Agricultural Research Council (1980). The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Livestock. Slough: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.
Agricultural Research Council (1984). The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Livestock, Supplement No. 1. Slough: The Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.
Brett, P. A., Almond, M., Harrison, D. G., Rowlinson, P.. Rooke, J. A. & Armstrong, D. G. (1979). An attempted evaluation of the proposed ARC protein system with reference to the lactating cow. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 38, 148 A.
Cottrill, B. R., Beever, D. E., Austin, A. R. & Os-bourn, D. F. (1982). The effect of protein- and nonprotein-nitrogen supplements to maize silage on total amino acid supply in young cattle. British Journal of Nutrition 48, 527–542.
England, P. & Gill, M. (1985). The effect of fishmeal and sucrose supplementation on the voluntary intake of grass silage and live-weight gain of young cattle. Animal Production 40, 259–265.
Faichney, G. L. (1986). The kinetics of particulate matter in the rumen. In Control of Digestion and Metabolism in Ruminants (ed. Milligan, L. P., Grovum, W. L. and Dobson, A.), pp. 173–195. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Ganev, G., Ørskov, E. R. & Smart, R. (1979). The effect of roughage or concentrate feeding and rumen retention time on total degradation of protein in the rumen. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 93, 651–656.
Gill, M. & Beever, D. E. (1982). The effect of protein supplementation on digestion and glucose metabolism in young cattle fed on silage. British Journal of Nutrition 48, 37–48.
Harstad, O. M. & Vik-Mo, L. (1985). Estimation of microbial and undegraded protein in sheep on grass silage based diets. Ada Agriculturae Scandinavica, Supplement 25, 37–48.
Hume, I. D. (1974). The proportion of dietary protein escaping degradation in the rumen of sheep fed on various protein concentrates. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 25, 155–165.
Kirby, P. S., Chalmers, A. J. & Clark, W. A. (1983). A comparison of formaldehyde-treated soya-bean meal and two types of fishmeal as protein supplements for growing beef cattle given grass silage ad libitum. Animal Production 36, 538–539 (abstract).
Kirby, P. S., Chalmers, A. J. & Hannam, D. A. R. (1983). Fishmeal supplementation of grass silage diets for fattening British Friesian Steers. Animal Production 36, 538 (abstract).
Ling, J. R. & Buttery, P. J. (1978). The simultaneous use of ribonucleic acid, 35S, 2, 6-diaminopimelic acid and 2- aminoethylphosphonic acid as markers of microbial nitrogen entering the duodenum of sheep. British Journal of Nutrition 39, 165–179.
McMeniman, N. P. & Armstrong, D. G. (1979). The flow of amino acids into the small intestine of cattle when fed heated and unheated beans (Vicia faba). Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 93, 181–188.
Madsen, J. & Hvelplund, T. (1985). Protein degradation in the rumen. A comparison between in vivo, nylon bag, in vitro and buffer measurements. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Supplement 25, 103–124.
Mathers, J. C. & Aitchison, E. M. (1981). Direct estimation of the extent of contamination of food residues by microbial matter after incubation within synthetic fibre bags in the rumen. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 98, 691–693.
Mehrez, A. Z., Ørskov, E. R. & Opstvedt, J. (1980). Processing factors affecting degradability of fishmeal in the rumen. Journal of Animal Science 50, 737–744.
Mercer, J. R., Allen, S. & Miller, E. L. (1980). Rumen bacterial protein synthesis and the proportion of dietary protein in the rumen of sheep. British Journal of Nutrition 32, 421–433.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1975). Energy allowances and feeding systems for ruminants. Technical Bulletin no. 33, London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
Moore, R. B. & Kauffman, N. J. (1970). Simulaneous determination of citrulline and urea using diacetyl monoxime. Analytical Biochemistry 33, 263–272.
Ørskov, E. R., Hughes-Jones, M. & Elimam, M. E. (1983). Studies on degradation and outflow rate of protein supplements in the rumen of sheep and cattle. Livestock Production Science 10, 17–24.
Ørskov, E. R., & McDonald, I. (1979). The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 92, 499–503.
Ridgman, W. J. (1975). Experimentation in Biology. Glasgow and London: Blackie.
Rooke, J. A., Alvarez, P. & Armstrong, D. G. (1986). The digestion by cattle of barley and silage diets containing increasing quantities of soya-bean meal. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 107, 263–272.
Rooke, J. A., Brett, P. A., Overend, M. A. & Armstrong, D. G. (1985). The energetic efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis in cattle fed silage-based diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology 13, 255–267.
Rooke, J. A., Brookes, I. M. & Armstrong, D. G. (1983). The digestion of untreated and formaldehyde-treated soya-bean and rapeseed meals by cattle fed a basal silage diet. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 100, 329–342.
Rooke, J. A.Greife, H. A. & Armstrong, D. G. (1984). The effect of in sacco rumen incubation of a grass silage upon the total and D-amino acid composition of the residual silage dry matter. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 102, 695–702.
Rooke, J. A., Greife, H. A. & Armstrong, D. G. (1985). The digestion by heifers of silage-containing diets fed at two dry matter intakes. 1. Digestion of organic matter and nitrogen. British Journal of Nutrition 53, 691–708.
Rooke, J. A., Norton, B. W. & Armstrong, D. G. (1982). The digestion of untreated and formaldehyde-treated soya-bean meals and estimation of their rumen degradabilities by different methods. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 99, 441–452.
Ross, G. J. S. (1980). Maximum Likelihood Program. Rothamsted: Rothamsted Experimental Station.
Snedecor, G. W. & Cochran, W. G. (1967). Statistical Methods, 6th edn.Ames, Iowa: The Iowa State University Press.
Turnell, D. C. & Cooper, J. H. D. (1982). Rapid assay for amino acids in serum or urine by pre-column derivitization and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Clinical Chemistry 28, 527–531.
Uden, P., Colucci, P. E. & Van Soest, P. J. (1980). Investigation of chromium, cerium and cobalt as markers in digesta. Rate of passage studies. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31, 625–632.
Vik-Mo, L. & Lindberg, J. E. (1985). In sacco degradability of protein (N) and dry matter in samples of individual feeds or combinations; tested with diets medium or high in protein. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica 35, 117–128.
Williams, A. P., Smith, R. H. & McAllan, A. B. (1983). Undegraded dietary protein estimated by in vivo, in vitro and ‘in rumen’ methods. In Protein Metabolism and Nutrition (ed. Arnal, M., Pion, R. and Bonin, D.). Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium of the European Association for Animal Production, vol. II, pp. 215–218. Paris: INRA.
Yilala, K. & Bryant, M. J. (1985). The effects upon the intake and performance of store lambs of supplementing grass silage with barley, fishmeal and rapeseed meal. Animal Production 40, 111–121.