanisms to increase shrub intake and performance of small ruminants in mediterranean shrubby ecosystems. Small Ruminant Research 74, 115.
Salem, A. Z. M., López, S., Ranilla, M. J. & González, J. S. (2013). Short to medium-term effects of consumption of quebracho tannins on saliva production and composition in sheep and goats. Journal of Animal Science doi: 10.2527/jas2010-3811.
Shimada, T. (2006). Salivary proteins as a defense against dietary tannins. Journal of Chemical Ecology 32, 11491163.
Shimada, T., Saitoh, T., Sasaki, E., Nishitani, Y. & Osawa, R. (2006). The role of tannin-binding salivary proteins and tannase-producing bacteria in the acclimation of the Japanese wood mouse to acorn tannins. Journal of Chemical Ecology 32, 11651180.
Steel, R. G. D. & Torrie, J. H. (1980). Principles and Procedures of Statistics (2nd edn). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Theodorou, M. K., Williams, B. A., Dhanoa, M. S., Mcallan, A. B. & France, J. (1994). A simple gas production method using a pressure transducer to determine the fermentation kinetics of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology 48, 185197.
Waghorn, G. (2008). Beneficial and detrimental effects of dietary condensed tannins for sustainable sheep and goat production – progress and challenges. Animal Feed Science and Technology 147, 116139.

Effects of pre-incubation in sheep and goat saliva on in vitro rumen digestion of tanniferous browse foliage

  • H. AMMAR (a1) (a2), R. BODAS (a1) (a3), J. S. GONZÁLEZ (a1), A. Z. M. SALEM (a4) (a5), F. J. GIRÁLDEZ (a1), S. ANDRÉS (a1) and S. LÓPEZ (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed