Skip to main content Accessibility help

Working Farm Participation and Acreage Enrollment in the Conservation Reserve Program

  • Dayton M. Lambert (a1), Patrick Sullivan (a2) and Roger Claassen (a2)


Among Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) participants, there is a distinction between farm households using the program to ease out of farming and those using the program to augment production receipts. We find evidence that factors other than crop or livestock revenue and environmental factors are associated with program participation and acreage enrollment among farmers who continue agricultural production. Program payments and farm size are positively associated with the amount of land enrolled in the CRP, and characteristics of participants in land retirement and working-lands CRP components are similar.



Hide All
Cameron, A.C., and Trivedi, P.K.. Microecono-metrics: Methods Applications. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Chang, H.H., and Boisvert, R.. “Explaining Participation in the Conservation Reserve Program and Its Effects on Farm Productivity and Efficiency.” Selected Paper, American Agricultural Economics Association, Providence, RI, 2005. Internet site: (Accessed April 3, 2006).
Dubman, R.Variance Estimation with USDA's Farm Costs and Returns Surveys and Agricultural Resource Management Survey. Washington, DC: Economic Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture Staff Report AGES 00-01, 2000.
El-Osta, H., Mishra, A., and Ahearn, M.. “Labor Supply by Farm Operators under ‘Decoupled’ Farm Program Payments.Review of Economics of the Household 2,4(2004):367–85.
Fishe, R.P.H.Trost, R.P., and Lurie, P.M.. “Labor Force Earnings and College Choice of Young Women: An Examination of Selectivity Bias and Comparative Advantage.Economics of Education Review 1,2(1981):169–91.
Fleming, R.A.An Econometric Analysis of the Environmental Benefits Provided by the Conservation Reserve Program.Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 36,2(2004):399413.
Freedman, D.A.Statistical Models: Theory and Practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Goodwin, B.K., and Mishra, A.K.. “Farming Efficiency and the Determinants of Multiple Job Holding by Farm Operators.American Journal of Agricultural Economics 86,3(2004):722–29.
Greene, W.H.Econometric Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2003.
Haufler, J.B.Fish and Wildlife Benefits of Farm Bill Conservation Programs:2000-2005 Update. Technical Review 05-2, The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, MD, 2005. Internet site: (Accessed 10/14/2005)
Heimlich, R.Agricultural Resources and Environmental Indicators, 2003. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, AH-722, 2003. Internet site: (Accessed 8/20/2005)
Hopkins, J., and Johansson, R.. “Beyond Environmental Compliance: Stewardshipas Good Business.Amber Waves 2,2(2004):3037. Internet site:
Jaroszewski, L.G., Poe, G., and Boisvert, R.. “Allocation Land to New York's Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program to Maximize Environmental Benefit.” Selected Paper, American Agricultural Economics Association, Tampa, FL, 2000.
Khanna, M.Sequential Adoption of Site-Specific Technologies and Its Implications for Nitrogen Productivity: A Double Selectivity Model.American Journal of Agricultural Economics 83,1(2001):3551.
Kott, P.S.Usingthe Delete-a-Group Jackknife Variance Estimator in NASS Surveys. U. S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 1997.
Lambert, D., Sullivan, P., Claassen, R., and Foreman, L.. “Profiles of U. S. Farm Households Adopting Conservation-Compatible Practices.Land Use Policy 23,2(2006):117.
Lee, L.F.Simultaneous Equations Models with Discrete and Censored Dependent Variables.” Structural Analysis of Discrete Data with Econometric Applications, Manski, C.F. and McFadden, D., eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981.
Lohr, L., and Park, T.. “Utility-Consistent Discrete-Continuous Choices in Soil Conservation.Land Economics 71,4(1995):474–90.
Lynch, L., Hardie, I., and Parker, D.. “Analyzing Agricultural Landowners' Willingness to Install Streamside Buffers.” Working Paper No. 02-01, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, The University of Maryland, College Park, 2002. Internet site: (Accessed 4/10/2005)
McGranahan, D.A.Natural Amenities Drive Rural Population Change. AER-781, Washington, DC: Economic Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1999.
Mittelhammer, R.C., Judge, G.G., and Miller, D.J.. Econometric Foundations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Smith, K., and Weinberg, M.. “Measuring the Success of Conservation Programs.Amber Waves 2,4(2004):1421.
Smith, M.Conservation Reserve Program Approaches Acreage Limit.” Agricultural Outlook 262(June/July 1999):2326. Internet site: (Accessed 9/14/2005)
Soule, M.J., Tegene, A., and Wiebe, K.D.. “Land Tenure and the Adoption of Conservation Practices.American Journal of Agricultural Economics 82,4(2000):9931005.
Sullivan, P., Hellerstein, D., Hansen, L., Johansson, R., Koenig, S., Lubowski, R., McBride, W., McGranahan, D., Roberts, M., Vogei, S., and Bucholtz, S.. The Conservation Reserve Program: Economic Implications for Rural America. Washington, DC: Economic Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, AER-834, 2004. Internet site: (Accessed 1/26/2005)
Tunali, I.A General Structure for Models of Double-Selection and an Application to Joint Migration/Earnings Process with Remigration.Resource Labor Economics 8(1986):235–82.
USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). “Conservation Reserve Program Enrollment Statistics and Program Information 2004 Fiscal Year.” Washington, DC: Farm Service Agency Report, 2004. Internet site: (Accessed 11/03/2005)
Warner, R.E., Kammin, L.A., Hoffman, C.L., Mankin, P.C., Hubert, P.G., Olson, D.J., and Wendte, L.. “Conservation Buffers in East-Central Illinois: Use by Nesting Passerines and Management Characteristics.” Conservation Reserve Program—Planting for the Future, Allen, A.W. and Vandever, M.W., eds. Washington, DC: U. S. Geological Survey, SIR 2005-5145, 2005. Internet site: (Accessed 1/15/2006)
Wooldridge, J.Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002.
Wu, J.Slippage Effects in the Conservation Reserve Program.American Journal of Agricultural Economics 82,4(2004):979–92.


Working Farm Participation and Acreage Enrollment in the Conservation Reserve Program

  • Dayton M. Lambert (a1), Patrick Sullivan (a2) and Roger Claassen (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed