Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Recent advances in the biological treatment of mood disorders

  • Gary McDonald (a1) and Brian Hallahan (a1)

Abstract

Welcome to the first module in our Continuing Professional Development Section (CPD). CPD is now a key element in the clinical activity of all health professionals and a cornerstone of good clinical governance throughout mental health services. This section of the Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine will provide CPD modules dedicated to key topics in mental health care. In order to assist learning and self-assessment, multiple choice questions will be provided at the end of each module.

This module and its multiple choice questions are available online on the website of the Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine (www.ijpm.org). The CPD policy of the College of Psychiatry of Ireland indicates that psychiatrists who participate in suitable online learning which fits the criteria for CPD may claim CPD points under the Personal CPD category (up to a maximum of 5 points per year).

We are confident that this CPD Section of the Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine will prove to be a valuable resource for consultant psychiatrists, psychiatric trainees and all journal readers. We welcome feedback from readers and, especially, any suggestions for topics to be covered in future CPD modules. Suggestions should be emailed to: psychological@medmedia.ie

Copyright

References

Hide All
1.Mathers, CD, Loncar, D. Projections of Global Mortality and Burden of Disease from 2002 to 2030 PLoS Medicine 2006; 3 (11): e442.
2.Anderson, IM. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus tricyclic antidepressants: a metaanalysis of efficacy and tolerability. J Affect Disord 2000; 58: 1936.
3.Geddes, JR, Freemantle, N, Mason, J, et al.SSRIs versus other antidepressants for depressive disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 2: CD001851.
4.Anderson, IM, Tomenson, BM. The efficacy of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in depression: a meta-analysis of studies against tricyclic antidepressants. J Psychopharmacol 1994; 8: 238–49
5.Rush, AJ. STAR*D: What Have We Learned? Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164:201–4.
6.Thase, ME, Entsuah, AR, Rudolph, RL. Remission rates during treatment with venlafaxine or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Br J Psychiatry 2001; 178: 234–41
7.Cipriani, A, Brambilla, P, Furukawa, T, et al.Fluoxetine versus other types of pharmacotherapy for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 4: CD004185.
8.Ciprani, A, Furukawa, TA, Salanti, G, et al.Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 12 new-generation antidepressants: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis. Lancet 2009; 373: 746–58.
9.Uher, R, Maier, W, Hauser, J, et al.Differential efficacy of escitalopram and nortriptyline on dimensional measures of depression. Br J Psychiatry 2009; 194: 252–9.
10.Warden, D, Rush, AJ, Thvedi, MH, et al.The STAR*D Project results: a comprehensive review of findings. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2007; 9: 449–59.
11.Gaynes, BN, Rush, AJ, Trivedi, MH, et al.The STAR*D study: Treating depression in the real World. Cleveland Clinical J Medicine 2008; 75: 5766.
12.Quitkin, FM, Stewart, JW, McGrath, PJ, et al.Columbia atypical depression. A subgroup of depressives with better response to MAOIs than to tricyclic antidepressants or placebo. Br J Psychiatry 1993; 163 (suppl 21): 30–4.
13.Stewart, JW, Thase, ME. Treating DSM-IV Depression With Atypical Features. J Clin Psychiatry 2007; 68: 10.
14.Stewart, JW. Treating depression with atypical features. J Clin Psychiatry 2007; 68 Suppl 25–9.
15.Chan, CH, Janicak, PG, Davis, JM, et al.Response of psychotic and non-psychotic depressed patients to tricyclic antidepressants. J Clin Psychiatry 1987; 48: 197200
16.Wijkstra, J, Lijmer, J, Balk, FJ, Geddes, JR, Nolen, WA. Pharmacological treatment for unipolar psychotic depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 2006; 188: 410–5.
17.Hesham, M. Hamoda, ; David, N. Osser. The Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project at the Harvard South Shore Program: An Update on Psychotic Depression. Harv Rev Psychiatry 2008; 16: 235–47.
18.Stahl, SM. Antidepressant treatment of psychotic major depression: potential role of the sigma receptor. CNS Spectr 2005; 10: 319–23.
19.DeBattista, C, Belanoff, J, Glass, S, et al.Mifepristone versus Placebo in the Treatment of Psychosis in Patients with Psychotic Major Depression. Biol. Psychiatry 2006; 60: 1343–9.
20.Belanoff, JK, Rothschild, AJ, Cassidy, Fet al.An open label trial of C-1073 (mifepristone) for psychotic major depression. Biol. Psychiatry 2002; 52: 386–92.
21.Hackett, ML, Yapa, C, Parag, V, et al.Frequency of depression after stroke: a systematic review of observational studies. Stroke. 2005; 36: 1330–40.
22.Leentjens, AF, Aben, I, Lodder, J, Verhey, FR. General and disease-specific risk factors for depression after ischaemic stroke: a two-step Cox regression analysis. Int Psychogeriatr 2006; 18: 739–48.
23.Rasmussen, A, Lunde, M, Poulsen, DLet al.A double-blind, placebo controlled study of sertraline in the prevention of depression in stroke patients. Psychosomatics. 2003; 44: 216–21.
24.Taylor, D, Paton, C, Kerwin, R. The Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines 9th edition. Informa Healthcare, London, United Kingdom, 2007.
25.Skop, BP, Brown, TM. Potential vascular and bleeding complications of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Psychosomatics 1996; 37: 1216.
26.Bak, S, Tsiropoulos, I, Kjaersgaard, JO, et al.Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the risk of stroke: a population-based case-control study. Stroke. 2002; 33: 1465–73.
27.Sayal, KS, Duncan-McConnell, DA, McConnell, HW, Taylor, DM. Psychotropic interactions with warfarin. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2000; 102: 250–5.
28.Bauer, M, Döpfmer, S. Lithium Augmentation in Treatment-Resistant Depression: Meta-Analysis of Placebo-Controlled Studies. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1999; 19: 427–34.
29.Ferrier, IN, Ferrie, LJ, Macritchie, KA. Old drug new data. Revisiting Lithium therapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 2006; 12: 256–64.
30.Nierenberg, AA, Fava, M, Trivedi, MH, et al.Tranylcypromine Versus Venlafaxine plus Mirtazapine following three failed antidepressant medication trials for Depression: A STAR'D Report. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163: 1519–30.
31.Altshuler, LL, Bauer, M, Frye, MA, et al.Does thyroid supplementation accelerate tricyclic antidepressant response? A review and meta-analysis of the literature. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 1617–22.
32.Appelhof, BC, Brouwer J, P, van, DR, et al.Triiodothyronine addition to paroxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 6271–6
33.Parker, G, Brotchie, H, Parker, K. Is Combination Olanzapine and antidepressant medication associated with a more rapid response trajectory than antidepressant alone? Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162: 796–8.
34.Papakostas, Gl, Petersen, TJ, Nierenberg, AA, et al.Ziprasidone augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2004; 65: 217–21.
35.Papakostas, Gl, Petersen, TJ, Kinrys, G, et al.Aripiprazole augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for treatment resistant major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2005; 66: 1326–30.
36.Berman, RM, Marcus, RN, Swanink, Ret al.The efficacy and safety of aripiprazole as adjunctive therapy in major depressive disorder: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry 2007; 68: 843–53
37.Hellerstein, DJ, Batchelder, S, Hyler, S, et al.Aripiprazole as an adjunctive treatment for refractory unipolar depression Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2008; 32: 744–50
38.Barbee, JG, Jamhour, NJ. Lamotrigine as an Augmentation Agent in Treatment-Resistant Depression. J Clin Psychiatry 2002; 63: 737–41.
39.Whale, R, Terao, T, Cowen, P, et al.Pindolol augmentation of serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of depressive disorder: a systematic review. J Psychopharmacol 2008; 00: 18.
40.Hannan, N, Zaf Hamzah, Z, Akinpeloye, HO, et al.Venlafaxine-mirtazapine combination in the treatment of persistent depressive illness J. Psychopharmacol 2007; 21: 161–4.
41.Zisook, S, Rush, AJ, Haight, BR, et al.Use of bupropion in combination with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Biol Psychiatry 2006; 59: 203–10.
42.Thase, ME, Shelton, RC, Khan, A. Treatment with venlafaxine extended release after SSRI non-response or intolerance: a randomized comparison of standard- and higher-dosing strategies. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2006; 26: 250–8.
43.Stern, WC, Watkinson, C: Incidence of seizures during treatment with tricyclic antidepressant drugs and bupropion. J Clin Psychiatry 1983; 44: 197201.
44.Thase, ME, Haight, BR, Richard, Net al.Remission Rates Following Antidepressant Therapy With Bupropion or Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: A Meta-Analysis of Original Data From 7 Randomized Controlled Trials. J Clin Psychiatry 2005; 66: 974–81.
45.Clayton, AH, Croft, HA, Horrigan, JPet al.Bupropion Extended Release compared with Escitalopram: Effects on Sexual Functioning and Antidepressant efficacy in 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. J Clin Psychiatry 2006; 67: 736–46.
46.Rush, AJ, Trivedi, MH, Wisniewski, SRet al.Bupropion-SR, Sertraline, or Venlafaxine-XR after failure of SSRIs for Depression. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 1231–42.
47.Gartlehner, G, Gaynes, BN, Hansen, RA, et al.Comparative benefits and harms of second-generation antidepressants: background paper for the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 2008; 149: 734–50.
48.Lôo, H, Hale, A, D'haenen, H. Determination of the dose of agomelatine, a melatoninergic agonist and selective 5-HT2C antagonist, in the treatment of major depressive disorder: a placebo-controlled dose range study. Int. Clin. Psychopharmacol 2002; 17: 239–47.
49.Kennedy, SHRizvi, S, Fulton, Ket al.A Double-Blind Comparison of Sexual Functioning, Antidepressant Efficacy, and Tolerability between Agomelatine and Venlafaxine XR. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008; 28: 329–33.
50.Leibenluft, E. The Rhythm of the Blues. Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165: 1501–4
51.Cho, HJ, Lavretsky, H, Olmstead, R, et al.Sleep disturbance and depression recurrence in community-dwelling older adults: a prospective study. Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165: 1543–50.
52.Parry, BL, Meliska, CJ, Sorenson, DL, et al.Plasma Melatonin Orcadian Rhythm Disturbances during Pregnancy and Postpartum in Depressed Women and Women with personal or family histories of depression. Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165: 1551–58.
53.Montgomery, SA. Major depressive disorders: clinical efficacy and tolerability of agomelatine, a new melatonergic agonist. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2006; 16; S633638.
54.Kasper, S, Olié, JP. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of tianeptine versus SSRI in the short-term treatment of depression. Eur Psychiatry 2002; 17 (Supplement 3): 331–40.
55.Nickel, T, Sonntag, A, Schill, J, et al.Clinical and neurobiological effects of tianeptine and paroxetine in major depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2003; 23: 155–68.
56.Ben-Arie, O, George, GC. A case of tranylcypromine (‘Parnate’) addiction Br J Psychiatry 1979; 135: 273–4.
57.Briggs, NC, Jefferson, JW, Koenecke, FH. Tranylcypromine addiction: a case report and review J Clin Psychiatry 1990; 51: 426–9.
58.Usage, abus et pharmacodépendance á la tianeptine (Stablon®) Dr Valérie Gibaja, CEIP Nancy, actes des xèmes rencontres du centre d'évaluation et d'information sur la pharmacodépendance (ceip) de Toulouse, 2006.
59.Illicit drug trends in the Russian Federation – United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2005; Richard Ives. South Caucasus Anti-Drug (SCAD) Programme (Phase V) “Assessment Mission Report for the SCAD V Programme, Component on Prevention and on Media Work“, 2008.
60.Geddes, JR, Burgess, S, Hawton, K, et al.Long-term lithium therapy for bipolar disorder; systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Am J Psychiatry 2004; 161 : 217–22.
61.Muzina, DJ, Calabrese, JR. Maintenance therapy in bipolar disorder; focus on randomised controlled trials. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2005; 39: 652–61.
62.Schou, M. Forty years of lithium treatment. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1997; 54; 913.
63.Rucci, P, Frank, E, Kostelnik, B, et al.Suicide attempts in patients with bipolar I disorder during acute and maintenance phases of intensive treatment with pharmacotherapy and adjunctive psychotherapy. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159: 1160–4.
64.Cipriani, A, Pretty, H, Hawton, K, et al.Lithium in the prevention of suicidal behavior and all-cause mortality in patients with mood disorders: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162: 1805–19.
65.Suppes, T, Baldessarini, RJ, Faedda, GL, et al.Risk of recurrence following discontinuation of lithium treatment in bipolar disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991; 48:1082–8.
66.Cavanagh, J, Smyth, R, Goodwin, GM. Relapse into mania or depression following lithium discontinuation: a 7 year follow-up. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2004; 109: 91–5.
67.Baldessarini, RJ, Tondo, L, Faedda, GL, et al.Effects of the Rate of discontinuing Lithium Maintenance Treatment in Bipolar Disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 1996; 57: 441–8.
68.Goodwin, GM. Recurrence of mania after lithium withdrawal. Implications for the used of lithium in the treatment of bipolar affective disorder. Br J Psychiatry 1994; 164: 149–52.
69.National Institute for Clinical Excellence. The clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of newer drugs for epilepsy in adults. Technology Appraisal 76. http://www.nice.org.uk. 2004.
70.Goldberg, JF, Brooks, JO 3rd, Kurita, K, et al.Depressive illness burden associated with complex polypharmacy in patients with bipolar disorder: findings from STEP-BD. J Clin Psychiatry 2009; 70: 155162
71.Tohen, M, Jacobs, TG, Grundy, SL, et al.Efficacy of olanzapine in acute bipolar mania: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Olanzapine HGEH Study group. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000; 57: 841–9.
72.Tohen, M, Vieta, E, Goodwin, GM, et al.Olanzapine versus divalproex versus placebo in the treatment of mild to moderate mania; a randomized, 12 week, double blind study. J Clin Psychiatry 2008; 69: 1776–89.
73.Tohen, M, Baker, RW, Altshuler, LL, et al.Olanzapine versus divalproex in the treatment of acute mania. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159: 1011–774.
74.Berk, M, Ichim, L, Brook, S. Olanzapine compared to lithium in mania: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1999; 14: 339–43.
75.Ciprani, A, Rendell, JM, Geddes, J. Olanzapine in long-term treatment for bipolar disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 21 : CD0034367.
76.Yatham, LN, Calabrese, JR, Kusumakar, V. Bipolar depression: criteria for treatment selection, definition of refractoriness and treatment options. Bipolar Disord 2003; 5: 8597.
77.Corya, SA, Perlis, RH, Keck, PEet alA 24-Week Open-Label Extension Study of Olanzapine-Fluoxetine Combination and Olanzapine Monotherapy in the Treatment of Bipolar Depression. J Clin Psych 2006; 67:798806
78.Brown, EB, McElroy, SL, Keck, PE Jr., et al.A 7-Week, Randomized, Double-Blind Trial of Olanzapine/Fluoxetine Combination versus Lamotrigine in the Treatment of Bipolar I Depression. J Clin Psych 2006; 67:1025–33.
79.Keck, PE, Calabrese, JR, McQuade, RDet al.A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 26-week trial of aripiprazole in recently manic patients with bipolar I disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2006; 67: 626–37.
80.Ketter, TA, Wang, PW, Chjandler, RA, et al.Adjunctive aripiprazole in treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Ann Clin Psychiatry 2006; 18: 169–72.
81.Muzina, DJ, Momah, C, Eudicone, JM, et al.Aripiprazole monotherapy in patients with rapid-cycling bipolar I disorder: an analysis from a long-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Int J Clin Pract 2008; 62: 679–87.
82.Altamura, AC, Salvadori, , Madaro, D, et al.Efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder: preliminary evidence from a 12-month open-label study J Affect Disord 2003; 76: 267–71.
83.Calabrese, JR, Keck PE, Jr, MacFadden, W, et al.A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of quetiapine in the treatment of bipolar I or II depression. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162: 1351–60.
84.Calabrese, JR, Kimmel, SE, Woyshville, MJ, et al.Clozapine for treatment-refractory mania. Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153: 759–64.
85.Green, Al, Tohen, M, Patel, JK, et al.Clozapine in the Treatment of Refractory Psychotic Mania. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157: 982–6
86.Geddes, JR, Calabrese, JR, Goodwin, GM. Lamotrigine for treatment of bipolar depression: independent meta-analysis and meta-regression of individual patient data from five randomised trials. Br J Psychiatry 2009; 194: 49.
87.Calabrese J, R, Bowden, CL, Sachs, G, et al.A placebo-controlled 18 month trial of lamotrigine and lithium maintenance in recently depressed patients with Bipolar I Disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2003; 64: 1013–24.
88.Schaffer, A, Zuker, P, Levitt, A. Randomized, double-blind pilot trial comparing lamotrigine versus Citalopram for the treatment of bipolar depression. J Affect Disord 2006; 96: 95–9.
89.Nierenberg, AA, Ostacher, MJ, Calabrase, JR, et al.Treatment-resistant bipolar depression; a STEP-BD equipoise randomised effectiveness trial of antidepressant augmentation with Lamotrigine, Inositol, or Risperidone. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163; 210–6.
90.Truman, CJ, Goldberg, JF, Ghaemi, SN, et al.Self-reported history of manic/hypomanic switch associated with antidepressant use: data from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). J Clin Psychiatry 2007; 68: 1472–9.
91.Calabrese, JR, Suppes, T, Bowden, CL, et al.A double-blind, placebo controlled prophylaxis study of Lamotrigine in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. Lamictal 614 Study Group. J Clin Psychiatry 2000; 61.841–50.
92.Goldberg, JF, Bowden, CL, Calabrese, JR, et al.Six-month prospective life charting of mood symptoms with Lamotrigine monotherapy versus placebo in rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2008; 63: 125–30.
93.Suppes, T, Marangell, LB, Bernstein, IH, et al.A single blind comparison of lithium and Lamotrigine for the treatment of bipolar II depression. J Affect Disord 2008; 111: 334–43.
94.Chengappa, KNR, Gershon, S, Levine, J. The evolving role of topiramate among other mood stabilizers in the management of bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord 2001: 3: 215–32.
95.Kushner, SF, Khan, A, Lane, R, et al.Topiramate monotherapy in the management of acute mania: results of four double-blind placebo-controlled trials. Bipolar Disord 2006; 8: 1527
96.Chengappa, KNR, Schwarzman, LK, Hulihan, JF, et al.Adjunctive Topiramate Therapy in Patients Receiving a Mood Stabilizer for Bipolar I Disorder: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Clin Psychiatry 2006; 67:1698–706.
97.Vieta, E, Goikolea, JM, Martinez-Arán, A, et al.A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Prophylaxis Study of adjunctive Gabapentin for Bipolar Disorder J Clin Psychiatry 2006; 67: 473–7.
98.Bersani, G. Levetiracetam in bipolar spectrum disorders: first evidence of efficacy in an open, add- on study. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp 2004; 19: 355–6.
99.Strakowski, SM. Approaching the challenge of bipolar depression: results from STEP-BD. Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164: 1301–3.
100.Sachs, GS, Nierenberg, AA, Calabrese, JR, et al.Effectiveness of adjunctive antidepressant treatment for bipolar depression. N EngU Med 2007; 356:1711–22.
101.Nemeroff, CB, Evans, DL, Gyulai, L, et al.Double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of imipramine and paroxetine in the treatment of bipolar depression. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 906–12.
102.Frye, MA, Grunze, H, Suppes, T, et al.A Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of adjunctive Modafinil in the treatment of Bipolar Depression. Am J Psych 2007; 164: 1242–9.
103.Chengappa, KNR, Levine, J, Gershon, S, et al.Inositol as an add-on treatment for bipolar depression. Bipolar Disord 2000; 2: 4755.
104.Young, AH, Gallagher, P, Watson, S, et al.Improvements in Neurocognitive Function and Mood Following Adjunctive Treatment with Mifepristone (RU-486) in Bipolar Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 2004; 29: 1538–545
105.Goldberg, JF, Burdick, KE, Endick, CJ. Preliminary randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pramipexole added to mood stabilizers for treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Am J Psychiatry 2004; 161: 564–6.
106.Zarate CA, Jr, Payne, JL, Singh, J, et al.Pramipexole for bipolar II depression: a placebo-controlled proof of concept study. Biol Psychiatry 2004; 56: 5460.
107.Holman, RT, Morhrauer, H. A hypothesis involving competitive inhibitions in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Acta Chemica Scandinavica 1963; 17: S8490.
108.Richardson, AJ, Puri, BKThe potential role of fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2000; 63: 7987.
109.Yoshida, S, Yasuda, A, Kawasoto, H, et al.Synaptic vesicle ultrastructural changes in the rat hippocampus induced by a combination of alpha-linolenate deficiency and a learning task. J. Neurochem 1997; 68: 1261–8.
110.Johnston, M, Carey, F, McMillan, RM. Alternative pathways of arachidonate metabolism: prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes. In Campbell, P.N., Marshall, R.D. eds. Essays in Biochemistry. London: Academic Press, 1983.
111.Nemets, R, Stahl, M, Belmaker, RH. Addition of Omega-3 Fatty Acid to Maintenance Medication Treatment for recurrent Unipolar Depressive Disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159: 477–9.
112.Peet, M, Horrobin, DF. A dose-ranging study of ethyl-eicosapentonate in treatment-unresponsive depression. J Psychopharmacol 2001; 15(Suppl.) A12.
113.Su, KP, Huang, SY, Chiu, TH, et al.Omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder during pregnancy: results forma randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychaitry 2008; 69: 644–51.
114.Greyner, BFS, Crowe, T, Meyer, B, Owen, AJ, Grigonis-Deane, EM, caputi, P, Howe, PRC. Fish oil supplementation in the treatment of major depression: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 31 (2007) 13931396.
115.Marangell, LB, Martinex, JM, Zboyan, HA, et al.A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160: 996–8.
116.Freeman, MP, Davis, M, Sinha, P, et al.Omega-3 fatty acids and supportive psychotherapy for Perinatal depression: a randomized placebo-controlled study. J Affect Disord 2008; 110:142–8.
117.Wozniak, J, Biederman, J, Mick, E, et al.Omega-3 fatty acid monotherapy for pediatric bipolar disorder: a prospective open-label trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2007; 17: 440–7.
118.Keck, PE, Mintz, J, McElroy, SL, et al.Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of ethyl-eicosapentanoate in the treatment of bipolar depression and rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Biol Psych 2006; 60: 1020–2.
119.Frangou, S, Leewis, M, McCrone, P. Efficacy of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid in bipolar depression: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. Br J Psychiatry 2006; 188: 4650.
120.Stoll, AL, Severus, E, Freeman, MP, et al.Omega 3 Fatty Acids in Bipolar Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999; 56: 407–12.
121.Linde, K, Berner, M, Egger, Met al.St John's wort for depression: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Psychiatry 2005; 186: 99107.
122.Cott, JM. In vitro receptor binding and enzyme inhibition by Hypericum perforatum extract. Pharmacopsychiatry 1997; 30 (Suppl 2): 108–12.
123.Muller, WE. Rolli M. Schäfer C et al. Effects of Hypericum extract (LI 160) in biochemical models of antidepressant activity. Pharmacopsychiatry 1997; (Suppl 2): 102–7.
124.Linde, K, Berner, MM, Kriston, L. St John's wort for major depression. Cochrane database Syst Rev 2008; (4): CD000448.
125.Szegedi, A, Kohnen, R, Dienel, A, Kieser, M. Acute treatment of moderate to severe depression with hypericum extract WS 5570 (St John's wort): randomised controlled double blind non-inferiority trial versus Paroxetine. BMJ 2005; 330: 503.
126.Bove, GM. Acute neuropathy after exposure to sun in a patient treated with St. John's wort. Lancet 1998; 352: 1121–2.
127.Piscitelli, SC, Burstein, AH, Chaitt, D, et al.Indinavir concentrations and St John's wort. Lancet 2000,355.547–8.
128.Johne, A, Brockmöller, J, Bauer, S, et al.Pharmacokinetic interactions of digoxin with an herbal extract from St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 66: 338–45.
129.Ernst, E. Second thoughts about the safety of St. John's wort. Lancet 1999; 354: 2014–6.
130.Moses, EL, Mallinger, AG. St John's Wort: three cases of possible mania induction. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2000; 20: 115–7.
131.Nierenberg, AA, Burt, T, Matthews, J, et al.Mania associated with St. John's wort. Biol Psychiatry 1999; 46: 1707–8.
132.Mann, SC, Caroff, SN, Bleier, HR, et al.Lethal Catatonia. Am J Psychiatry.1986; 143: 1374–81.
133.Porter, R, Ferrier, N. Emergency Treatment of Depression. Adv Psych Treatment 1999; 5: 310.
134.Prudic, J, Sackheim, HA, Devanand, DP. Medication resistance and clinical response to ECT. Psychiatry Research 1990; 31: 287–96.
135.Prudic, J, Haskett, RF, Mulsant, B, et al.Resistance to antidepressant medications and short-term clinical response to ECT. Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153: 985–92.
136.Hussain, SS. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Depressive Illness that has not responded to Drug Treatment. MPhil thesis, University of Edinburgh, 2002.
137.Ferrill, MJ, Kehoe, WA, Jacisin, JJ. ECT during pregnancy: physiologic and pharmacologic considerations. Convuls Ther 1992; 8: 186200
138.Walker, R, Swartz, CM. Electroconvulsive therapy during high-risk pregnancy. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1994; 16: 348–53.
139.Mukherjee, S, Sackheim, HA, Lee, C. Unilateral ECT in the treatment of manic episodes. Convul Ther T988; 4: 480.
140.Small, JG, Klapper, MH, Kellams, JJ, et al.Electroconvulsive therapy compared with lithium in the management of manic states. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988; 45: 727–32.
141.The ECT Handbook 2nd ed. (Ed Scott, AIF) 2005. The Royal College of Psychiatrists.
142.Ketter, TA, George, MS, Kimbrell, TA, et al.Functional brain imaging, limbic function, and affective disorders. Neuroscientist 1996; 2: 5565.
143.Martin, JLR, Barbanoj, MJ, Schlaepfer, TE, et al.Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 2003; 102: 480–91.
144.Loo, CK, Mitchell, PB: A review of the efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) treatment for depression, and current and future strategies to optimize efficacy. J Affect Disord 2005; 88: 255–67
145.Mogg, A, Pluck, G, Eranti, SV, et al.A randomized controlled trial with 4-month follow-up of adjunctive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex for depression. Psychol Med 2008; 38: 323–33.
146.Eranti, S, Moff, A, Pluck, G, et al.A randomized, controlled trial with 6-month follow-up of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroconvulsive therapy for severe depression. Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164: 7381.
147.Praharaj, SK, Ram, D, Arora, M. Efficacy of high frequency (rapid) suprathreshold repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of right prefrontal cortex in bipolar mania: a randomized sham controlled study. J Affect Disord 2009; in press.
148.Michael, N, Erfurth, A. Treatment of bipolar mania with right prefrontal rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation. J Affect Disord 2004; 78: 253–7.
149.George, MS, Sackeim, HA, Rush, AJ, et al.Vagus nerve stimulation: a new tool for brain research and therapy. Biol Psychiatry 2000; 47: 287–95.
150.George, MS, Rush, AJ, Marangell, LB, et al.A One-Year Comparison of Vagus Nerve Stimulation with Treatment as Usual for Treatment-Resistant Depression. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 58: 364–73.
151.Amar, AP, Heck, CN, Levy, ML, et al.An institutional experience with cervical Vagus Nerve trunk stimulation for medically refractory epilepsy: rationale, technique, and outcome. Neurosurgery 1998; 43: 1265–76.
152.Zardetto-Smith, AM, Gray, TS. Organization of peptidergic and catecholaminergic efferents from the nucleus of the solitary tract to the rat amygdala. Brain Res Bull 1990; 25: 875.
153.Ter Horst, GJ, Streetland, C. Ascending projections of the solitary tract nucleus. In: Robin I, Barraco A (Eds.), Nucleus of the Solitary Tract. London: CRC Press, 1994.
154.Walker, BR, Easton, A, Gale, K. Regulation of limbic motor seizures by GABA and glutamate transmission in nucleus tractus solitarius. Epilepsia 1999; 40: 1051–7.
155.Bekar, L, Libionka, W, Tian, G, et al.“Adenosine is crucial for deep brain stimulation-mediated attenuation of tremor”. Nat Med 2008; 14: 7580.
156.Rush, AJ, Marangell, LB, Sackeim, HA, et al.Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Randomized, Controlled Acute Phase Trial. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 58: 347–54.
157.Rush, AJ, Sackeim, HA, Marangell, LB, et al.Effects of 12 Months of Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Naturalistic Study. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 58: 355–63.
158.Corcoran, CD, Thomas, P, Phillips, J, et al.Vagus nerve stimulation in chronic treatment-resistant depression. Br J Psychiatry 2006; 189: 282–3.
159.Morris, GL, Mueller, WM. Long term treatment with vagus nerve stimulation in patients with refractory epilepsy. Neurology 1999, 53: 1731–5.
160.Nierenberg, AA, Alport, JE, Gardner-Schuster, EE, et al.Vagus Nerve Stimulation; 2-Year Outcomes for Bipolar Versus Unipolar Treatment-Resistant Depression. Biol Psychiatry 2008; 64: 455–60.
161.Marangell, LB, Suppes, T, Zboyan, HA, et al.A 1-year pilot study of vagus nerve stimulation in treatment-resistant rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2008; 69: 183–9.
162.Bekar, L, Libionka, W, Tian, G, et al.Adenosine is crucial for deep brain stimulation-mediated attenuation of tremor. Nature Med 2008; 14(1): 7580.
163.Schlaepfer, TE, Cohen, MX, Frick, C, et al.Deep brain stimulation to reward circuitry alleviates anhedonia in refractory major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 2008; 33: 368–77.
164.Mayberg, HS, Lozano, AM, Voon, V, et al.Deep brain stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression. Neuron, 2005; 45: 651–60.
165.Hauptman, JS, Desalles, AA, Espinoza, R, et al.Potential surgical targets for deep brain stimulation in treatment resistant depression. Neurosurg Focus 2008; 25: E3.
166.Temel, Y, Kessels, A, Tan, S, et al.Behavioural changes after bilateral subthalamic stimulation in advanced Parkinson disease: a systematic review. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2006; 12: 265–72.
167.Mandat, TS, Hurwitz, T, Honey, CR, Hypomania as an adverse effect of subthalamic nucleus stimulation: report of two cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2006; 148: 895–8.
168.Berney, A, Panisset, M, Sadikot, AF, et al.Mood stability during acute stimulator challenge in Parkinson's disease patients under long-term treatment with subthalamic deep brain stimulation. Mov Disord 2007; 22: 1093–6.
169.Lekman, M, Laje, G, Charney, D, et al.The FKBP5-Gene in Depression and Treatment Response – an Association Study in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR'D) Cohort. Biol Psychiatry 2008; 63: 1103–10.
170.Peters, EJ, Slager, SL, Kraft, JB, et al.Pharmacokinetic Genes Do Not Influence Response or Tolerance to Citalopram in the STAR'D Sample. PLoS ONE 2008; 3: e1872.
171.Paddock, S, Laje, G, Charney, D, et al.Association of GRIK4 With Outcome of Antidepressant Treatment in the STAR'D Cohort Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164: 1181–8.
172.McMahon, FJ, Buervenich, S, Charney, D, et al.Variation in the Gene Encoding the Serotonin 2A Receptor Is Associated with Outcome of Antidepressant Treatment Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2006; 78: 804–14.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Recent advances in the biological treatment of mood disorders

  • Gary McDonald (a1) and Brian Hallahan (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.