Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Wilderness and Primitive Area Recreation Participation and Consumption: An Examination of Demographic and Spatial Factors

  • J.M. Bowker (a1), D. Murphy (a2), H.K. Cordell (a1), D.B.K. English (a3), J.C. Bergstrom (a2), C.M. Starbuck (a2), C.J. Betz (a1) and G.T. Green (a4)...

Abstract

This paper explores the influence of demographic and spatial variables on individual participation and consumption of wildland area recreation. Data from the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment are combined with geographical information system-based distance measures to develop nonlinear regression models used to predict both participation and the number of days of participation in wilderness and primitive area recreation. The estimated models corroborate previous findings indicating that race (black), ethnicity (Hispanic), immigrant status, age, and urban dwelling are negatively correlated with wildland visitation, while income, gender (male), and education positively affect wild-land recreation participation and use. The presence of a distance or proximity factor mitigates some of the influence of race and ethnicity. The results of the cross-sectional models are combined with U.S. Census projections of total population, changes in population characteristics, and estimates of current National Forest Wilderness visitation estimates to give some insight into pressure that might be expected on the nation's designated wilderness during the next half century. Results generally indicate that per-capita participation and visitation rates will decline over time as society changes. Total wilderness participation and visitation will, however, increase, but at a rate less than population growth.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Betz, C.J., Bergstrom, J.C., and Bowker, J.M.. “A Contingent Trip Model for Estimating Rail-Trail Demand.Journal of Planning and Environmental Management 46(2003):7996.
Bowker, J.M. Outdoor Recreation Participation and Use by Alaskans: Projections 2000–2020. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-527, Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, 2001.
Bowker, J.M., Cordell, H.K., and Johnson, C.Y.. “User Fees for Recreation Services on Public Lands: A National Assessment.Journal of Park and Recreation Administration 17(1999): 114.
Bowker, J.M., Harvard, J.E. III, Bergstrom, J.C., Cordell, H.K., English, D.B.K., and Loomis, J.B.. “The Net Economic Value of Wilderness.” The Multiple Values of Wilderness. Cordell, Bergstrom, Bowker, eds., pp. 161–80. State College, PA: Venture Publishing, 2005a.
Bowker, J.M., Starbuck, C.M., English, D.B.K., Bergstrom, J.C., and Harvard, J.. “Estimating the Value of Recreation Access to U.S. National Forest Wilderness.” Poster Presentation. 8th World Wilderness Congress. Anchorage, AK, October 1-6, 2005b.
Cole, D.N.Wilderness Recreation Use Trends, 1965 through 1994.” Research Paper INT-RP-488. Ogden, UT: USDA, Forest Service, Inter-mountain Research Station, 1996.
Cordell, H.K., Bergstrom, J.C., and Bowker, J.M. (eds.). The Multiple Values of Wilderness. State College, PA: Venture Publishing, 2005.
Cordell, H.K., Betz, C.J., Bowker, J.M., English, D.B.K., Mou, S.H., Bergstrom, J.C., Teasley, R.J., Tarrant, M.A., and Loomis, J.. Outdoor Recreation in American Life: A National Assessment of Demand and Supply Trends. Champaign, IL: Sagamore Publishing, 1999.
Cordell, H.K., Green, G.T., and Betz, C.J.. “Recreation and the environment as cultural dimensions in contemporary American society.Leisure Sciences 24(1)(2002): 1341.
Cordell, H.K., and Overdevest, C.. Footprints on the Land: An Assessment of Demographic Trends and the Future of Natural Lands in the United States. Champaign, IL: Sagamore Publishing, 2001.
Cordell, H.K., and Teasley, R.J.. 1998. “Recreation Trips to Wilderness.International Journal of Wilderness 4(1998):2327.
English, D.B.K., Kocis, S.M., Zarnoch, S.J., and Arnold, J.R.. Forest Service National Visitor Use Monitoring Process: Research Method Documentation. General Technical Report SRS-57. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 2002.
ESRI Data and Maps. “An ESRI White Paper-August 2004.” Redlands, CA: ESRI, 2004. http://www.esri.com/.
Freimund, W.A., and Cole, D.N.. “Visitor Use Density and Wilderness Experience.” Proceedings of the Rocky Mountain Research Station. Freimund, W. A. and Cole, D.N. (comps.), p. 67. Missoula, MT, June 1-3, 2000. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 2001.
Greene, W.H. Econometric Analysis, 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2000.
Greene, W.H. LIMDEP, Version 7.0. Plainview, NY: Econometric Software, Inc., 1995.
Hendee, J.C., Stankey, G.H., and Lucas, R.C., eds. Wilderness management, 2nd edition. Golden, CO: North American Press, 1990.
Johnson, C.Y., Bowker, J.M., Bergstrom, J.C., and Cordell, H.K.. “Wilderness Values in America: Do Immigrant Status and Ethnicity Make a Difference?Society and Natural Resources 17(2004):611–28.
Johnson, C.Y., Bowker, J.M., and Cordell, H.K.. “Outdoor Recreation Constraints: An Examination of Race, Gender, and Rural Dwelling across Regions.Southern Rural Sociology 17(2001): 111–33.
Loomis, J.B.Do Additional Designations of Wilderness Result in Increases in Recreation Use?Society and Natural Resources 12(1999):481–91.
Loomis, J.B., and Richardson, R.. Economic values of protecting roadless areas in the United States. Internet site: http://www.wilderness.org/Library/Documents/upload/Economic-Values_of_Protecting_Roadless-Areas_in_the_U_S_Loomis.pdf (Accessed February 1, 2005).
Miller, J.R., and Hay, J.M.. “Determinants of Hunter Participation: Duck Hunting in the Mississippi Fly way.American Journal of Agricultural Economics 63(1981):677–84.
Murdock, S.H., Backman, K.E., Colberg, E., Hoque, M.N., and Hamm, R.R.. “A Modeling Demographic Change and Characteristics in the Analysis of Future Demand for Leisure Service.Leisure Science 12(1990):79102.
Roggenbuck, J.W., and Watson, A.E.. “Wilderness Recreation Use: The Current Situation.” Outdoor Recreation Benchmark 1988: Proceedings of the National Outdoor Recreation Forum. Watson, A.E. (comp.), pp. 346–56. General Technical Report, GTR-SE-52. Asheville, NC: USDA Forest Service Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, 1989.
Taylor, D.E.Meeting the Challenge of Wild Land Recreation Management: Demographic Shifts and Social Inequality.Journal of Leisure Research 32(1)(2000):171–79.
U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Interim Projections by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin. Internet site: http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/usinterimproj/ (Accessed November 3, 2004).
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. National Forest Visitor Use Monitoring Program-National Project Results—January 2000 through September 2003. Internet site: http://www.fs.fed.us/recreation/programs/nvum/national_report_finaLdraft.pdf, 2005 (Accessed December 5, 2005).
U.S. Geological Service. The Wilderness Areas of the United States Boundary Map. Reston, VA: USGS, 2004.
Watson, A.E.Wilderness Use in the Year 2000: Societal Changes That Influence Human Relationships with Wilderness.” Proceedings of the Wilderness Science in a Time of Change Conference, Vol. 4. Cole, D.N., McCool, S.F, Borrie, W.T., O'Loughlin, J. (comps.), pp. 5360. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 2000.
Watson, A., and Cole, D.N.. Wilderness Users and Use: Recent Additions to Understanding. Outdoor Recreation in American Life: A National Assessment of Demand and Supply Trends, pp. 377–80. Champaign, IL: Sagamore Publishing, 1999.
Watson, A.E., Cordell, H.K., and Hartmann, L.A.. “Characteristics of Wilderness Users in Outdoor Recreation Assessments.” Recreation and Park Management: Papers from the First National Symposium of Social Science in Resource Management. Lee, M. and Brown, P.J. (eds.), pp. 110. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, College of Forestry, 1989.
Woods and Poole Economics, Inc. The Complete Economic and Demographic Data Source. Washington, DC: Woods and Poole Economics, Inc., 2003.
Yen, S.T., and Adamowicz, W.L.. “Statistical Properties of Welfare Measures from Count Data Models of Recreation Demand.Review of Agricultural Economics 15(2)(1993):203–15.
Zawacki, W., Marsinko, A.R., and Bowker, J.M.. “A Travel Cost Analysis of Economic Use Value of Nonconsumptive Wildlife Recreation in the United States.Forest Science 46(2000):496505.

Keywords

Wilderness and Primitive Area Recreation Participation and Consumption: An Examination of Demographic and Spatial Factors

  • J.M. Bowker (a1), D. Murphy (a2), H.K. Cordell (a1), D.B.K. English (a3), J.C. Bergstrom (a2), C.M. Starbuck (a2), C.J. Betz (a1) and G.T. Green (a4)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed