Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Amylolytic activity and chemical composition of rehydrated ground maize ensiled with α-amylase or glucoamylase

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 October 2019


J. R. Gandra
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Sciences, School of Agrarian Sciences, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, Brazil
E. R. Oliveira
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Sciences, School of Agrarian Sciences, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, Brazil
C. S. Takiya
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, USA
T. A. Del Valle
Affiliation:
Campus Itaqui, Federal University of Pampa, Itaqui, Brazil
F. P. Rennó
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Nutrition and Production, University of Sao Paulo, Pirassununga, Brazil
R. H. T. B. Goes
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Sciences, School of Agrarian Sciences, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, Brazil
R. S. R. Leite
Affiliation:
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, Brazil
N. F. L. Garcia
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Nutrition and Production, University of Sao Paulo, Pirassununga, Brazil
J. D. O. Batista
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Sciences, School of Agrarian Sciences, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, Brazil
A. P. Acosta
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Sciences, School of Agrarian Sciences, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, Brazil
J. Damiani
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Sciences, School of Agrarian Sciences, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, Brazil
E. R. S. Gandra
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Sciences, Institute for the Study of the Humid Tropics, Federal University of Southern and Southeastern Pará, Xinguara, Brazil
A. Z. Escobar
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Sciences, School of Agrarian Sciences, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, Brazil
Corresponding

Abstract

A completely randomized experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of α-amylase (AMY) and glucoamylase (GLU) on total losses, fermentative profile, chemical composition and amylolytic activity of rehydrated maize. Eighty-four experimental silos of rehydrated maize [0.33 litres/kg ground maize, 4-mm theoretical particle size, and 625 g/kg dry matter (DM)] were assigned to the following treatments: (1) control (CON), no enzyme addition; (2) GLU added at 300 µl/kg of ground maize (as-fed); and (3) AMY added at 300 µl/kg of ground maize. Seven silos from each treatment were opened after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Differences among treatments were evaluated through orthogonal contrasts (CON v. enzymes, and AMY v. GLU). Time effects were decomposed using polynomial regression. Glucoamylase silage exhibited greater total losses than AMY. Enzymes increased acetate and lactic acid concentrations and decreased ethanol concentration. Regardless of treatment, gas, effluent and total fermentative losses linearly increased, whereas DM recovery linearly decreased with higher storage length. Glucoamylase silage had lower ammonia nitrogen and higher lactic acid concentrations than AMY. Enzyme treatments decreased silage neutral detergent fibre content and increased in vitro DM degradation. Glucoamylase silage exhibited a more moderate starch content and greater in vitro DM degradation than AMY. Storage time linearly decreased DM, starch and fibre content of rehydrated maize. In vitro degradation of DM linearly increased as the storage length increased. This study showed evidence that enzymes with amylolytic activity, particularly GLU, improve the fermentative profile and DM degradation of rehydrated maize silage.


Type
Animal Research Paper
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Andreazzi, SR, Pereira, MN, Reis, RB, Pereira, RAN, Morais Júnior, NN, Acedo, TS, Hermes, RG and Cortinhas, CS (2018) Effect of exogenous amylase on lactation performance of dairy cows fed a high-starch diet. Journal of Dairy Science 101, 71997207.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) (2000) Official Methods of Analysis, 7th Edn. Arlington, VA, USA: AOAC.Google Scholar
Bach Knudsen, KE (1997) Carbohydrate and lignin contents of plant materials used in animal feeding. Animal Feed Science and Technology 64, 319338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carvalho, BF, Ávila, CL, Bernardes, TF, Pereira, MN, Santos, C and Schwan, RF (2017) Fermentation profile and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts of rehydrated corn kernel silage. Journal of Applied Microbiology 122, 589600.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, L, Guo, G, Yu, CQ, Zhang, J, Shimojo, M and Shao, T (2015) The effects of replacement of whole-plant corn with oat and common vetch on the fermentation quality, chemical composition and aerobic stability of total mixed ration silage in Tibet. Animal Science Journal 86, 6976.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Correa, CES, Shaver, RD, Pereira, MN, Lauer, JG and Kohn, K (2002) Relationship between corn vitreousness and ruminal in situ starch degradability. Journal of Dairy Science 85, 30083012.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Da Silva, TC, Smith, ML, Barnard, AM and Kung, L Jr (2015) The effect of a chemical additive on the fermentation and aerobic stability of high-moisture corn. Journal of Dairy Science 98, 89048912.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
da Silva, NC, Nascimento, CF, Nascimento, FA, de Resende, FD, Daniel, JLP and Siqueira, GR (2018) Fermentation and aerobic stability of rehydrated corn grain silage treated with different doses of Lactobacillus buchneri or a combination of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici. Journal of Dairy Science 101, 41584167.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ding, MY, Koizumi, H and Suzuki, Y (1995) Comparison of three chromatographic systems for determination of organic acids in wine. Analytical Sciences 11, 239243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernandes, T, Silva, KT, Gomide, DR, Pereira, RAN, Avilas, CLS and Pereira, NM (2016) Effect of glucoamylase and duration of silage storage on ruminal degradation and dry matter loss of corn and sorghum grain rehydrated and ensiled (abstract). Journal of Dairy Science 99(E-1), 673.Google Scholar
Ferraretto, LF, Taysom, K, Taysom, DM, Shaver, RD and Hoffman, PC (2014) Relationships between dry matter content, ensiling, ammonia-nitrogen, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility in high-moisture corn samples. Journal of Dairy Science 97, 32213227.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ferraretto, LF, Fredin, SM and Shaver, RD (2015) Influence of ensiling, exogenous protease addition, and bacterial inoculation on fermentation profile, nitrogen fractions, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility in rehydrated and high-moisture corn. Journal of Dairy Science 98, 73187327.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foldager, J (1977) Protein Requirement and Non-Protein Nitrogen for High Producing Cow in Early Lactation (PhD Diss). Michigan State University, East Lasing, MI, USA.Google Scholar
Hmidet, N, Bayoudh, A, Berrin, JG, Kanoun, S, Juge, N and Nasri, M (2008) Purification and biochemical characterization of a novel α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis NH1: Cloning, nucleotide sequence and expression of amyN gene in Escherichia coli. Process Biochemistry 43, 499510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoffman, PC, Esser, NM, Shaver, RD, Coblentz, WK, Scott, MP, Bodnar, AL, Schmidt, RJ and Charley, RC (2011) Influence of ensiling time and inoculation on alteration of the starch-protein matrix in high-moisture corn. Journal of Dairy Science 94, 24652474.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holden, LA (1999) Comparison of methods of in vitro dry matter digestibility for ten feeds. Journal of Dairy Science 82, 17911794.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jafari-Aghdam, J, Khajek, K, Ranjbar, B and Nemat-Gorgani, M (2005) Deglycosylation of glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger: effects on structure, activity and stability. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1750, 6168.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jensen, C, Weisbjerg, MR, Nørgaard, P and Hvelplund, T (2005) Effect of maize silage maturity on site of starch and NDF digestion in lactating dairy cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology 118, 279294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karim, KMR, Husaini, A, Hossain, MA, Sing, NN, Sinang, FM, Hussain, MHM and Roslan, HA (2016) Heterologous, expression, and characterization of thermostable glucoamylase derived from Aspergillus flavus NSH9 in Pichia pastoris. BioMed Research International 2016, 112119.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kenward, MG and Roger, JH (1997) Small sample inference for fixed effects from restricted maximum likelihood. Biometrics 53, 983997.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lara, EC, Bragiato, UC, Rabelo, CHS, Messana, JD and Reis, RA (2018) Inoculation of corn silage with Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis associated with amylolytic enzyme supply at feeding. 1. Feed intake, apparent digestibility, and microbial protein synthesis in wethers. Animal Feed Science and Technology 243, 2234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawton, JW (2002) Zein: a history of processing and use. Cereal Chemistry 79, 118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leahy, KT, Barth, KM, Hunter, PP and Nicklas-Bray, SA (1990) Effects of treating corn silage with alpha-amylase and(or) sorbic acid on beef cattle growth and carcass characteristics. Journal of Animal Science 68, 490497.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lopes, NM, Cardoso, PC and Pereira, MN (2016) Effect of glucoamylase, particle size, and duration of silage storage on dry matter loss and digestibility of ground corn rehydrated and ensiled (abstract). Journal of Animal Science 94(suppl. 5), 671, 10.2527/jam2016-1388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDonald, P, Henderson, AR and Heron, SJE (1991) The Biochemistry of Silage, 2nd Edn. Marlow, UK: Chalcombe Publications.Google Scholar
Miller, GL (1959) Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Analytical Chemistry 31, 426428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nozière, P, Steinberg, W, Silberberg, M and Morgavi, DP (2014) Amylase addition increases starch ruminal digestion in first-lactation cows fed high and low starch diets. Journal of Dairy Science 97, 23192328.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pandey, A (1995) Glucoamylase research: an overview. Starch 47, 439445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pérez, S, Baldwin, PM and Gallant, DJ (2009) Structural features of starch granules. In BeMiller, J and Whistler, R (eds), Starch: Chemistry and Technology, 3rd Edn. New York, USA: Academic Press, pp. 149192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Queiroz, OCM, Ogunade, IM, Weinberg, Z and Adesogan, AT (2018) Silage review: foodborne pathogens in silage and their mitigation by silage additives. Journal of Dairy Science 101, 41324142.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rodrigues, PHM, Gomes, RCG, Meyer, PM, Borgatti, LMO, Franco, FMJ and Godoy, GLA (2012) Effects of microbial inoculants and amino acid production by-product on fermentation and chemical composition of sugarcane silages. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 41, 13941400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Santos, MC, Lock, AL, Mechor, GD and Kung, L Jr (2015) Effects of a spoilage yeast from silage on in vitro ruminal fermentation. Journal of Dairy Science 98, 26032610.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sutton, JD, Morant, SV, Bines, JA, Napper, DJ and Givens, DI (1993) Effect of altering the starch: fibre ratio in the concentrates on hay intake and milk production by Friesian cows. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 120, 379390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Takiya, CS, Calomeni, GD, Silva, TH, Vendramini, THA, Silva, GG, Consentini, CEC, Bertoni, JC, Zilio, EMC and Rennó, FP (2017) Increasing dietary doses of an Aspergillus oryzae extract with alpha-amylase activity on nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology 228, 159167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tricarico, JM, Johnston, JD, Dawson, KA, Hanson, KC, McLeod, KR and Harmon, DL (2005) The effects of an Aspergillus oryzae extract containing alpha-amylase activity on ruminal fermentation and milk production in lactating Holstein cows. Animal Science 81, 365374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Soest, PJ, Robertson, JB and Lewis, BA (1991) Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 35833597.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vargas-Rodriguez, CF, Engstrom, M, Azem, E and Bradford, BJ (2014) Effects of dietary amylase and sucrose on productivity of cows fed low-starch diets. Journal of Dairy Science 97, 44644470.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weiss, WP, Steinberg, W and Engstrom, MA (2011) Milk production and nutrient digestibility by dairy cows when fed exogenous amylase with coarsely ground dry corn. Journal of Dairy Science 94, 24922499.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wong, DWS, Robertson, GH, Lee, CC and Wagschal, K (2007) Synergistic action of recombinant α-amylase and glucoamylase on the hydrolysis of starch granules. The Protein Journal 26, 159164.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 84 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 02nd October 2019 - 5th December 2020. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-b4dcdd7-ltw6j Total loading time: 0.3 Render date: 2020-12-05T22:31:43.169Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags last update: Sat Dec 05 2020 22:00:52 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Feature Flags: { "metrics": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "peerReview": true, "crossMark": true, "comments": true, "relatedCommentaries": true, "subject": true, "clr": false, "languageSwitch": true }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Amylolytic activity and chemical composition of rehydrated ground maize ensiled with α-amylase or glucoamylase
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Amylolytic activity and chemical composition of rehydrated ground maize ensiled with α-amylase or glucoamylase
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Amylolytic activity and chemical composition of rehydrated ground maize ensiled with α-amylase or glucoamylase
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *