Allan, CR and Hadwiger, LA (1979) The fungicidal effect of chitosan on fungi of varying cell wall composition. Experimental Mycology 3, 285–287.
AOAC (1990) Official Methods of Analysis, 15th Edn. Arlington, VA, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemistry.
AOAC (2002) Official Methods of Analysis, 12th Edn. Arlington, VA, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemistry.
Araújo, APC, Venturelli, BC, Santos, MCB, Gardinal, R, Cônsolo, NRB, Calomeni, GD, Freitas, JE, Barletta, RV, Gandra, JR, Paiva, PG and Rennó, FP (2015) Chitosan affects total nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation in Nellore steers. Animal Feed Science and Technology 206, 114–118.
Benediktsdóttir, BE, Baldursson, Ó and Másson, M (2014) Challenges in evaluation of chitosan and trimethylated chitosan (TMC) as mucosal permeation enhancers: from synthesis to in vitro application. Journal of Controlled Release 173, 18–31.
Brasil (2000) Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento, Instrução normativa n. 3, de 17 de Janeiro de 2000. Aprova o regulamento técnico de métodos de insensibilização para o abate humanitário de animais de açougue. Brasília, Brasil: Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (in Portuguese).
Calsamiglia, S, Ferret, A and Devant, M (2002) Effects of pH and pH fluctuations on microbial fermentation and nutrient flow from a dual-flow continuous culture system. Journal of Dairy Science 85, 574–579.
Cezar, MF and Sousa, WH (2007) Carcaças ovinas e caprinas: obtenção-avaliação-classificação. Uberaba, Brazil: Agropecuária Tropical.
Chalupa, W (1980) Chemical control of rumen microbial metabolism. In Ruckebusch, Y and Thivend, P (eds), Digestive Physiology and Metabolism in Ruminants. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer, pp. 325–347.
Chen, XB and Gomes, MJ (1992) Estimation of Microbial Protein Supply to Sheep and Cattle based on Urinary Excretion of Purine Derivatives: an Overview of the Technical Details. Occasional Publication. Aberdeen, UK: Rowett Research Institute.
Clark, JH, Klusmeyer, TH and Cameron, MR (1992) Microbial protein synthesis and flows of nitrogen fractions to the duodenum of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 75, 2304–2323.
Del Valle, TA, de Paiva, PG, de Jesus, EF, de Almeida, GF, Zanferari, F, Costa, AGBVB, Bueno, ICS and Rennó, FP (2017) Dietary chitosan improves nitrogen use and feed conversion in diets for mid-lactation dairy cows. Livestock Science 201, 22–29.
Goiri, I, Oregui, LM and Garcia-Rodriguez, A (2010) Use of chitosans to modulate ruminal fermentation of a 50:50 forage-to-concentrate diet in sheep. Journal of Animal Science 88, 749–755.
Gois, FD, Cairo, PLG, Cantarelli, VS, Costa, LCB, Fontana, R, Allaman, IB, Sbardella, M, de Carvalho, FM Jr. and Costa, LB (2016) Effect of Brazilian red pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) essential oil on performance, diarrhea and gut health of weanling pigs. Livestock Science 183, 24–27.
Horton, GM (1980) Use of feed additives to reduce ruminal methane production and deaminase activity in steers. Journal of Animal Science 50, 1160–1164.
Kong, M, Chen, XG, Xing, K and Park, HJ (2010) Antimicrobial properties of chitosan and mode of action: a state of the art review. International Journal of Food Microbiology 144, 51–63.
Licitra, G, Hernandez, TM and Van Soest, PJ (1996) Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology 57, 347–358.
Mingoti, RD, Freitas, JE Jr., Gandra, JR, Gardinal, R, Calomeni, GD, Barletta, RV, Vendramini, THA, Paiva, PG and Rennó, FP (2016) Dose response of chitosan on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites and lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows. Livestock Science 187, 35–39.
NRC (National Research Council) (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press.
NRC (National Research Council) (2007) Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Angora, Dairy, and Meat Goats. Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press.
Raafat, D and Sahl, HG (2009) Chitosan and its antimicrobial potential--a critical literature survey. Microbial Biotechnology 2, 186–201.
Russell, JB and Houlihan, AJ (2003) Ionophore resistance of ruminal bacteria and its potential impact on human health. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 27, 65–74.
Russell, JB and Strobel, HJ (1988) Effects of additives on in vitro ruminal fermentation: a comparison of monensin and bacitracin, another gram-positive antibiotic. Journal of Animal Science 66, 552–558.
Russell, JB, O'Connor, JD, Fox, DG, Van Soest, PJ and Sniffen, CJ (1992) A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: I. Ruminal fermentation. Journal of Animal Science 70, 3551–3561.
Tang, H, Zhang, P, Kieft, TL, Ryan, SJ, Baker, SM, Wiesmann, WP and Rogelj, S (2010) Antibacterial action of a novel functionalized chitosan-arginine against gram-negative bacteria. Acta Biomaterialia 6, 2562–2571.
Valadares, RFD, Broderick, GA, Valadares Filho, SC and Clayton, MK (1999) Effect of replacing alfalfa silage with high moisture corn on ruminal protein synthesis estimated from excretion of total purine derivatives. Journal of Dairy Science 82, 2686–2696.
Van Soest, PJ, Robertson, JB and Lewis, BA (1991) Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 3583–3597.
Vendramini, THA, Takiya, CS, Silva, TH, Zanferari, F, Rentas, MF, Bertoni, JC, Consentini, CEC, Gardinal, R, Acedo, TS and Rennó, FP (2016) Effects of a blend of essential oils, chitosan or monensin on nutrient intake and digestibility of lactating dairy cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology 214, 12–21.
Vishu Kumar, AB, Varadaraj, MC, Gowda, LR and Tharanathan, RN (2005) Characterization of chito-oligosaccharides prepared by chitosanolysis with the aid of papain and Pronase, and their bactericidal action against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Biochemical Journal 391, 167–175.