Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Tradition, Social Justice and Land Reform in Central Botswana1

  • Robert K. Hitchcock

Extract

A close relationship holds between the goals of development planning and the notions that planners have of what already exists. Hand in hand with certain goals go appropriate notions of the status quo. Aiming to “modernise” for the sake of increased productivity, conservation of natural resources, and a fairer distribution of wealth, planners presuppose the existence of the “traditional” as the negative condition that has to be changed. It might be thought that an understanding of the status quo or the traditional condition comes first, before the choice of goals. But that is not always so. Information is often fundamentally incomplete or ignored when decisions about policy have to be made by planners. Hence they rely on their goals to guide their thinking about what already exists. In such circumstances, modernising planners reinvent the traditional as a negative stereotype; they derive it from their goals, rather than the other way round. The difficulty is, however, that their plans, when implemented, encounter the cultural realities of the continuing social arrangements. Unintended consequences result, or worse still, radically unacceptable ones. The overall pattern is familiar in nationally planned development: the reform designed by planners at the centre gets subverted by people at the periphery, and a gross disjunction arises between the policy as it is officially formulated and the policy as it can effectively be applied.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Animal Production Division 1976. An Integrated Programme of Beef Cattle and Range Research in Botswana 1970–1976. Gaborone: Animal Production Research Unit, Ministry of Agriculture.
Animal Production Division 1977. An Integrated Programme of Beef Cattle and Range Research in Botswana 1970–1976. Gaborone: Animal Production Research Unit, Ministry of Agriculture.
Bryden, H. A. 1893. Gun and Camera in Southern Africa: A Year of Wanderings in Bechuanaland, the Kalahari Desert, and the Lake River Country, Ngamiland, with Notes on Colonization, Natives, Natural History, and Sport. London: Edward Stanford.
Chambers, R.Feldman, D. and 1972. Report on Rural Development. Gaborone: Ministry of Finance and Development Planning.
, Chapman, , James 1971. Travels in the Interior of South Africa, 1849–1863: Hunting and Trading Journeys from Natal to Walvis Bay and Visits to Lake Ngami and Victoria Falls, (ed.) Edward, C. Tabler, Cape Town: Balkema A. A., a vols.
, Childers, Gary, W. 1976. Report on the Survey/Investigation of the Ghanzi Farm Basarwa Situation. Gaborone: Government Printer.
, Ebert, James, I., Thoma, Axel, Ebert, Melinda, C., , Hitchcock, Robert, K. and Oabile, Malebogo 1976 Report and recommendations for land allocations and Basarwa development in the sandveld region of the Central District, Botswana. Report to the Central District Council, Serowe, and the Ministry of Local Government and Lands,.Gaborone.
, Field, Ralph, F. 1977 National Migration Study and the Tribal Grazing Land Policy. Paper presented at the Seminar on Socio-economic Monitoring of the Tribal Grazing Land Policy, Division of Planning and Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture, Gaborone.
, Frere, SirBartle, H. 1882–83. “On Systems of Land Tenure Among Aboriginal Tribes in South Africa.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 12, 258–276.
Government of Botswana 1976. An Application by the Government of Botswana for a Loan to Finance a Second Livestock Development Project (Livestock II). Gaborone: Government Printer.
, Greenhow, , Timothy 1976. Background paper on strategy for TGL development in Central District. Savingram T/8/2, 27 August, 1976.
, Greenhow, , Timothy 1977a. General Procedures in Commercial Development Areas: Paper presented at the Land Development Committee/land Use Planning Advisory Group Issues Seminar, Gaborone.
, Greenhow, , Timothy 1977b. Commercial Ranch Application Procedures —Proposals. Paper presented at the Land Development Committee/Land Use Planning Advisory Group Issues Seminar, Gaborone.
, Greenhow, , Timothy 1977c. Lepasha Commercial Ranch Development: Plan Proposal, January, 1977. Report to the Ministry of Local Government and Lands, Gaborone.
, Greenhow, , Timothy 1978. Planning for Settlements and Services in Commercial Areas. Department of Town and Regional Planning paper 6·01–3–g, Gaborone.
, Greenhow, , Timothy 1980. “The Tribal Grazing Land Policy and Integrated Land Use Planning: A district view.” Botswana Notes and Records, 10, 159–68.
, Guenther, Mathias, G. 1971. “Kalahari Bushmen in Transition.” Rotunda, 4(3), 816.
, Guenther, Mathias, G. 1973. Farm Bushmen and Mission Bushmen: Social Change in a Setting of Conflicts and Pluralism of the San of the Ghanzi District, Republic of Botswana. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.
, Guenther, Mathias, G. 1975. “San Acculturation and Incorporation in the Ranching Areas of the Ghanzi District: Some Urgent Anthropological Issues.” Botswana Notes and Records 7, 167170.
, Guenther, Mathias, G. 1976.“From Hunters to Squatters: Social and Cultural Change Among the Farm San of Ghanzi, Botswana,” in , Lee, Richard, B. and DeVore, Irven (eds.), Kalahari Hunter–Gatherers: Studies of the! Kung San and their neighbours. Cambridge Harvard University Press, 120133.
, Guenther, Mathias, G. 1977. “Bushmen Hunters as Farm Laborers.” Canadian Journal of African Studies 11 (s), 195203.
, Guenther, Mathias, G.In press. The Ghanzi Farm Bushmen of Botswana. Stuttgart: Hochschulverlag.
Heinz, H. J. 1972. “Territoriality Among the Bushmen in General and the! Ko in Particular.” Anthropos, 67, 405416.
, Hermans, , Janet 1977. “Official Policy Towards the Bushmen of Botswana: A Review, Part 1.”Botswana Notes and Records, 9, 5567.
, Hitchcock, Robert, K. 1976. Social and cultural implications of the Tribal Grazing Land Policy and group formation as it applies to Central District, and especially the hunter-gatherer population of the east-central Kalahari and the sedentary population of the Nata River region. Paper presented at the Rural Sociology Seminar, Ministry of Agriculture, Gaborone.
, Hitchcock, Robert, K. 1977a. Non-Stockholders, Dependency, and Land Rights in Central District: Some Policy Considerations. Paper presented at the Seminar on Socio-economic monitoring of the Tribal Grazing Land Policy, Division of Planning and Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture, Gaborone.
, Hitchcock, Robert, K. 1977b. Meeting Communal Needs in Commercial Areas: Integrated Land use Planning and the Communal Service Centre Concept. Consultancy Report No. 5, Ministry of Local Government and Lands, Gaborone.
, Hitchcock, Robert, K. 1978a. Kalahari Cattle Posts: A Regional Study of Hunter-Gatherers, Pastoralists, and Agriculturalists in the Western Sandveld Region, Central District, Botswana. Gaborone: Government Printer.
, Hitchcock, Robert, K. 1978b. “The Traditional Response to Drought in Botswana,” in , Hinchley, (ed.), Madalon, T.Proceedings of the Symposium on Drought in Botswana, Gaborone: The Botswana Society, 9197.
, Hitchcock, Robert, K. 1979a. Traditional and Modern Cattle Management Systems and Labour Migration in Botswana. Paper presented at the Second National Migration Study Workship, Gaborone.
, Hitchcock, Robert, K. 1979b. Socio-economic Change Among the Basarwa in Botswana: An Ethno-historic Perspective. Paper presented at a seminar on the history of Botswana, University College, Gaborone
, Hitchcock, Robert, K. and , Ebert, James, I. In press. “Foraging and Food Production among Kalahari Hunter-Gatherers,” in Clark, J., Desmond and , Brat, Steven, A. (eds.), The Causes and Consequences of Food Production in Africa, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
, Hitchcock, Robert, K., Ebert, James, I., Ebert, Melinda, C. and, 1976. Report on the monitoring of a Tribal Grazing Land Policy Radio Learning Group, Man/otai, Nata River region, Central District, Botswana. Report to the Ministry of Local Government and Lands, Gaborone.
, Hitchcock, Robert, K., VierichHelga, I. D. and , Wilmsen, Edwin, M., 1977. Basarwa Mobility and Migration Patterns. Paper presented at the First National Migration Study Workshop, Gaborone.
, Hodson, Arnold, W. 1912 Trekking the Great Thirst: Sport and Travel in the Kalahari Desert. London: T. Fisher Unwin.
, Jenness, Jonathan, 1977a. Savingram re: Sub-committee progress to date on developing lease-right alternatives. Savingram to Chairman, Land Development Committee, 26 May 1977, Gaborone.
, Jenness, Jonathan 1977b. The notion of reserves and the zoning exercise. Savingram to the Secretary, Land Development Committee, 19 April 1977, Gaborone.
, Jenness, Jonathan 1978a. Tribal Grazing Land Programme Review No. 1 of 1978. Gaborone: Rural Development Unit, Ministry of Finance and Development Planning.
, Jenness, Jonathan 1978b. Tribal Grazing Land Programme Review No. 2 of 1978. Gaborone: Rural Development Unit, Ministry of Finance and Development Planning.
, Jenness, Jonathan 1978c. Rethinking the TGLP in light of the land use planning exercise. Paper presented at the Fifth National District Development Conference, Gaborone.
Joyce, J. W. 1938. “Report on the Masarwa in the Bamangwato Reserve, Bechuanaland Protectorate”. League of Nations Publications VI. B: Slavery. Annex 6, 5776.
, Khama, Sir, Seretse 1975. Launching the Tribal Grazing Land Policy (14th July, 1975). Gaborone: Government Printer.
Khumalo, G. E. 1977. A report on sociological investigations of the Central Region on attitudes and problems of people towards the Tribal Grazing Land Policy. Report of the Rural Sociology Unit, Ministry of Agriculture, Gaborone.
Khumalo, G. E. 1978. A second report on the socio-economic aspects of ranch development (a report on a survey undertaken from 3 to 15 June, 1978). Report of the Rural Sociology Unit, Ministry of Agriculture, Gaborone.
, Lee, Richard, B. 1965. Subsistence Ecology of! Kung Bushmen. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.
, Lee, Richard, B. 1972a. “!Kung Spatial Organization: An Ecological and Historical Perspective.” Human Ecology, 1(2), 125–147.
, Lee, Richard, B. 1979. The! Kung San: Men, Women, and Work in a Foraging Society. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
, Livingstone, , David 1857. Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa. London: John Murray.
, Marshall, , Lorna 1960. “!Kung Bushmen Bands.” Africa, 30(4), 325–355.
, Marshall, , Lorna 1976. The! Kung of Nyae Nyae. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press.
Ministry of Finance and Development Planning 1977. National Development Plan 1976–81. Gaborone: Government Printer.
Ministry of Local Government and Lands 1977. Lefatshe La Rona—Our Land: The Report on the Botswana Government's Public Consultation and its Policy Proposals on Tribal Grazing Land. Gaborone: Government Printer.
, Moody, , Elize 1976. “Cattle Farming in Botswana: The New Tribal Grazing land Policy.” Bulletin of the Africa Institute of South Africa, 16(9 &10), 343346.
, Odell, Malcolm, J. Jr,. 1976. Issues Facing Implementation of the TGLP and Their Implications. Savingram A34/11, 23 December, 1976, Ministry of Agriculture, Gaborone.
, Oganne, , Peggy 1977. Report on a trip to the Central District on attitudes toward the Tribal Grazing Land Policy (Sefhophe, Serule, Tsupye, and Tsetsebjwe). Report of the Rural Sociology Unit, Ministry of Agriculture, Gaborone.
Remote Area Development Office 1978. Minutes of Remote Area Development Workshop. Gaborone: Ministry of Local Government and Lands.
Republic of Botswana 1970. The Tribal Land Act, 1968, No. 54 of 1968, as Amended by the Tribal Land (Amendment) Act, 1969, No. 48 of 1969, The Tribal Land Act Commencement Notice, 1970 S.I. No. 6 of 1970, The Tribal Land Regulation, 1970, S.I. No. 7 of 1970. Gaborone: Government Printer.
Republic of Botswana 1972. Rural Development in Botswana. Government Paper No. 1 of 1972. Gaborone: Government Printer.
Republic of Botswana 1973 National Policy on Rural Development: The Government's Decisions on the Report on Rural Development by R. Chambers and D. Feldman. Government Paper No. 2 of 1973. Gaborone: Government Printer.
Republic of Botswana 1975. National Policy on Tribal Grazing Land. Government Paper No. 2 of 1975. Gaborone: Government Printer.
Republic of Botswana n.d.a. Handbook: The Tribal Land Act, the Tribal Land Regulations, the Subordinate Land Boards Regulations, Gaborone: Government Printer.
Republic of Botswana n.d.b. Application for a Lease of Land Under Section 24 of the Tribal Land Act—for Agricultural Purposes (by an Individual). Gaborone: Government Printer.
Republic of Botswana n.d.c.Agreement of Grant of the Tribal Grazing Land Policy Lease. Gaborone: Government Printer.
, Russell, , Margo 1976. “Slaves or Workers? Relations between Bushmen, Tswana, and Boers in the Kalahari”, Journal of Southern African Studies, 2(2), 178197.
, Russell, , Margo, Russell, , Martin and 1979. Afrikaners of the Kalahari: White Minority in a Black State. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Schapera, I. 1930. The Khoisan Peoples of South Africa: Bushmen and Hottentots. London: and Kegan Paul.
Schapera, I. 1938. A Handbook of Tswana Law and Custom. London: International African Institute; rep., Frank Cass 1970.
Schapera, I. 1940. “The Political Organization of the Ngwato of Bechuanal and Protectorate”, in Fortes, M. and Evans-Pritchard, E. E., (eds.), African Political Systems, London: Oxford Univ. Press for International African Institute, 5682.
Schapera, I. 1943a. Native Land Tenure in the Bechuanaland Protectorate. Alice: Lovedale Press.
Schapera, I. 1943b. Tribal Legislation Among the Tswana of the Bechuanaland Protectorate (A Study in the Mechanism of Social Change). London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology, No. 9.
Schapera, I. 1952.The Ethnic Composition of Tswana Tribes. London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology, No. 11.
1970 Tribal Innovators: Tswana Chiefs and Social Change 1795–1940 London: The Athlone Press.
, Silberbauer, George, B. 1965. Report to the Government of Bechuanaland on the Bushmen Survey. Gaborones: Bechuanaland Government.
, Silberbauer, George, B. 1972. “The G/wi Bushmen”, in Bicchieri, M. G., (ed.),Hunters and gatherers today, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 271326.
, Solway, Jacqueline, S. 1979a. “Report on Dutlwe Village, Kweneng District”. Rural Sociology Report Series, No. 14. Gaborone: Ministry of Agriculture.
, Solway, Jacqueline, S. 1979b. Socio-economic Effects of the Commercialization of the Cattle Industry in Western Kweneng. Report to the Rural Sociology Unit, Ministry of Agriculture, Gaborone.
Tagart, E. S. B. 1933. Report on the Conditions Existing Among theMasarwa in the Bamangwato Resei-ue of the Bechuanaland Protectorate and Certain Other Matters Appertaining to the Natives Living Therein. Pretoria: Government Printer.
Temane, B. K. 1977. Land Reform: The Case of Botswana. Paper presented at the seminar “Agrarian Reform, Institutional Innovation, and Rural Development: Major Issues in Perspective”, Land Tenure Center, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison.
Temane, B. K. 1978. Wildlife as a Resource and its Impact on Land Use Plans. Paper presented at the Fifth Regional Wildlife Conference for Eastern and Central Africa, Gaborone.
, Tlou, , Thomas 1977. “Servility and Political Control: Botlhanka Among the Batawana of north-western Botswana, c. 1750–1906”. , Miers, , Suzanne and , Kopytoff, , Igor (eds.), Slavery in Africa: Historical and anthropological perspectives, Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 367390.
, Vierich, Helga, I. D. 1977.Interim Report on Basarwa and Related Poor Bakgalagadi in Kweneng District. Report to the Ministry of Local Government and Lands, Gaborone.
, Vierich, Helga, I. D. 1978a. Tentative Recommendations for Development Strategy in the Second Development Area, north-east Kweneng District, Botswana. Report to the Kweneng District Council and the Ministry of Local Government and Lands, Gaborone.
, Vierich, Helga, I. D. 1978b. Some Suggested Steps to be Taken Prior to the Adjudication Procedures in Commercial Development areas. Report to the Kweneng District Council and the Ministry of Local Government and Lands, Gaborone.
Von Kaufmann, R. R. 1978. “The Tribal Grazing Land Policy's relevance in a drought-prone environment”, , Hinchey, Madalon, T. (ed.), Proceedings of the Symposium on Drought in Botswana, Gaborone: The Botswana Society, 255860.
, Weimer, , Benhard, ed. 1977. A Policy for Rural Development: The Case for Botswana's National Policy on Tribal Grazing Land. National Institute for Research in Development and African studies, Documentation Unit, Discussion Paper No. 6. Gaborone: National Institute for Research.
, Werbner, Richard, P. 1975. “Land, movement, and status among Kalanga of Botswana”, in , Fortes, , Meyer and , Patterson, , Sheila (eds.), Studies in African Social Anthropology, London: Academic Press.
, Werbner, Richard, P. 1977. “Small Man Politics and the Rule of Law: Centre-periphery Relations in East-Central Botswana”, Journal of African Law, 21(1), 24–39.
, Wiessner, , Pauline 1977. Hxaro: a Regional System of Reciprocity for Reducing Risk Among the! Kung San. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Willett, A. B. J. 1976. Strategy for group formation-Central Region: The Tlhabala, Tsetsebjwe, and Tlhagasanong Case Studies. Savingram L6/L10, 5 May, 1978, Regional Agriculture Office, Serowe.
Willett, A. B. J. 1976 1978. TGLP implementation in the communal area of Central District: Information paper to Land Board. Savingram L6/L10, 5 May, 1978, Regional Agricultural Office, Serowe.
, Wily, , Elizabeth 1976a. Basarwa citizens and the land resource. Information note presented to the TGLP Co-ordinating Committee, meeting No. 11, Gaborone.
, Wily, , Elizabeth 1976b. First Development Area: Western Sandveld Commercial Zone, Central District: What we Know About the Area in Regard to Non-owners of Cattle-posts as of December, 1976. Report to the Ministry of Local Government and Lands, Gaborone.
, Wily, , Elizabeth 1977a. Summary of General Guidelines and Aspects to be Considered in Regard to Non-stockholders in Proposed Commercial Areas. Report to the Ministry of Local Government and Lands, Gaborone.
, Wily, , Elizabeth 1977b. Note on TGLP and the extra-rural sector. Report to the Ministry of Local Government and Lands, Gaborone.
, Wily, , Elizabeth 1977c. Working note on the question of rights of use of wildlife resources in commercial areas. Report to the Ministry of Local Government and Lands and the Department of Wildlife, National Parks, and Tourism, Gaborone.
, Wily, , Elizabeth 1977d. Some suggestions for monitoring and evaluation of TGLP in regard to ERDS (Extra-rural dwellers). Paper presented at the Seminar on Socio-economic monitoring of the Tribal Grazing Land Policy, Division of Planning and Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture, Gaborone.
, Wily, , Elizabeth 1977e. Lepasha First Commercial Development Area. Report to the Ministry of Local Government and Lands, Gaborone.
, Wily, , Elizabeth 1977f. Report on Lepasha area survey of extra-rural sector in relation to proposed First Commercial Development Area. Report to the Ministry of Local Government and Lands, Gaborone.
, Wily, , Elizabeth 1978a. Status report on non-stockholder situation in TGLP First Development Areas. Report to the Land Development Committee, Gaborone.
, Wily, , Elizabeth 1978b. Detailed Planning Within Commercial Areas: Why do we Need Some Communal Land Within Commercial Areas? Report to the Ministry of Local Government and Lands, Gaborone.
, Wily, , Elizabeth 1978c. Investigation and Adjudication. Minute to the Adjudication Officer, 9 February, 1978, Ministry of Local Government and Lands, Gaborone.
, Wily, , Elizabeth 1978d. Report of Survey of First Commercial Development Area, Southern District. Report to the Ministry of Local Government and Lands, Gaborone.
, Yellen, John, E., Harpending, , Henry 1972. “Hunter-gatherer populations and archaeological inference.” World Archaeology, 4(4), 244253.

Tradition, Social Justice and Land Reform in Central Botswana1

  • Robert K. Hitchcock

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.