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ORDINE E MUTAMENTO NELLE RELAZIONI INTERNAZIONALI

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 July 2018

Introduzione

Se è vero che i silenzi e le omissioni di una disciplina dicono, a volte, più di quanto dicano le sue parole, la riflessione post-bellica delle relazioni internazionali ha meno da dire sul mutamento internazionale di quanto questo abbia da dire sulle relazioni internazionali.

Quando si tireranno le somme della storia della politica internazionale del nostro secolo, infatti, essa apparirà come una successione di mutamenti colossali: dalla fine degli imperi asburgico, ottomano e germanico all'indomani della prima guerra mondiale, a quella degli imperi coloniali dopo la seconda, fino a quella dell'impero russo-sovietico che ha chiuso anche simbolicamente il Novecento. Tanto più sorprendente, quindi, è il fatto che di questi processi non sia rimasta quasi traccia nell'analisi scientifica della politica internazionale. Con alcune lodevoli eccezioni, fino alla fine degli anni settanta la gran parte dell'analisi della politica internazionale si concentrò su elementi statici, quando non finì per essere pura e semplice teoria del bipolarismo. Diversi elementi giocarono a favore di questa scelta (Gilpin 1989, 4-6): la priorità, consueta nelle scienze sociali, dell'analisi statica rispetto all'analisi dinamica (Schumpeter 1979), resa ancora più pervasiva dal successo della teoria dei sistemi; il progressivo declino di quella che K.J. Holsti definì la «grande teoria» (Holsti 1971), cioè dei tentativi di costruire una teoria generale delle relazioni internazionali; la contraddizione tra i colossali mutamenti che avvenivano nel Terzo Mondo e la matrice euro-occidentale della disciplina; la mancanza, soprattutto, di una «domanda» di teorie del mutamento, annullata anch'essa nel «lungo presente» del confronto bipolare.

Summary

Summary

After a long silence, hegemonic theories have drawn attention to international change. Nevertheless, because of their relationship with the debate on the American decline, hegemonic theories have focused on a particular kind of international change – the rise and the decline of world powers – while ignoring all the others. Their main feature is not the often criticized link between order and hegemony, but a particular idea of the international order as a unique, and naval, order. This notion of order is too narrowly focused on seapower to explain the bulk of the contemporary international change, from processes of fragmentation to regional reaggregation, from ethnical and national revival to region-building, from underdevelopment to the collapse of states and whole regions. The outcome is that the existing theories of international change concentrate their attention on something which has not happened, while none of them provide a convincing explanation of the new world disorder.

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Copyright © Societ Italiana di Scienza Politica 

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