Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

An analysis of morphological development stages in avalon winter wheat crops with different sowing dates and at ten sites in England and Scotland

  • J. R. Porter (a1), E. J. M. Kirby (a2), W. Day (a3), Jill S Adam (a1), Margaret Appleyard (a2), Sarah Ayling (a4), C. K. Baker (a5), P. Beale (a6), R. K. Belford (a4), P. V. Biscoe (a7), Anne Chapman (a8), M. P. Fuller (a8), Janice Hampson (a9), R. K. M. Hay (a9), M. N. Hough (a6), S. Matthews (a10), W. J. Thompson (a10), A. H. Weir (a3), V. B. Anne Willington (a7) and D. W. Wood (a3)...

Summary

An experiment to measure the variation in the phenological and apical development ofwinter wheat (cv. Avalon) in England and Scotland is described. Ten sites which ranged from Aberdeen (57·2° N), the most northerly, to Newton Abbot (50·6° N), the most southerly, were included in the survey, and at each site seed was hand-sown in mid-September, October and November 1983. Developmental stages and sampling procedures were precisely defined to ensure uniformity in scoring by the observers at each site. Temperatures during the growing season were in line with the long-term means, though spring was cooler at all sites and summer warmer at most. The range of monthly-mean temperatures between sites was about the same as the difference between consecutive months. The method of analysis of development rates and durations was in terms of thermal time, modified by sensitivity to photoperiod and a vernalization requirement that slowed early development until a number of days of low temperatures had been experienced. In general, crops at northern sites developed more slowly than those in the south and particularly the south-west of England. There was less variation in the timing of apical stages for later sowings. Developmental rates responded linearly to temperature and photoperiod, with the base temperature increasing for later phases of development. The effect of photoperiod in modifying the rate of development was apparent for all developmental phases from emergence to anthesis, longer days accelerating development, but there was no effect on the duration of the grain-filling period. Vernalization exerted its effect solely within the phase from emergence to double ridge, and had a major influence on the variation between sites only for the first sowing.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Allison, J. C. S. & Daynard, T. B. (1976). Effect of photoperiod on development and number of spikelets of a temperate and some low-latitude wheats. Annals of Applied Biology 83, 93102.
Angus, J. F., Cunningham, K. B., Moncur, M. W. &Mackenzie, D. H. (1981 a). Phasic development in field crops. I. Thermal response in the seedling stage. Field Crops Research 3, 365378.
Angus, J. F., Mackenzie, D. H., Morton, R. & Schater, C. A.(1981 b). Phasic development in field crops. II. Thermal and photoperiodic responses of spring wheat. Field Crops Research 4, 269283.
Baker, C. K.(1979). The environmental control of development in winter wheat. Ph.D. thesis, University of Nottingham.
Baker, C. K. & Gallagher, J. N. (1983). The development of winter wheat in the field. I. Relation between apical development and plant morphology within and between seasons. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 101, 327335.
Chujo, H. (1966). Difference in vernalization effect in wheat under various temperatures. Proceedings of the Crop Science Society of Japan 35, 177186.
Davidson, J. L. & Christian, K. R. (1984). Flowering in wheat. In Control of Crop Productivity (ed. Pearson, C. J.). Sydney: Academic Press.
Ellis, R. P. & Kirby, E. J. M. (1980). A comparison of spring barley grown in England and in Scotland. 2. Yield and its components. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 95, 111115.
Fischer, R. A. (1983). Wheat. In Potential Productivity of Field Crops. Manila: International Rice Research Institute.
Flood, R. G. & Halloran, G. M. (1984). The nature and duration of gene action for vernalization response in wheat. Annals of Botany 53, 363368.
Ford, M. A., Austin, R. B., Angus, W. J. & Sage, G. C. M. (1981). Relationships between the responses of spring wheat genotypes to temperatures and photoperiodic treatments and their performance in the field. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 96, 623634.
Friend, D. J. C., Fisher, J. E. & Helson, V. A. (1963). The effect of light intensity and temperature on floral initiation and inflorescence development of Marquis wheat. Canadian Journal of Botany 41, 16631674.
Gallagher, J. N. (1976). The growth of cereals in relation to weather. Ph.D. thesis, University of Nottingham.
Gallagher, J. N., Biscoe, P. V. & Hunter, B. (1976). Effects of drought on grain growth. Nature, London 264, 541542.
Gott, M. (1961). Flowering of Australian wheats and its relation to frost injury. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 12, 547565.
Halloran, G. M. & Pennell, A. L. (1982). Duration and rate of development phases in wheat in two environments. Annals of Botany 49, 115121.
Halse, N. J. & Weir, R. N. (1970). Effects of vernalization, photoperiod and temperature on physiological development and spikelet number ofAustralian wheat. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 21, 383393.
Keislino, T. C. (1982). Calculation of the length of day. Agronomy Journal 74, 758759.
Kirby, E. J. M. & Appleyard, M. (1981). Cereal Development Quide. NAC Cereal Unit. Stoneleigh, Warwickshire, U.K..
Kirby, E. J. M. & Appleyard, M. (1984). Cereal plant development and its relation to crop management. In Cereal Production (ed. Gallagher, E. J.), pp.161173. London: Butterworth.
Kirby, E. J. M., Appleyard, M. & Fellowes, G. (1985). Variation in development of wheat and barley in response to sowing date and variety. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 104, 383396.
Kirby, E. J. M. &Ellis, R. P. (1980). A comparison of spring barley grown in England and Scotland. I. Shoot apex development. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 95, 101110.
Kirby, E. J. M., Porter, J. R. K.Day, W., Adam, J. S., Appleyabd, M., Aylinq, S., Baker, C. K., Belpord, R. K., Biscoe, P. V., Chapman, A., Fuller, M. P., Hampson, J., Hay, R. K. M., Matthews, S., Thompson, W. J., Wedi, A. H, Willinoton, V. B. A. & Wood, D. W. (1987). An analysis of primordium initiation in Avalon wheat crops with different sowing dates and at nine sites in England and Scotland. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 109, 123134.
Kolbe, W. (1984). Studies on the course of development of cereals (1968–1984) in relation to sowing time. Pflanzenschutz Nachrichten Bayer 37, 337423.
Lawlor, D. W., Day, W., Johnston, A. E., Lego, B. J. & Parkinson, K. J. (1981). Growth of spring barley under drought: crop development, photosynthesis, dry matter accumulation and nutrient content. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 96, 167186.
Lumsden, M. E. (1980). The influence of weather on the development of winter wheat. B.Sc. thesis, University of Bath.
Marcellos, A. & Single, W. V. (1971). Quantitative responses of wheat to photoperiod and temperature in the field. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 22, 343357.
Pugsley, A. T. (1971). A genetic analysis of the springwinter habit of growth in wheat. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 22, 2131.
Rahman, M. S. (1980). Effect of photoperiod and vernalization on the rate of development and spikelet number per ear in 30 varieties of wheat. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Research 46, 6870.
Reinink, K., Jorritsma, I. & Darwinkel, A. (1986). Adaptation of the AFRC wheat phenology model for Dutch conditions. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 34, 113.
Robertson, G. W. (1968). A biometeorological time scale for a cereal crop involving day and night temperature and photoperiod. International Journal of Biometeorology 12, 191223.
Spiertz, J. H. J. (1977). The influence of temperature and light intensity on grain growth in relation to the carbohydrate and nitrogen economy of the wheat plant. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, 25 182197.
Stern, W. R. & Kibby, E. J. M. (1979). Primordium initiation at the shoot apex in four contrasting varieties of spring wheat in response to sowing date. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 93, 203215.
Vince-Prue, D. (1975). Photoperiodism in Plants, 444 pp. London: McGraw-Hill.
Vos, J. (1981). Effects of Temperature and Nitrogen Supply on Post-floral Growth of Wheat; Measurements and Simulations. Agricultural Research Report 911. CABO, Wageningen, The Netherlands: PUDOC.
Weir, A. H., Bragg, P. L., Porter, J. R. & Rayner, J. H. (1984). A winter wheat crop simulation model without water or nutrient limitations. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 102, 371382.
Wellington, V. B. A. & Biscob, P. V. (1984). Growth and development of winter wheat. Annual Report Number 3 of the I.C.I. Agricultural Division Financed Research Programme, Broom's Barn Experimental Station.
Wood, D. W. & Thorne, G. N. (1986). Development of winterwheat. Report Rothamsted Experimental Station for 1985, p.63.
Zadoks, J. C, Chang, T. T. & Konzak, C. F. (1974). A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Research 14, 415421.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed