AOAC (Association of the Official Analytical Chemists) (1990) Official Methods of Analysis, 15th Edn. Gaithersburg, MD, USA: AOAC.
Barber, MC, Ward, RJ, Richards, SE, Salter, AM, Buttery, PJ, Vernon, RG and Travers, MT (2000) Ovine adipose tissue monounsaturated fat content is correlated to depot-specific expression of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene. Journal of Animal Science 78, 62–68.
Beckman, LM, Earthman, CP, Thomas, W, Compher, CW, Muniz, J, Horst, RL, Ikramuddin, S, Kellogg, TA and Sibley, SD (2013) Serum 25(OH) vitamin D concentration changes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Obesity 21, E599–E606.
Belenchia, AM, Jones, KL, Will, M, Beversdorf, DQ, Vieira-Potter, V, Rosenfeld, CS and Peterson, CA (2018) Maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy affects expression of adipogenic-regulating genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in lean male mice offspring. European Journal of Nutrition 57, 723–730.
Bhat, M, Noolu, B, Qadri, SS and Ismail, A (2014) Vitamin D deficiency decreases adiposity in rats and causes altered expression of uncoupling proteins and steroid receptor coactivator3. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 144, 304–312.
Boon, N, Hul, GB, Sicard, A, Kole, E, Van Den Berg, ER, Viguerie, N, Langin, D and Saris, WH (2006) The effects of increasing serum calcitriol on energy and fat metabolism and gene expression. Obesity 14, 1739–1746.
Buettner, C and Camacho, RC (2008) Hypothalamic control of hepatic glucose production and its potential role in insulin resistance. Endocrinology Metabolism Clinics North America 37, 825–840.
Caron-Jobin, M, Morisset, AS, Tremblay, A, Huot, C, Légaré, D and Tchernof, A (2011) Elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations, vitamin D, and calcium intakes are associated with reduced adipocyte size in women. Obesity 19, 1335–1341.
Carrelli, A, Bucovsky, M, Horst, R, Cremers, S, Zhang, C, Bessler, M, Schrope, B, Evanko, J, Blanco, J, Silverberg, SJ and Stein, EM (2017) Vitamin D storage in adipose tissue of obese and normal weight women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 32, 237–242.
Chango, A and Pogribny, IP (2015) Considering maternal dietary modulators for epigenetic regulation and programming of the fetal epigenome. Nutrients 7, 2748–2770.
Chen, J, Yang, X-J, Tong, H, Chen, J and Zhao, R-Q (2004) Expressions of FAS and HSL mRNA in longissimus dorsi muscle and their relation to intramuscular fat contents in pig. Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology 12, 422–426.
Dix, CF, Barcley, JL and Wright, ORL (2018) The role of vitamin D in adipogenesis. Nutrition Reviews 76, 47–59.
Du, M, Tong, J, Zhao, J, Underwood, KR, Zhu, M, Ford, SP and Nathanielsz, PW (2010) Fetal programming of skeletal muscle development in ruminant animals. Journal of Animal Science 88, E51–E60.
Du, M, Wang, B, Fu, X, Yang, Q and Zhu, MJ (2015) Fetal programming in meat production. Meat Science 109, 40–47.
Fish, E, Beverstein, G, Olson, D, Reinhardt, S, Garren, M and Gould, J (2010) Vitamin D status of morbidly obese bariatric surgery patients. Journal of Surgical Research 164, 198–202.
Flohr, JR, Tokach, MD, Dritz, SS, DeRouchey, JM, Goodband, RD, Nelssen, JL and Bergstrom, JR (2014) An evaluation of the effects of added vitamin D3 in maternal diets on sow and pig performance. Journal of Animal Science 92, 594–603.
Flohr, JR, Woodworth, JC, Bergstrom, JR, Tokach, MD, Dritz, SS, Goodband, RD and DeRouchey, JM (2016) Evaluating the impact of maternal vitamin D supplementation on sow performance: II. Subsequent growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 94, 4643–4653.
Gangloff, A, Bergeron, J, Lemieux, I, Tremblay, A, Poirier, P, Alméras, N and Després, JP (2020) Relationships between circulating 25(OH) vitamin D, leptin levels and visceral adipose tissue volume: results from a 1-year lifestyle intervention program in men with visceral obesity. International Journal of Obesity (Lond) 44, 280–288.
Haemmerle, G, Zimmermann, R and Zechner, R (2003) Letting lipids go: hormone-sensitive lipase. Current Opinion in Lipidology 14, 289–297.
Huang, QC, Xu, ZR, Han, XY and Li, WF (2008) Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on lipogenic enzyme activities and fatty acid synthase mRNA expression in finishing pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 140, 365–375.
Ishida, Y, Taniguchi, H and Baba, S (1988) Possible involvement of 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 151, 1122–1127.
Jakobsen, J, Maribo, H, Bysted, A, Sommer, HM and Hels, O (2007) 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 affects vitamin D status similar to vitamin D3 in pigs – but the meat produced has a lower content of vitamin D. British Journal of Nutrition 98, 908–913.
Ji, S, Doumit, ME and Hill, RA (2015) Correction: regulation of adipogenesis and Key adipogenic gene expression by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in 3T3-L1 cells. PLoS One 10, e0134199.
Kong, J and Li, YC (2006) Molecular mechanism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism 290, E916–E924.
Lee, YH, Petkova, AP, Mottillo, EP and Granneman, JG (2012) In vivo identification of bipotential adipocyte progenitors recruited by β3-adrenoceptor activation and high-fat feeding. Cell Metabolism 15, 480–491.
Leung, PS (2016) The potential protective action of vitamin D in hepatic insulin resistance and pancreatic islet dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrients 8, 147.
Mahajan, A and Stahl, CH (2009) Dihydroxy-cholecalciferol stimulates adipocytic differentiation of porcine mesenchymal stem cells. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 20, 512–520.
Marcotorchino, J, Tournaiaire, F and Landrier, J-F (2013) Vitamin D, adipose tissue, and obesity. Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation 15, 123–128.
Miao, ZG, Wang, LJ, Xu, ZR, Huang, JF and Wang, YR (2008) Developmental patterns in hormone and lipid metabolism of growing Jinhua and Landrace gilts. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 88, 601–607.
Miao, ZG, Wang, LJ, Xu, ZR, Huang, JF and Wang, YR (2009) Developmental changes of carcass composition, meat quality and organs in the Jinhua pig and Landrace. Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience 3, 468–473.
Miao, Z, Zhu, F, Zhang, H, Chang, X, Xie, H, Zhang, J and Xu, Z (2010) Developmental patterns of FASN and LIPE mRNA expression in adipose tissue of growing Jinhua and Landrace gilts. Czech Journal of Animal Science 55, 557–564.
NRC (National Research Council) (2012) Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 7th Revised Edn, Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press.
Qiao, Y, Huang, Z, Li, Q, Liu, Z, Hao, C, Shi, G, Dai, R and Xie, Z (2007) Developmental changes of the FAS and HSL mRNA expression and their effects on the content of intramuscular fat in Kazak and Xinjiang sheep. Journal of Genetics and Genomics 34, 909–917.
Scherer, T, O'Hare, J, Diggs-Andrews, K, Schweiger, M, Cheng, B, Lindtner, C, Zielinski, E, Vempati, P, Su, K, Dighe, S, Milsom, T, Puchowicz, M, Scheja, L, Zechner, R, Fisher, SJ, Previs, SF and Buettner, C (2011) Brain insulin controls adipose tissue lipolysis and lipogenesis. Cell Metablism 13, 183–194.
Semenkovich, CF (1997) Regulation of fatty acid synthase (FAS). Progress in Lipid Research 36, 43–53.
Sinclair, KD, Allegrucci, C, Singh, R, Gardner, DS, Sebastian, S, Bispham, J, Thurston, A, Huntley, JF, Rees, WD, Maloney, CA, Lea, RG, Craigon, J, McEvoy, TG and Young, LE (2007) DNA Methylation, insulin resistance, and blood pressure in offspring determined by maternal periconceptional B vitamin and methionine status. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 19351–19356.
Smith, S, Witkowski, A and Joshi, AK (2003) Structural and functional organization of the animal fatty acid synthase. Progress in Lipid Research 42, 289–317.
Suzuki, K, Inomata, K, Katoh, K, Kadowaki, H and Shibata, T (2009) Genetic correlations among carcass cross-sectional fat area ratios, production traits, intramuscular fat, and serum leptin concentration in Duroc pigs. Journal of Animal Science 87, 2209–2215.
Tong, J, Zhu, MJ, Underwood, KR, Hess, BW, Ford, SP and Du, M (2008) AMP-activated protein kinase and adipogenesis in sheep fetal skeletal muscle and 3T3-L1 cells. Journal of Animal Science 86, 1296–1305.
Wallace, AM, Gibson, S, De La Hunty, A, Lamberg-Allardt, C and Ashwell, M (2010) Measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the clinical laboratory: current procedures, performance characteristics and limitations. Steroids 75, 477–488.
Wang, B, Yang, Q, Harris, CL, Nelson, ML, Busboom, JR, Zhu, MJ and Du, M (2016) Nutrigenomic regulation of adipose tissue development – role of retinoic acid: a review. Meat Science 120, 100–106.
Wang, B, Fu, X, Liang, X, Wang, Z, Yang, Q, Zou, T, Nie, W, Zhao, J, Gao, P, Zhu, MJ, De Avila, JM, Maricelli, J, Rodgers, BD and Du, M (2017) Maternal retinoids increase PDGFRα + progenitor population and beige adipogenesis in progeny by stimulating vascular development. EBioMedicine 18, 288–299.
Wen, J, Hong, Q, Wang, X, Zhu, L, Wu, T, Xu, P, Fu, Z, You, L, Wang, X, Ji, C and Guo, X (2018) The effect of maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy on body fat and adipogenesis in rat offspring. Scientific Reports 8, 365.
Yang, QY, Liang, JF, Rogers, CJ, Zhao, JX, Zhu, MJ and Du, M (2013) Maternal obesity induces epigenetic modifications to facilitate Zfp423 expression and enhance adipogenic differentiation in fetal mice. Diabetes 62, 3727–3735.
Yao, Y, Zhu, L, He, L, Duan, Y, Liang, W, Nie, Z, Jin, Y, Wu, X and Fang, Y (2015) A meta-analysis of the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and obesity. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 8, 14977–14984.
Zhou, H, Chen, Y, Lv, G, Zhuo, Y, Lin, Y, Feng, B, Fang, Z, Che, L, Li, J, Xu, S and Wu, D (2016) Improving maternal vitamin D status promotes prenatal and postnatal skeletal muscle development of pig offspring. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) 32, 1144–1152.
Zhu, MJ, Ford, SP, Means, WJ, Hess, BW, Nathanielsz, PW and Du, M (2006) Maternal nutrient restriction affects properties of skeletal muscle in offspring. Journal of Physiology 575, 241–250.
Zhuang, H, Lin, Y and Yang, G (2007) Effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on proliferation and differentiation of porcine preadipocyte in vitro. Chemico-Biological Interactions 170, 114–123.