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LE POLITICHE DELLA SCUOLA IN EUROPA. UN'ANALISI COMPARATA

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 July 2018

Introduzione

Le politiche dell'istruzione costituiscono un ambito di studio rispetto al quale la scienza politica, nonché la più specifica disciplina dell'analisi delle politiche pubbliche, presentano notevoli lacune.

Da un lato, nella letteratura internazionale le numerose ricerche di education policy si sono concentrate prevalentemente su studi del caso singolo e hanno dedicato minore attenzione all'analisi comparata delle politiche scolastiche. Le quali, inoltre, sono state assai poco esplorate nell'ambito dei più generali studi comparati dedicati al welfare state, che hanno piuttosto privilegiato lo studio delle politiche relative ai sistemi di assicurazione sociale; come ha rilevato Alber: «la sola ricerca empiricamente consolidata» in tale settore (Alber 1987, 15).

Dall'altro, nella letteratura politologica italiana la politica scolastica costituisce un terreno pressoché inesplorato. In Italia essa è stata, infatti, dominio dei pedagogisti, che hanno privilegiato approcci di tipo normativo, dei filosofi e, in misura minore, degli storici, il prevalente taglio descrittivo dei quali non ha, però, favorito lo sviluppo di analisi di tipo esplicativo (Benadusi 1989a, 258; Trivellato 1989, 226).

Summary

Summary

This article examines the principal reforms of secondary school organisation introduced in eight European countries: Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. Since the 60s, some of these countries, by means of such reforms have achieved the goal of uniting various types of schools, in place of the traditional division into three types, the Lycées, technical schools and professional schools, by creating comprehensive schools. In some cases only the lower level, in others all levels of secondary schools have been united. In the remaining nations, changes have either impinged only marginally on the traditional set-up (Belgium and The Netherlands) or have been virtually non-existent (Germany).

The author gives an explanation of these different results, by means of focusing on explanatory factors, such as the political and institutional characteristics of the political system, the institutional characteristics of the ruling of the school system, the policy legacy. She has also suggested a few hypotheses to explain the peculiarity of the Italian case. The reform process in Italy, although it reached a positive outcome by creating the «Middle school» in 1962, at the same time as Sweden and earlier than in other countries, has not produced any decisions as regards higher secondary education.

Type
Ricerche
Copyright
Copyright © Societ Italiana di Scienza Politica 

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