Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The effect of ensiling on variety rank of forage maize

  • J. SWANCKAERT (a1) (a2), J. PANNECOUCQUE (a1), J. VAN WAES (a1), G. HAESAERT (a3), J. DE BOEVER (a4) and D. REHEUL (a2)...

Summary

The objective of the present study was to calculate an optimal harvest period for both fresh and ensiled samples of forage maize and to calculate a set of harvest dates (called a harvest window), for which the variety ranking of the fresh forage corresponds with the variety ranking at the optimal harvest period calculated from the ensiled forage. Forage maize is fed almost exclusively as silage, but official variety trials with silage maize determine quality parameters in fresh (i.e. non-preserved) forage. Eight silage maize varieties were monitored at six harvest dates (from 25 to 40% dry matter content) in Merelbeke (Belgium) in 2013–15. At each harvest date, fresh samples were taken and half of the sampled material was ensiled in micro silos for 20 weeks. An optimal harvest period was calculated based on frequently measuring starch concentration and organic matter digestibility for both fresh and ensiled forage. Eventually, harvesting the silage maize at a dry matter content of 32–35% guaranteed an optimal harvest period. Based on the results of eight varieties, reporting variety ranks without going through the ensiling process continues to be a scientifically justified practice in Belgian official variety trials. Varieties with a superior fresh quality keep their leading position after ensiling, but variety differences become smaller after ensiling.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The effect of ensiling on variety rank of forage maize
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The effect of ensiling on variety rank of forage maize
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The effect of ensiling on variety rank of forage maize
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* To whom all correspondence should be addressed. Email: Jolien.Swanckaert@ugent.be

References

Hide All
Arriola, K. G., Kim, S. C., Huisden, C. M. & Adesogan, A. T. (2012). Stay-green ranking and maturity of corn hybrids: 1. Effects on dry matter yield, nutritional value, fermentation characteristics, and aerobic stability of silage hybrids in Florida. Journal of Dairy Science 95, 964974.
Bal, M. A., Coors, J. G. & Shaver, R. D. (1997). Impact of the maturity of corn for use as silage in the diets of dairy cows on intake, digestion, and milk production. Journal of Dairy Science 80, 24972503.
Barriere, Y., Argillier, O., Michalet-Doreau, B., Hebert, Y., Guingo, E., Giauffret, C. & Emile, J. C. (1997). Relevant traits, genetic variation and breeding strategies in early silage maize. Agronomie 17, 395411.
Brown, D. M. (1969). Heat Units for Corn in Southern Ontario. Factsheet AGDEX 111/31. Guelph, Ontario, Canada: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food.
Cherney, D. J. R., Cherney, J. H. & Cox, W. J. (2007). Forage quality differences of corn hybrids as influenced by ensiling. Forage and Grazinglands 5, doi: 10.1094/FG-2007-0918-01-RS
Cone, J. W., Van Gelder, A. H., Van Schooten, H. A. & Groten, J. A. M. (2008). Effects of forage maize type and maturity stage on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics. NJAS – Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 55, 139154.
Danley, M. M. & Vetter, R. L. (1971). Changes in carbohydrate and nitrogen fractions and digestibility of forages: method of sample processing. Journal of Animal Science 33, 10721077.
Darby, H. M. & Lauer, J. G. (2002). Harvest date and hybrid influence on corn forage yield, quality, and preservation. Agronomy Journal 94, 559566.
De Boever, J. L., Cottyn, B. G., De Brabander, D. L., Vanacker, J. M. & Boucque, C. V. (1997). Prediction of the feeding value of maize silages by chemical parameters, in vitro digestibility and NIRS. Animal Feed Science and Technology 66, 211222.
Der Bedrosian, M. C., Nestor, K. E. & Kung, L. (2012). The effects of hybrid, maturity, and length of storage on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage. Journal of Dairy Science 95, 51155126.
Ettle, T. & Schwarz, F. J. (2003). Effect of maize variety harvested at different maturity stages on feeding value and performance of dairy cows. Animal Research 52, 337349.
Filya, I. (2004). Nutritive value and aerobic stability of whole crop maize silage harvested at four stages of maturity. Animal Feed Science and Technology 116, 141150.
Goering, H. K. & Van Soest, P. J. (1970) Forage Fiber Analysis: Apparatus, Reagents, Procedures, and Some Applications. Handbook No. 379. Washington, DC: USDA Agricultural Research Service.
Hetta, M., Mussadiq, Z., Gustavsson, A. M. & Swensson, C. (2012). Effects of hybrid and maturity on performance and nutritive characteristics of forage maize at high latitudes, estimated using the gas production technique. Animal Feed Science and Technology 171, 2030.
Hunt, C. W., Kezar, W. & Vinande, R. (1989). Yield, chemical composition and ruminal fermentability of corn whole plant, ear, and stover as affected by maturity. Journal of Production Agriculture 2, 357361.
ISO (2000). Animal Feeding Stuffs – Determination of Starch Content – Polarimetric Method. Standard 6493: 2000. Geneva, Switzerland: International Standards Organization.
ISO (2005). Animal Feeding Stuffs – Determination of Nitrogen Content and Calculation of Crude Protein Content, Part 2: Block Digestion/Steam Distillation Method. Standard 5983–2. Geneva, Switzerland: International Standards Organization.
Johnson, L., Harrison, J. H., Hunt, C., Shinners, K., Doggett, C. G. & Sapienza, D. (1999). Nutritive value of corn silage as affected by maturity and mechanical processing: a contemporary review. Journal of Dairy Science 82, 28132825.
Johnson, L. M., Harrison, J. H., Davidson, D., Mahanna, W. C. & Shinners, K. (2003). Corn silage management: effects of hybrid, maturity, inoculation, and mechanical processing on fermentation characteristics. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 287308.
Lynch, J. P., O'Kiely, P. & Doyle, E. M. (2012). Yield, quality and ensilage characteristics of whole-crop maize and of the cob and stover components: harvest date and hybrid effects. Grass and Forage Science 67, 472487.
McDonald, P., Henderson, A. R. & Heron, S. J. E. (1991). Microorganisms. In The Biochemistry of Silage, 2nd edn. (Eds McDonald, P., Henderson, A. R. & Heron, S. J. E.), pp. 81151. Aberystwyth, UK: Chalcombe Publications.
Phipps, R. H., Sutton, J. D., Beever, D. E. & Jones, A. K. (2000). The effect of crop maturity on the nutritional value of maize silage for lactating dairy cows 3. Food intake and milk production. Animal Science 71, 401409.
Ritchie, S. W., Hanway, J. J. & Benson, G. O. (1997). How a Corn Plant Develops. Special Report No. 48. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service.
Swanckaert, J., Pannecoucque, J., Van Waes, J., De Cauwer, B., Latré, J., Haesaert, G. & Reheul, D. (2016). Harvest date does not influence variety ranking in Belgian forage maize variety trials. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 154, 10401050.
Wambacq, E., Vanhoutte, I., Audenaert, K., De Gelder, L. & Haesaert, G. (2016). Occurrence, prevention and remediation of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in silage: a review. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 96, 22842302.
Wiersma, D. W., Carter, P. R., Albrecht, K. A. & Coors, J. G. (1993). Kernel milkline stage and corn forage yield, quality, and dry-matter content. Journal of Production Agriculture 6, 9499.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

The effect of ensiling on variety rank of forage maize

  • J. SWANCKAERT (a1) (a2), J. PANNECOUCQUE (a1), J. VAN WAES (a1), G. HAESAERT (a3), J. DE BOEVER (a4) and D. REHEUL (a2)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.