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Implication of Recent User Charge Legislation for Barge Transportation of Agricultural Commodities

  • James Binkley (a1) and Leonard Shabman (a2)

Extract

The view that the navigable waters of the United States should be toll free originated in the colonial period of U.S. history, and became explicitly stated federal policy in the 1884 Rivers and Harbors Act (Ashton et al.). At that time public expenditures for waterway improvements were small and the freight transportation industry was dominated by railroads. Therefore, public policy promoted water transportation as an inexpensive means of encouraging competition for the railroads.

Since the early years of this century public expenditures for improvements of the waterways have risen while water, motor, air, and pipeline transportation have become effective competitors for the railroads. The conditions which justified a toll-free waterway policy changed, but the policy was not altered. Though every president since Franklin Roosevelt has recommended that Congress levy a charge on inland waterway users, legislators have been reluctant to implement such charges.

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References

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Anderson, David L. and Scheussler, Robert W.. “Regional Market, Industry, and Transportation Impacts of Waterway User Charges.” Staff Study Rep. No. 55-212-U1-18A. U.S. Department of Transportation, Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1976.
Ashton, Peter, Cooper-Ruska, Catherine, and Shabman, Leonard. “A Legal-Historical Analysis of Navigation User Charges.J. Water Res. Plan, and Manag. Div. 102(1976):89100. American Society of Civil Engineers.
Barloon, Marvin J.The Logic of Limiting the Waterways Fuel Tax to $.06 a Gallon as Now Provided in H.R. 8309.National Waterways Conference, Washington, D.C. No date.
Baumel, Phillip C, Miller, John J. and Drinka, Thomas P.. “An Economic Analysis of Upgrading Rail Branch Lines: A Study of 71 Lines in Iowa.” Rep. No. FRA-OPPD-76-3, National Technical Information Service, Washington, D.C, 1976.
Bunker, Arvin.The Impact of Waterway User Charges on Grain and Fertilizer Transportation in Central Illinois.Logist. and Trans. Rev. 12(1976):328–48.
CACI, Inc. “Potential Impacts of Selected Waterway User Charges.Washington, D.C 1976.
Casavant, Ken and Thayer, Robert. “Impact of Lower Granite Dam and Waterway User Charges on Pacific Northwest Wheat Movement.” Bull. 887, College of Agriculture Research Center, Washington State University, 1980.
Fanchi, Peter. “Report.” In National Conference on Water, Summary. U.S. Water Resources Council. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976, p. 116–26.
Fedler, Jerry A., Heady, Earl O., and Koo, Won W.. “Interrelationships of Grain Production, Transportation, and Demand: A Cost Analysis and Projection of Grain Shipments Within the United States for 1980.” Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, 1973.
Harbeson, Robert W.The Regulation of Interagency Rate Competition Under the Transportation Act of 1958.” ICC Practitioners J. (1962):287308.
Schienbien, Allen.Costs of Storing and Handling Grain in Commercial Elevators: Projections for 1974/75.” Comm. Econ. Div. Pub. FDS-252. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1974.
Shabman, Leonard.User Charges for Inland Waterways: A Review of Issues in Policy and Economic Impact.” Bull. 91, Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1976.
Spilka, Walter Jr., Kenyon, David, and Shabman, Leonard. “Water-Rail Rate Competition and the Competitive Position of the Northeastern Poultry Industry.J. Northeastern Agr. Econ. Council, 7(1978):1317.
U.S. Department of Agriculture. Fats and Oils Situation. Selected issues.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, FATUS, Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States. Selected issues.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. Wheat Situation, Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office. Various issues.
U.S. Department of Transportation. “The Barge Mixing Rule Problem: A Study of the Economic Regulation of Domestic Dry Bulk Commodity Transportation.” Pub. AD-762-350. Washington, D.C: National Technical Information Service, 1973.
Waterways Freight Bureau. “Bargeload Bulk Grain Tariff, Supplement 82 to Freight Tariff 7.Washington, D.C 1975.

Implication of Recent User Charge Legislation for Barge Transportation of Agricultural Commodities

  • James Binkley (a1) and Leonard Shabman (a2)

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