Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The effect of wattle tannin drenches on gastrointestinal nematodes of tropical sheep and goats during experimental and natural infections

  • R. A. MAX (a1) (a2), A. A. KASSUKU (a2), A. E. KIMAMBO (a2), L. A. MTENGA (a2), D. WAKELIN (a1) and P. J. BUTTERY (a1) (a3)...

Summary

In previous work, administration of a commercial tannin preparation, quebracho, as oral drench was shown to reduce significantly faecal egg counts (FEC) and worm burdens of temperate sheep with experimental Haemonchus contortus infection. In the current work carried out in Morogoro, Tanzania, three separate animal trials were carried out to investigate the effect of drenches of wattle tannin (WT), a similar tannin preparation that is readily available in the tropics, on nematodes of tropical goats and sheep. In the first trial, 36 young Small East African (SEA) goats were experimentally infected with a single dose of mixed nematode larvae and FEC were monitored regularly. On day 30 post-infection (p.i.), the animals were blocked on the basis of their FEC and randomly assigned into three equal groups (n=12). For 3 consecutive days, two groups received low and high doses of drench at a rate of 1·2 and 2·4 g WT/kg bodyweight, respectively, whereas the third group received a placebo drench (i.e. water). All goats were humanely slaughtered on day 42 p.i. and their worm burdens were assessed. Neither FEC nor worm burdens were significantly reduced by the administration of the low or high dose of WT. The second trial had an identical design but two groups (n=14) of growing Black Head Persian (BHP) sheep were used instead. One group received the drench at 1·5 g WT/kg body wt for 3 consecutive days, whereas the other group received a placebo. Unlike in goats, worm burdens and FEC were significantly reduced (P<0·001) by the drench administration. In the third trial, the effect of WT drench against a naturally acquired nematode infestation in a flock of 34 BHP sheep was determined. FEC were examined three times in a 2-week period and the egg counts were used to block the sheep before being randomly assigned into two groups (n=17). The treated group received the drench at 1·0 g WT/kg bodyweight for 3 consecutive days, while the remaining half was given a placebo. The two groups continued to graze together as FEC were being monitored. Results indicated a significant (P<0·001) reduction in egg counts, which remained low for at least 3 weeks after the drench. The current study demonstrated that the WT drench had significant anthelmintic activity against important nematodes in sheep but not in goats, suggesting an existence of species differences between the two hosts. It was concluded that WT drenches could be used in combination with other worm control strategies to reduce or control nematode infections, at least in sheep.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*To whom all correspondence should be addressed: Email: peter.buttery@nottingham.ac.uk

References

Hide All
Athanasiadou, S., Kyriazakis, I., Jackson, F. & Coop, R. L. (2000). Effects of short-term exposure to condensed tannins on adult Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Veterinary Record 146, 728732.
Athanasiadou, S., Kyriazakis, I., Jackson, F. & Coop, R. L. (2001). Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: in vitro and in vivo studies. Veterinary Parasitology 99, 205219.
Austin, P. J., Suchar, L. A., Robbins, C. T. & Hagerman, A. E. (1989). Tannin-binding proteins in saliva of deer and their absence in saliva of sheep and cattle. Journal of Chemical Ecology 15, 13351347.
Brooker, J. D., O'Donovan, L. A., Skene, I., Clarke, K., Blackall, L. & Muslera, P. (1994). Streptococus-caprinus sp-nov, a tannin-resistant ruminal bacterium from feral goats. Letters in Applied Microbiology 18, 313319.
Butter, N. L., Dawson, J. M., Wakelin, D. & Buttery, P. J. (2000). Effect of dietary tannin and protein concentration on nematode infection (T. colubriformis) in lambs. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 134, 8999.
Butter, N. L., Dawson, J. M., Wakelin, D. & Buttery, P. J. (2001). Effect of dietary condensed tannins on gastrointestinal nematodes. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 137, 461469.
Cenci, F. B., Louvandini, H., McManus, C. M., Dell Porto, A., Costa, D. M., Araujo, S. C., Minho, A. P. & Abdalla, A. L. (2007). Effects of condensed tannin from Acacia mearnsii on sheep infected naturally with gastrointestinal helminthes. Veterinary Parasitology 144, 132137.
Dawson, J. M., Buttery, P. J., Jenkins, D., Wood, C. D. & Gill, M. (1999). Effects of dietary quebracho tannin on nutrient utilisation and tissue metabolism in sheep and rats. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79, 14231430.
GenStat (2004). GenStat Release 6.1 User's Guide. Rothamsted Experimental Station, UK: Lawes Agricultural Trust.
Githiori, J. B., Höglund, J., Waller, P. J. & Baker, R. L. (2003). The anthelmintic efficacy of the plant, Albizia anthelmintica, against the nematode parasites Haemonchus contortus of sheep and Heligmosomoides polygyrus of mice. Veterinary Parasitology 116, 2334.
Githiori, J. B., Höglund, J., Waller, P. J. & Baker, R. L. (2004). Evaluation of anthelmintic properties of some plants used as livestock dewormers against Haemonchus contortus infections in sheep. Parasitology 129, 245253.
Hammond, J. A., Fielding, D. & Bishop, S. C. (1997). Prospects for plant anthelmintics in tropical veterinary medicine. Veterinary Research Communications 21, 213228.
Hansen, J. & Perry, B. (1994). The Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Control of Helminth Parasites of Ruminants. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: ILCA.
Hoste, H., Jackson, F., Athanasiadou, S., Thamsborg, S. & Hoskin, S. O. (2006). The effects of tannin rich plants on parasitic nematodes in ruminants. Trends in Parasitology 22, 253261.
Hounzangbe-Adote, M. S., Zinsou, F. E., Hounpke, V., Moutairou, K. & Hoste, H. (2005). In vivo effects of Fagara leaves on sheep infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Tropical Animal Health and Production 37, 205214.
Kahiya, C., Mukaratirwa, S. & Thamsborg, S. M. (2003). Effects of Acacia nilotica and Acacia karoo diets on Haemonchus contortus infections in goats. Veterinary Parasitology 115, 265274.
Lans, C. & Brown, G. (1998). Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in Trinidad and Tobago. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 35, 149163.
Lorimer, S. D., Perry, N. B., Foster, L. M., Burgess, E. J., Douch, P. G. C., Hamilton, M. C. & Donaghy, M. J. (1996). A nematode larval motility inhibition assay for screening plant extracts and natural products. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 44, 28422845.
Max, R. A., Wakelin, D., Craigon, J., Kassuku, A. A., Kimambo, A. E., Mtenga, L. A. & Buttery, P. J. (2005 a). Effect of two commercial preparations of condensed tannins on the survival of gastrointestinal nematodes of mice and goats in vitro. South African Journal of Animal Science 35, 213220.
Max, R. A., Wakelin, D., Dawson, J. M., Kimambo, A. E., Kassuku, A. A., Mtenga, L. A., Craigon, J. & Buttery, P. J. (2005 b). Effect of quebracho tannin on faecal egg counts and worm burdens of temperate sheep with experimental nematode infections. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 143, 519527.
Max, R. A., Kimambo, A. E., Kassuku, A. A., Mtenga, L. A. & Buttery, P. J. (2007). The effect of tanniniferous browse meal on nematode faecal egg counts and internal parasite burdens in sheep and goats. South African Journal of Animal Science 37, 97106.
Mehansho, H., Hagerman, A., Clements, S., Butler, L. G., Roger, J. L. & Carlson, D. M. (1983). Modulation of proline-rich protein biosynthesis in rat parotid glands by sorghum with high tannin levels. Proceedings of National Academy of Science, Biological Sciences 80, 39483952.
Min, B. R., Pomroy, W. E., Hart, S. P. & Sahlu, T. (2004). The effect of short-term consumption of a forage containing condensed tannins on gastro-intestinal nematode parasite infections in grazing wether goats. Small Ruminant Research 51, 279283.
Narjisse, H., Elhonsali, M. A. & Olsen, J. D. (1995). Effects of oak (Quercus ilex) tannins on digestion and nitrogen balance in sheep and goats. Small Ruminant Research 18, 201206.
Niezen, J. H., Waghorn, T. S., Waghorn, G. C. & Charleston, W. A. G. (1993). Internal parasites and lamb production – a role for plants containing CT? Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 53, 235238.
Niezen, J. H., Robertson, H. A., Waghorn, G. C. & Charleston, W. A. G. (1998). Production, faecal egg counts and worm burdens of ewe lambs which grazed six contrasting forages. Veterinary Parasitology 80, 1527.
Odenyo, A. A. & Osuji, P. O. (1998). Tannin-tolerant ruminal bacteria from East African ruminants. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 44, 905909.
Paolini, V., Bergeaud, J. P., Duranton-Grisez, C., Prevot, F., Dorchies, Ph. & Hoste, H. (2003). Effects of condensed tannins on goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Veterinary Parasitology 113, 253261.
Perez-Maldonado, R. A. & Norton, B. W. (1996). The effects of condensed tannins from Desmodium intortum and Calliandra calothyrsus on protein and carbohydrate digestion in sheep and goats. British Journal of Nutrition 76, 515533.
Prichard, R. K. (1994). Anthelmintic resistance. Veterinary Parasitology 54, 259268.
Ramirez-Restrepo, C. A., Barry, T. N., Lopez-Villalobos, N., Kemp, P. D. & McNabb, W. C. (2004). Use of Lotus corniculatus containing CT to increase lamb and wool production under commercial dryland farming conditions without the use of anthelmintics. Animal Feed Science and Technology 117, 85105.
Shaik, S. A., Terrill, T. H., Miller, J. E., Kouakou, B., Kannan, G., Kaplan, R. M., Burke, J. M. & Mosjidis, J. A. (2006). Sericea lespedeza hay as a natural deworming agent against gastrointestinal nematode infections in goats. Veterinary Parasitology 139, 150157.
Tzamaloukas, O., Athanasiadou, S., Kyriazakis, I., Jackson, F. & Coop, R. L. (2005). The consequences of short-term grazing of bioactive forages on established adult and incoming larvae populations of Teladorsagia circumcincta in lambs. International Journal for Parasitology 35, 329335.
Urquhart, G. M., Armour, J., Duncan, J. L., Dunn, A. M. & Jennings, F. W. (1987). Veterinary Parasitology. Bath, Avon, UK: Longman Scientific & Technical Press.

The effect of wattle tannin drenches on gastrointestinal nematodes of tropical sheep and goats during experimental and natural infections

  • R. A. MAX (a1) (a2), A. A. KASSUKU (a2), A. E. KIMAMBO (a2), L. A. MTENGA (a2), D. WAKELIN (a1) and P. J. BUTTERY (a1) (a3)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed